SlideShare a Scribd company logo
7

    Establishing Objectives and Budgeting
    for the Promotional Program




McGraw-Hill/Irwin    © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
Value of Objectives


     Focus and Coordination
       They help to orient everyone involved
       toward one, common goal.
     Plans and Decisions
       They serve as criteria for developing
       plans and making decisions.
     Measurement and Control
       They provide the standards and
       benchmarks for evaluating results.
Types of Objectives


   Marketing Objectives

     Statements of what is to be accomplished by the
     overall marketing program within a given time
     period.
           Need to be quantifiable such as sales volume,
           market share, profits, or ROI.
           Need to be realistic, measurable and attainable

   IMC Objectives

     Statements of what various aspects of the IMC
     program will accomplish based on
     communication tasks required to deliver
     appropriate messages to the target audience.
Not all Ads are Designed to Achieve Sales
Problems With Sales Objectives


     Sales are a function of many factors, not
     just advertising and promotion.

     Effects of IMC tools such as advertising
     often occur over an extended time
     period.

     Sales objectives provide little guidance
     to those responsible for planning and
     developing the IMC program
Many Factors Influence Sales




                    Promotion
  Product Quality               Competition



   Technology       SALES       Distribution


   The Economy                  Price Policy
When Sales Objectives Are Appropriate



 For promotional efforts that are direct action
 in nature and can induce an immediate
 behavioral response.
   Sales promotion
   Direct response advertising
   Retail advertising for sales or special events
 When advertising plays a dominant role in a
 firm’s marketing program and other factors
 are relatively stable
 When sales effects of an IMC variable can be
 isolated.
Sales Objectives are Appropriate for Direct
Response Advertising
Communication Objectives


  The primary goal of an IMC program is to
communicate and planning should be based
on communications objectives such as brand
 awareness, knowledge, interest, attitudes,
      image and purchase intention
Advertising and Movement Toward Action

Related behavioral           Movement         Types of promotions and
   dimensions             toward purchase     advertising at each step
                                            Point of purchase
Conative                     Purchase       Retail store ads, Deals
                                            “Last-chance” offers
Realm of motives.                           Price appeals, Testimonials
Ads stimulate or direct
                            Conviction
desires.

Affective                   Preference      Competitive ads
                                            Argumentative copy
Realm of emotions.
Ads change attitudes          Liking        “Image” copy
                                            Status, glamour appeals
and feelings

                            Knowledge       Announcements
Cognitive                                   Descriptive copy
Realm of thoughts.                          Classified ads
                                            Slogans, jingles, skywriting
Ads provide
information and facts.      Awareness       Teaser campaigns
Inverted Pyramid of Communications Effects



                             90% Awareness
Co
  gn




                             70% Knowledge
     iti
        ve




                                   40% Liking
             Af
             fe




                             25% Preference
              ct
                iv
                  e




                                   20% Trial
                      Co




                                    5% Use
                        na
                           tiv
                               e
The DAGMAR Approach



      Define
      Advertising
      Goals for
      Measuring
      Advertising
      Results
Characteristics of Objectives



Good Objectives Should Include:

Concrete, Measurable Communication Tasks
Well-Defined Target Audience
Have an Existing Benchmark Measure
Specify Degree of Change Sought
Specific Time Period
DAGMAR Difficulties

Legitimate Problems           Questionable Objections

                               Sales Objectives Are
Response Hierarchy             Needed
Problems
                                 Sales are all that really
  Doesn't always define the
                                 counts, not
  process people use to
  reach purchase/use.            communications
                                 objectives.

Attitude - Behavior            Costly and Impractical
Relationship                     The research and efforts
  Attitude change doesn't        cost more then the
  always lead to change in       results are worth.
  actions or behavior.         Inhibition of Creativity
                                 Too many rules and
                                 structure curb genius.
Advertising-Based View of Communications


            Advertising Through Media

                  One-Way


                                                  Purchase
Attitudes   Knowledge   Preference   Conviction
                                                  Behavior




                   Linear

              Acting on Consumers
Budgeting Decisions


Budgeting decisions involve determining how much
money will be spent on advertising and promotion
 each year and how the monies will be allocated


 Two major decisions
 • Establishing the size of the budget
 • Allocating the budget
Marginal Analysis




                          Sales                        Gross Margin
Sales in $




                                                   Ad. Expenditure



                                                  Profit




                                  Point A
                        Advertising / Promotion in $
BASIC Principles of Marginal Analysis


Increase Spending . . . IF:
   The increased cost is less than the
   incremental (marginal) return.

Decrease Spending . . . IF:
   The increased cost is more than the
   incremental (marginal) return.

