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Chapter
99
Volcanoes and Other
Igneous Activity
Factors Affecting Eruptions
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Factors that determine the violence of an
eruption
• Composition of the magma
• Temperature of the magma
• Dissolved gases in the magma
 Viscosity
• Viscosity is the measure of a material's
resistance to flow.
Factors Affecting Eruptions
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Viscosity
• Factors affecting viscosity
- Temperature (hotter magmas are less viscous)
- Composition (silica content)
1. High silica—high viscosity
(e.g., rhyolitic lava)
2. Low silica—more fluid (e.g., basaltic lava)
Factors Affecting Eruptions
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Dissolved gases
• Mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide
• Gases expand near the surface
• A vent is an opening in the surface of Earth
through which molten rock and gases are
released.
• Provide the force to extrude lava
Factors Affecting Eruptions
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Dissolved gases
• Violence of an eruption is related to how easily
gases escape from magma
- Gases escape easily from fluid magma.
- Viscous magma produces a more violent
eruption.
Magma Composition
Volcanic Material
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Lava Flows
• Basaltic lavas are more fluid.
- Pahoehoe lava (resembles braids in ropes)
- Aa lava (rough, jagged blocks)
• Types of lava
 Gases
• One to 5 percent of magma by weight
• Mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide
Pahoehoe (Ropy) Lava Flow
Slow-Moving Aa Flow
Volcanic Material
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Pyroclastic Materials
• Pyroclastic materials is the name given to
particles produced in volcanic eruptions.
• The fragments ejected during eruptions range in
size from very fine duct and volcanic ash (less
than 2 millimeters) to pieces that weigh several
tons.
Volcanic Material
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Pyroclastic Materials
• Types of pyroclastic material
- Ash and dust—fine, glassy fragments
- Pumice—frothy, air-filled lava
- Lapilli—walnut-sized particles
- Cinders—pea-sized particles
• Particles larger than lapilli
- Blocks—hardened lava
- Bombs—ejected as hot lava
Types of Volcanoes
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 The three main volcanic types are shield
volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite
cones.
• A volcano is a mountain formed of lava and/or
pyroclastic material.
• A conduit, or pipe, carries gas-rich magma to the
surface.
 Anatomy of a Volcano
• A crater is the depression at the summit of a
volcano or that which is produced by a meteorite
impact.
Anatomy of a “Typical” Volcano
Types of Volcanoes
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Shield Volcanoes
• Shield volcanoes are broad, gently sloping
volcanoes built from fluid basaltic lavas.
• Cinder cones are small volcanoes built primarily
of pyroclastic material ejected from a single vent.
- Steep slope angle
- Rather small in size
- Frequently occur in groups
 Cinder Cones
Shield Volcanoes
Cinder Cones
Types of Volcanoes
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Composite Cones
• Composite cones are volcanoes composed of
both lava flows and pyroclastic material.
- Most are adjacent to the Pacific Ocean
(e.g., Mt. Rainier).
- Large size
- Interbedded lavas and pyroclastics
- Most violent type of activity
Composite Cones
Mount St. Helens Before and
After the May 18, 1980, Eruption
Profiles of Volcanic Landforms
Other Volcanic Landforms
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
 Calderas
• Calderas are large depressions in volcanoes.
• Formed by collapse
• Nearly circular
• Size exceeds one kilometer in diameter
Other Volcanic Landforms
10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions
• Fluid basaltic lava extruded from crustal fractures
called fissures.
 Lava Plateaus
Plutons
 Plutons are intrusive igneous structures
that result from the cooling and hardening
of magma beneath the surface of Earth.
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Intrusive igneous bodies, or plutons, are
generally classified according to their shape,
size, and relationship to the surrounding rock
layers.
Plutons
 Sills and Laccoliths
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Sills and laccoliths are plutons that form when
magma is intruded close to the surface.
- Sills resemble buried lava flows and may
exhibit columnar joints.
- Laccoliths are lens-shaped masses that arch
overlying strata upward.
Sills
Sill
Plutons
 Dikes
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Many dikes form when magma from a large
magma chamber invades fractures in the
surrounding rocks.
