• Need of guidance on estimating and reporting
anthropogenic GHG emissions and removals from
managed coastal wetlands.
• Coastal wetlands (tidal freshwater and salt marshes,
seagrass meadows, and mangroves) hold large reservoirs
of carbon (C) in biomass and especially soil
• Significant global stocks:
o mangroves, ~8 Pg C (Donato et al., 2011),
o tidal marshes, ~0.8 Pg C (Pendleton et al., 2012), and
o seagrass meadows, 4.2 – 8.4 Pg C (Fourqurean et al., 2012)
• Indonesia has significant amount of mangroves (23% world
mangrove) with stocks of ~3.14 PgC (Murdiyarso et al. 2015)
Scope of Chapter 4
• Not to replace 2006 PCC Guideline
• Updates guidance contained in the 2006 IPCC Guidelines to provide
default data for estimation of carbon stock changes in mangrove
living biomass and dead wood pools for coastal wetlands at Tier 1.
• Gives new:
o guidance for CO2 emissions and removals from organic and mineral
soils for the management activities of extraction (including
construction of aquaculture and salt production ponds), drainage
and rewetting, revegetation and creation;
o default data for estimation of anthropogenic CO2 emissions and
removals for soils in mangrove, tidal marsh and seagrass meadows;
o guidance for N2O emissions during aquaculture use;
o guidance for CH4 emissions for rewetting, revegetation and
creation of mangroves, tidal marshes and seagrass meadows.
Purposes of this session
• Familiarize the structure of 2013 IPCC Wetlands
Supplement, especially Chapter 4
• Understand the links with 2006 IPCC Guidelines,
especially on mangroves and the assumptions used
• Discuss Tier 1 methods (parameters and factors) as
default values and possibility of using Tier 2
• Explore the use of the Wetlands Supplement
(Chapter 4) for FREL 2020
is good practice to report mangroves in the appropriate national
land-use category according to the national forest definition
Source: IPCC (2014)
Specific management activities in mangroves
Activity Sub activity
Activities relevant to CO2 emissions and removals
practices in mangroves*
Planting, thinning, harvest, wood removal, fuelwood removal,
Extraction Excavation to enable port, harbour and marina construction
and filling or dredging to facilitate raising the elevation of land
Drainage Agriculture, forestry, mosquito control
Conversion from drained to saturated soils by restoring
hydrology and reestablishment of vegetation
Activities relevant to non-CO2 emissions
Aquaculture (use) N2O emissions from aquaculture use
Rewetted soils CH4 emissions from change to natural vegetation following
modifications to restore hydrology
*) including conversion to Forest Land or conversion from Forest Land to other land uses.
Assumptions – Tier 1
• Forest management, soil carbon stock does not
• Extraction, after construction pond/excavated soils,
soil carbon stock is zero
• Soil carbon stock is limited up to 1 meter
• All estimates are “initial change”
Higher Tiers: for Stock-Different methods
National data could include country specific values of any parameter used
in the Tier 1 method or values that permit biomass carbon stock changes
using the Stock-Difference method. Refer also to the relevant sections of
Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for further guidance.
Tier 3 methods may employ the use of data that are of higher order spatial
disaggregation and that depend on variation in salinity or further
disaggregation of regional differences within a country. Forest growth rates
of specific age ranges could be applied. Refer also to the relevant sections
of Volume 4 of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for further guidance.
Survey on Indonesian mangroves
Area: 2.9 Mha (FAO, 2005)
3.2 Mha (MoEF, 2014)
TECS: 3.14 Pg C (Murdiyarso et al., 2015;
Alongi et al., 2016)
Towards Tier 2 – protected mangroves
92.3 30.1 13.0 127.5 262.3 3 5/30 Ginting et
300.5 27.9 11.3 979.5 1319.2 3 6/36 Murdiyarso
et al. 2015
134.8 14.3 24.2 620.9 794.2 3 7/42
140.9 21.3 18.6 1059.2 1240.0 3 5/30
69.2 14.9 42.7 811.6 938.4 3 6/36
6 Bintuni West
323.6 43.6 14.8 1014.8 1396.8 3 5/30
196.3 36.7 17.5 660.5 911.0 3 4/24
8 Buruway 108 21 13 610.8 732.0 3 7/41 Sasmito et
52 13 - 1636.8 1688.6 1.7 8/45
Papua 255.1 27.2 27.9 965.1 1275.3 3 4/24 Murdiyarso
et al. 2015
Towards Tier 2 – degraded mangroves
Site Province Tree
39.9 6.7 7.4 139.2 193.1 3 3/18 Murdiyarso
et al. 2018
79.4 29.4 4.4 236.3 349.4 3 3/18
Lampung 45.3 na na na na na 3 Sasmito et
Central Java 6.9 2.5 11.8 571.6 592.8 3 2/12 Murdiyarso
et al. 2015
Central Java 44.93 21.86 6.51 64.32 137.10 2 9/48 Ardhani et al.
East Java na na na na 261.8 0.3 4 Arif et al.
9.8 5.0 18.6 515.0 548.3 3 3/20 Arifanti et al.
Bali 54.4 21.2 NA NA NA NA 3 Sidik et al.
Tier 1: N2O emissions from aquaculture
0.00169 kg N2O-N per kg fish produced
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Regency, Central Java. (Master Thesis), Bogor: IPB University.
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correlation with forest age. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 21(8).
Arifanti, V.B. (2017). Carbon Dynamics Associated with Land Cover Change in Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems of the Mahakam Delta,
East Kalimantan, Indonesia. (Ph.D. dissertation). Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Oregon State University.
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mangrove-converted aquaculture : The case of the Mahakam Delta, Indonesia. Forest Ecology and Management, 432, 17–29.
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Thesis). Bogor, Indonesia: IPB University.
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The capacity building materials were made possible through a grant
given by the Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative
(NICFI) to the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)
under the Agreement No. INS 2070-19/0010. While CIFOR gratefully
acknowledges the support, the information provided in the
materials do not represent the views or positions of the Norwegian
Government. CIFOR would like to recognize the support by the
United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in
generating some of information used in the materials.