Hold Spending Level. . . IF:
   The increased cost is equal to the
   incremental (marginal) return.
Problems with Marginal Analysis



    Assumption:
      Sales are the principal objective of
      advertising and/or promotion.


    Assumption:
      Sales are the result of advertising
      and promotion and nothing else.
Advertising Sales/Response Functions


                    A. Concave-Downward           B. S-Shaped Response
                       Response Curve                Function
Incremental Sales




                                               Incremental Sales




                                                                                        High Effect
                                                                                        Middle Level
                                                                    Little Effect
                                                                    Initial Spending




                                                                                                        Little Effect
                                                                                                        High Spending
                                                                   Range A             Range B         Range C
                    Advertising Expenditures
                                                                   Advertising Expenditures
Top-Down Budgeting



       Top Management Sets the
            Spending Limit




     The Promotion Budget Is Set to
     Stay Within the Spending Limit
Top-Down Approaches


 The Affordable Method
   What we have to spare. What's left to spend.

 Arbitrary Allocation Method
   No system. Seemed like a good idea at the time.

 Percentage of Sales Method
   Set percentage of sales or amount per unit.

 Competitive Parity Method
   Match competitor or industry average spending.

 Return on Investment Method
   Spending is treated as a capital investment.
Bottom-Up Budgeting

      Total Budget Is Approved by
            Top Management


     Cost of Activities are Budgeted


    Activities to Achieve Objectives
               Are Planned


     Promotional Objectives Are Set
Objective and Task Method


 Establish Objectives
  Establish Objectives
 (create awareness of new product among
  (create awareness of new product among
 20 percent of target market)
  20 percent of target market)

         Determine Specific Tasks
          Determine Specific Tasks
         (advertise on market area television and
          (advertise on market area television and
         radio and local newspapers)
          radio and local newspapers)

 Estimate Costs Associated with Tasks
  Estimate Costs Associated with Tasks
 (create awareness of new product among
  (create awareness of new product among
 20 percent of target market)
  20 percent of target market)
Payout Planning

        To determine how much to spend,
      marketers develop a payout plan that
     determines the investment value of the
     advertising and promotion appropriation

      Example of a three-year payout plan ($ millions)


                            Year 1      Year 2           Year 3
 Product sales              15.0        35.50            60.75
 Profit contribution
 (@$.50 per case)           7.5         17.75            30.38
 Advertising/promotions     15.0        10.50            8.50
 Profit (loss)              (7.5)       7.25             21.88
 Cumulative profit (loss)   (7.5)       (0.25)           21.63
Allocating the IMC Budget

 Factors Affecting Allocation to
     Various IMC Elements

    Client/Agency Policies
    Size of Market
    Market Potential
    Market Share Goals
    Market Share and Economies of Scale
    Organizational Characteristics
Share of Voice and Ad Spending

More Related Content

What's hot

Advertising strategy and planning
Advertising strategy and planningAdvertising strategy and planning
Advertising strategy and planning
Punjab University Lahore
 
integrated marketing communication
integrated marketing communicationintegrated marketing communication
integrated marketing communication
Tushar Narula
 
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate AdvertisingChap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional ProgramChap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
Phoenix media & event
 
Media planning & strategy
Media planning & strategy Media planning & strategy
Media planning & strategy
Ravindra Prakash Shukla
 
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional ProgramEstablishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Nishant Agrawal
 
Reach, frequency & impact
Reach, frequency & impactReach, frequency & impact
Reach, frequency & impact
Laise Abdul Khadir
 
Advertising message design
Advertising message designAdvertising message design
Advertising message design
Tribhuvan University
 
Introduction to advertising
Introduction to advertisingIntroduction to advertising
Introduction to advertising
Nijaz N
 
IMC Planning Process
IMC Planning ProcessIMC Planning Process
IMC Planning Process
gyaanmasti
 
Message Strategy and Design
Message Strategy and DesignMessage Strategy and Design
Message Strategy and Design
Prachi Ladha
 
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And PromotionChap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
Phoenix media & event
 
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
nzl88
 
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel FactorsChap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast MediaChap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
Phoenix media & event
 
Integrated marketing communication
Integrated marketing communicationIntegrated marketing communication
Integrated marketing communication
FCB Brandfirst Nigeria
 
Integrated Marketing communication Tools
Integrated Marketing communication ToolsIntegrated Marketing communication Tools
Integrated Marketing communication Tools
Kuhu Pathak
 
Source, Message, and Channel Factors
Source, Message, and Channel FactorsSource, Message, and Channel Factors
Source, Message, and Channel Factors
Indrajit Bage
 