• Dikes are tabular-shaped intrusive igneous
features that cut across preexisting rock layers.
Plutons
 Batholiths
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Batholiths are large masses of igneous rock
that formed when magma intruded at depth,
became crystallized, and subsequently was
exposed by erosion.
• An intrusive igneous body must have a surface
exposure greater than 100 square kilometers to
be considered a batholith.
Batholiths
Types of Igneous Plutons
Origin of Magma
 Geologists conclude that magma originates
when essentially solid rock, located in the
crust and upper mantle, partially melts.
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
 The most obvious way to generate magma
from solid rock is to raise the temperature
above the level at which the rock begins to
melt.
Origin of Magma
 Role of Heat
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Additional heat is generated by
• The geothermal gradient—Earth’s natural
temperature increases with depth but is not
sufficient to melt rock in the lower crust
and upper mantle
- friction in subduction zones
- crustal rocks heated during subduction
- rising, hot mantle rocks
Origin of Magma
 Role of Water
10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity
• Causes rock to melt at a lower temperature
• Plays an important role in subducting
ocean plates
Basaltic Magma at the Surface
Convergent Plate Boundaries
 The basic connection between plate
tectonics and volcanism is that plate
motions provide the mechanisms by which
mantle rocks melt to generate magma.
10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
• Rising magma can form continental volcanic arcs
(Andes Mountains).
 Ocean-Ocean
 Ocean-Continent
• Rising magma can form volcanic island arcs in
an ocean (Aleutian Islands).
Convergent Boundary Volcano
Divergent Plate Boundaries
 The greatest volume of volcanic rock is
produced along the oceanic ridge system.
10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
• Less pressure on underlying rocks
• Lithosphere pulls apart.
• Large quantities of fluid basaltic magma are
produced.
• Partial melting occurs
Intraplate Igneous Activity
 Intraplate volcanism is igneous activity
that occurs within a tectonic plate away
from plate boundaries.
10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity
• The activity forms localized volcanic regions
called hot spots.
• Most intraplate volcanism occurs where a mass
of hotter than normal mantle material called a
mantle plume rises toward the surface.
• Examples include the Hawaiian Islands and the
Columbia Plateau.
Kilauea, an Intraplate Volcano

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Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity

  • 2. Factors Affecting Eruptions 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Factors that determine the violence of an eruption • Composition of the magma • Temperature of the magma • Dissolved gases in the magma  Viscosity • Viscosity is the measure of a material's resistance to flow.
  • 3. Factors Affecting Eruptions 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Viscosity • Factors affecting viscosity - Temperature (hotter magmas are less viscous) - Composition (silica content) 1. High silica—high viscosity (e.g., rhyolitic lava) 2. Low silica—more fluid (e.g., basaltic lava)
  • 4. Factors Affecting Eruptions 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Dissolved gases • Mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide • Gases expand near the surface • A vent is an opening in the surface of Earth through which molten rock and gases are released. • Provide the force to extrude lava
  • 5. Factors Affecting Eruptions 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Dissolved gases • Violence of an eruption is related to how easily gases escape from magma - Gases escape easily from fluid magma. - Viscous magma produces a more violent eruption.
  • 7. Volcanic Material 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Lava Flows • Basaltic lavas are more fluid. - Pahoehoe lava (resembles braids in ropes) - Aa lava (rough, jagged blocks) • Types of lava  Gases • One to 5 percent of magma by weight • Mainly water vapor and carbon dioxide
  • 10. Volcanic Material 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Pyroclastic Materials • Pyroclastic materials is the name given to particles produced in volcanic eruptions. • The fragments ejected during eruptions range in size from very fine duct and volcanic ash (less than 2 millimeters) to pieces that weigh several tons.
  • 11. Volcanic Material 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Pyroclastic Materials • Types of pyroclastic material - Ash and dust—fine, glassy fragments - Pumice—frothy, air-filled lava - Lapilli—walnut-sized particles - Cinders—pea-sized particles • Particles larger than lapilli - Blocks—hardened lava - Bombs—ejected as hot lava
  • 12. Types of Volcanoes 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  The three main volcanic types are shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and composite cones. • A volcano is a mountain formed of lava and/or pyroclastic material. • A conduit, or pipe, carries gas-rich magma to the surface.  Anatomy of a Volcano • A crater is the depression at the summit of a volcano or that which is produced by a meteorite impact.