Integrated Marketing Communication
Integrated Marketing CommunicationIntegrated Marketing Communication
Integrated Marketing Communication
Victoria Caballero, MBA
 
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
Integrated Marketing Communication StrategyIntegrated Marketing Communication Strategy
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
Hisham Salah, MBA, PMD
 

What's hot (20)

Advertising strategy and planning
Advertising strategy and planningAdvertising strategy and planning
Advertising strategy and planning
 
integrated marketing communication
integrated marketing communicationintegrated marketing communication
integrated marketing communication
 
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate AdvertisingChap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
Chap17 Public Relations, Publicity, And Corporate Advertising
 
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional ProgramChap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
Chap19 Measuring The Effectiveness Of The Promotional Program
 
Media planning & strategy
Media planning & strategy Media planning & strategy
Media planning & strategy
 
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional ProgramEstablishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
 
Reach, frequency & impact
Reach, frequency & impactReach, frequency & impact
Reach, frequency & impact
 
Advertising message design
Advertising message designAdvertising message design
Advertising message design
 
Introduction to advertising
Introduction to advertisingIntroduction to advertising
Introduction to advertising
 
IMC Planning Process
IMC Planning ProcessIMC Planning Process
IMC Planning Process
 
Message Strategy and Design
Message Strategy and DesignMessage Strategy and Design
Message Strategy and Design
 
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And PromotionChap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
Chap21 Regulation Of Advertising And Promotion
 
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
3. organizing for advertising and promotion the role of ad agencies and other...
 
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel FactorsChap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
Chap06 Source, Message And Channel Factors
 
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast MediaChap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
Chap11 Evaluation Of Broadcast Media
 
Integrated marketing communication
Integrated marketing communicationIntegrated marketing communication
Integrated marketing communication
 
Integrated Marketing communication Tools
Integrated Marketing communication ToolsIntegrated Marketing communication Tools
Integrated Marketing communication Tools
 
Source, Message, and Channel Factors
Source, Message, and Channel FactorsSource, Message, and Channel Factors
Source, Message, and Channel Factors
 
Integrated Marketing Communication
Integrated Marketing CommunicationIntegrated Marketing Communication
Integrated Marketing Communication
 
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
Integrated Marketing Communication StrategyIntegrated Marketing Communication Strategy
Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy
 

Viewers also liked

Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional ProgramEstablishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Rahul Barwe
 
Adman Lecture 6
Adman Lecture 6Adman Lecture 6
Objectives of budgeting
Objectives of budgetingObjectives of budgeting
Objectives of budgeting
Mohd Arif
 
Communication Objectives
Communication ObjectivesCommunication Objectives
Communication Objectives
Mohsin Akbar
 
Chapter07
Chapter07Chapter07
Chap05 The Communication Process
Chap05 The Communication ProcessChap05 The Communication Process
Chap05 The Communication Process
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer BehaviorChap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
Phoenix media & event
 
Chapter 7 (imc)
Chapter 7 (imc)Chapter 7 (imc)
Chapter 7 (imc)
Rokibul Rs
 
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
Sameer Mathur
 
Matching your objectives to your budget saeopp
Matching your objectives to your budget   saeoppMatching your objectives to your budget   saeopp
Matching your objectives to your budget saeopp
johnlmason225
 
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
FIDAQUITAINE
 
Thuong Hieu
Thuong HieuThuong Hieu
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013Phoenix media & event
 
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
Amritesh Mishra
 
IMC Lecture 7
IMC Lecture 7IMC Lecture 7
IMC Lecture 7
Neil Kelley
 
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen ThongLesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
Phoenix media & event
 
Mythology Allusions
Mythology AllusionsMythology Allusions
Mythology Allusions
\
 
Introduction to IMC
Introduction to IMCIntroduction to IMC
Introduction to IMC
Rahul Barwe
 
Marketing strategy
Marketing strategyMarketing strategy
Marketing strategy
Prashant Mehta
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional ProgramEstablishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program
 
Adman Lecture 6
Adman Lecture 6Adman Lecture 6
Adman Lecture 6
 
Objectives of budgeting
Objectives of budgetingObjectives of budgeting
Objectives of budgeting
 
Communication Objectives
Communication ObjectivesCommunication Objectives
Communication Objectives
 
Chapter07
Chapter07Chapter07
Chapter07
 
Chap05 The Communication Process
Chap05 The Communication ProcessChap05 The Communication Process
Chap05 The Communication Process
 
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer BehaviorChap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
Chap04 Perspectives On Consumer Behavior
 
Chapter 7 (imc)
Chapter 7 (imc)Chapter 7 (imc)
Chapter 7 (imc)
 
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
17-2 (how should sales promotion decisions be made)
 
Matching your objectives to your budget saeopp
Matching your objectives to your budget   saeoppMatching your objectives to your budget   saeopp
Matching your objectives to your budget saeopp
 
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
Infographie - Pourquoi et comment s'implanter en ZRR ?
 
Thuong Hieu
Thuong HieuThuong Hieu
Thuong Hieu
 
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013
Ho so tai tro trien lam cuoi hp 2013
 
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
MEANING & OBJECTIVES OF GOVT. BUDGET
 
IMC Lecture 7
IMC Lecture 7IMC Lecture 7
IMC Lecture 7
 
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen ThongLesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
Lesson 3 Vai Tro Cac Cong Ty Qc Truyen Thong
 
Mythology Allusions
Mythology AllusionsMythology Allusions
Mythology Allusions
 
Introduction to IMC
Introduction to IMCIntroduction to IMC
Introduction to IMC
 
Quy Trinh Tuyen Dung Hoang Long
Quy Trinh Tuyen Dung Hoang LongQuy Trinh Tuyen Dung Hoang Long
Quy Trinh Tuyen Dung Hoang Long
 
Marketing strategy
Marketing strategyMarketing strategy
Marketing strategy
 

Similar to Chap07 Establishing Objectives And Budgeting For The Promotional Program

Lecture 4-obectives-budgeting
Lecture 4-obectives-budgetingLecture 4-obectives-budgeting
Lecture 4-obectives-budgeting
VMCC
 
Chapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
Chapter 7 by Debasish BrahmaChapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
Chapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
Pujarini Ghosh
 
OOH Business Strategy
OOH Business StrategyOOH Business Strategy
Return On Marketing Investment
Return On Marketing InvestmentReturn On Marketing Investment
Return On Marketing Investment
Martin Mehalchin
 
Advertisement budget
Advertisement  budget Advertisement  budget
Advertisement budget
Dr.Aravind TS
 
Promo selling pricing
Promo selling pricingPromo selling pricing
Promo selling pricing
Mochammad Syauki
 
Promo selling pricing
Promo selling pricingPromo selling pricing
Promo selling pricing
RaKesh Jasani/Patel
 
eBook: Channel Incentives
eBook: Channel IncentiveseBook: Channel Incentives
eBook: Channel Incentives
CCI: Channel Management Solutions
 
Budget and comm.
Budget and comm.Budget and comm.
Budget and comm.
Sivaraj Kumar
 
Digital smb digital measurement model
Digital smb digital measurement modelDigital smb digital measurement model
Digital smb digital measurement model
BillMo
 
Planning for effectiveness
Planning for effectivenessPlanning for effectiveness
Planning for effectiveness
Lise Pinnell
 
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing research
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing researchChapter07.ppt describe marketing research
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing research
OshadiVindika
 
Market effectiveness
Market effectivenessMarket effectiveness
Market effectiveness
gulab sharma
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
Jawad Chaudhry
 
Marketing SMEs
Marketing SMEsMarketing SMEs
Marketing SMEs
Magic4Marketing
 
Marketing SMEs
Marketing SMEsMarketing SMEs
Marketing SMEs
Magic4Marketing
 
JPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
JPE Virtual Marketing On-DemandJPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
JPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
bobgelinas
 
Zerobyte Presentation
Zerobyte PresentationZerobyte Presentation
Zerobyte Presentation
Rajesh Mondal
 
Ch07 planning & strats
Ch07 planning & stratsCh07 planning & strats
Ch07 planning & strats
Sheffy Bhatia
 
Advg plng n decision making
Advg plng n decision makingAdvg plng n decision making
Advg plng n decision making
Dr.Ambrish sharma
 

Similar to Chap07 Establishing Objectives And Budgeting For The Promotional Program (20)

Lecture 4-obectives-budgeting
Lecture 4-obectives-budgetingLecture 4-obectives-budgeting
Lecture 4-obectives-budgeting
 
Chapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
Chapter 7 by Debasish BrahmaChapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
Chapter 7 by Debasish Brahma
 
OOH Business Strategy
OOH Business StrategyOOH Business Strategy
OOH Business Strategy
 
Return On Marketing Investment
Return On Marketing InvestmentReturn On Marketing Investment
Return On Marketing Investment
 
Advertisement budget
Advertisement  budget Advertisement  budget
Advertisement budget
 
Promo selling pricing
Promo selling pricingPromo selling pricing
Promo selling pricing
 
Promo selling pricing
Promo selling pricingPromo selling pricing
Promo selling pricing
 
eBook: Channel Incentives
eBook: Channel IncentiveseBook: Channel Incentives
eBook: Channel Incentives
 
Budget and comm.
Budget and comm.Budget and comm.
Budget and comm.
 