  • 13. Anatomy of a “Typical” Volcano
  • 14. Types of Volcanoes 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Shield Volcanoes • Shield volcanoes are broad, gently sloping volcanoes built from fluid basaltic lavas. • Cinder cones are small volcanoes built primarily of pyroclastic material ejected from a single vent. - Steep slope angle - Rather small in size - Frequently occur in groups  Cinder Cones
  • 17. Types of Volcanoes 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Composite Cones • Composite cones are volcanoes composed of both lava flows and pyroclastic material. - Most are adjacent to the Pacific Ocean (e.g., Mt. Rainier). - Large size - Interbedded lavas and pyroclastics - Most violent type of activity
  • 19. Mount St. Helens Before and After the May 18, 1980, Eruption
  • 20. Profiles of Volcanic Landforms
  • 21. Other Volcanic Landforms 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions  Calderas • Calderas are large depressions in volcanoes. • Formed by collapse • Nearly circular • Size exceeds one kilometer in diameter
  • 22. Other Volcanic Landforms 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions • Fluid basaltic lava extruded from crustal fractures called fissures.  Lava Plateaus
  • 23. Plutons  Plutons are intrusive igneous structures that result from the cooling and hardening of magma beneath the surface of Earth. 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Intrusive igneous bodies, or plutons, are generally classified according to their shape, size, and relationship to the surrounding rock layers.
  • 24. Plutons  Sills and Laccoliths 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Sills and laccoliths are plutons that form when magma is intruded close to the surface. - Sills resemble buried lava flows and may exhibit columnar joints. - Laccoliths are lens-shaped masses that arch overlying strata upward.
  • 26. Plutons  Dikes 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Many dikes form when magma from a large magma chamber invades fractures in the surrounding rocks. • Dikes are tabular-shaped intrusive igneous features that cut across preexisting rock layers.
  • 27. Plutons  Batholiths 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Batholiths are large masses of igneous rock that formed when magma intruded at depth, became crystallized, and subsequently was exposed by erosion. • An intrusive igneous body must have a surface exposure greater than 100 square kilometers to be considered a batholith.
  • 29. Types of Igneous Plutons
  • 30. Origin of Magma  Geologists conclude that magma originates when essentially solid rock, located in the crust and upper mantle, partially melts. 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity  The most obvious way to generate magma from solid rock is to raise the temperature above the level at which the rock begins to melt.
  • 31. Origin of Magma  Role of Heat 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Additional heat is generated by • The geothermal gradient—Earth’s natural temperature increases with depth but is not sufficient to melt rock in the lower crust and upper mantle - friction in subduction zones - crustal rocks heated during subduction - rising, hot mantle rocks
  • 32. Origin of Magma  Role of Water 10.2 Intrusive Igneous Activity • Causes rock to melt at a lower temperature • Plays an important role in subducting ocean plates
  • 33. Basaltic Magma at the Surface
  • 34. Convergent Plate Boundaries  The basic connection between plate tectonics and volcanism is that plate motions provide the mechanisms by which mantle rocks melt to generate magma. 10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity • Rising magma can form continental volcanic arcs (Andes Mountains).  Ocean-Ocean  Ocean-Continent • Rising magma can form volcanic island arcs in an ocean (Aleutian Islands).
  • 36. Divergent Plate Boundaries  The greatest volume of volcanic rock is produced along the oceanic ridge system. 10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity • Less pressure on underlying rocks • Lithosphere pulls apart. • Large quantities of fluid basaltic magma are produced. • Partial melting occurs
  • 37. Intraplate Igneous Activity  Intraplate volcanism is igneous activity that occurs within a tectonic plate away from plate boundaries. 10.3 Plate Tectonics and Igneous Activity • The activity forms localized volcanic regions called hot spots. • Most intraplate volcanism occurs where a mass of hotter than normal mantle material called a mantle plume rises toward the surface. • Examples include the Hawaiian Islands and the Columbia Plateau.