Digital smb digital measurement model
Digital smb digital measurement modelDigital smb digital measurement model
Digital smb digital measurement model
 
Planning for effectiveness
Planning for effectivenessPlanning for effectiveness
Planning for effectiveness
 
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing research
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing researchChapter07.ppt describe marketing research
Chapter07.ppt describe marketing research
 
Market effectiveness
Market effectivenessMarket effectiveness
Market effectiveness
 
Chapter 7
Chapter 7Chapter 7
Chapter 7
 
Marketing SMEs
Marketing SMEsMarketing SMEs
Marketing SMEs
 
Marketing SMEs
Marketing SMEsMarketing SMEs
Marketing SMEs
 
JPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
JPE Virtual Marketing On-DemandJPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
JPE Virtual Marketing On-Demand
 
Zerobyte Presentation
Zerobyte PresentationZerobyte Presentation
Zerobyte Presentation
 
Ch07 planning & strats
Ch07 planning & stratsCh07 planning & strats
Ch07 planning & strats
 
Advg plng n decision making
Advg plng n decision makingAdvg plng n decision making
Advg plng n decision making
 

More from Phoenix media & event

Lesson 13 Thuat Ngu
Lesson 13 Thuat NguLesson 13 Thuat Ngu
Lesson 13 Thuat Ngu
Phoenix media & event
 
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
Phoenix media & event
 
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep Thi
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep ThiLesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep Thi
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep ThiPhoenix media & event
 
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009Phoenix media & event
 
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)Phoenix media & event
 
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap20 International Advertising And Promotion
Chap20 International Advertising And PromotionChap20 International Advertising And Promotion
Chap20 International Advertising And Promotion
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap18 Personal Selling
Chap18 Personal SellingChap18 Personal Selling
Chap18 Personal Selling
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap16 Sales Promotion
Chap16 Sales PromotionChap16 Sales Promotion
Chap16 Sales Promotion
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive MediaChap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap14 Direct Marketing
Chap14 Direct MarketingChap14 Direct Marketing
Chap14 Direct Marketing
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap13 Support Media
Chap13 Support MediaChap13 Support Media
Chap13 Support Media
Phoenix media & event
 
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print MediaChap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
Phoenix media & event
 

More from Phoenix media & event (16)

Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Pr
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve PrLesson Hieu Biet Ve Pr
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Pr
 
Lesson 13 Thuat Ngu
Lesson 13 Thuat NguLesson 13 Thuat Ngu
Lesson 13 Thuat Ngu
 
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
Lesson Hieu Biet Ve Bao Chi Viet Nam (Pp Tminimizer)
 
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep Thi
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep ThiLesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep Thi
Lesson 02 Vai Tro Imc Trong Qua Trinh Tiep Thi
 
Lesson 01 Tong Quan Ve Imc
Lesson 01 Tong Quan Ve ImcLesson 01 Tong Quan Ve Imc
Lesson 01 Tong Quan Ve Imc
 
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009
Vietnam Real Estate E Directory Vn Q1 2009
 
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)
Bao Cao Truyen Thong 2008 (Pp Tminimizer)
 
Media Strategic Plan
Media Strategic PlanMedia Strategic Plan
Media Strategic Plan
 
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
Chap22 Evaluating The Social, Ethical, And Economic Aspects Of Advertising An...
 
Chap20 International Advertising And Promotion
Chap20 International Advertising And PromotionChap20 International Advertising And Promotion
Chap20 International Advertising And Promotion
 
Chap18 Personal Selling
Chap18 Personal SellingChap18 Personal Selling
Chap18 Personal Selling
 
Chap16 Sales Promotion
Chap16 Sales PromotionChap16 Sales Promotion
Chap16 Sales Promotion
 
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive MediaChap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
Chap15 The Internet And Interactive Media
 
Chap14 Direct Marketing
Chap14 Direct MarketingChap14 Direct Marketing
Chap14 Direct Marketing
 
Chap13 Support Media
Chap13 Support MediaChap13 Support Media
Chap13 Support Media
 
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print MediaChap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
Chap12 Evaluation Of Print Media
 

Recently uploaded

Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: IntroductionEnhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
Cor Verdouw
 
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
Adani case
 
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
BBPMedia1
 
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
IPLTech Electric
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdfRegistered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
dazzjoker
 
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
taqyea
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your BusinessAI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
Arijit Dutta
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
concepsionchomo153
 
list of states and organizations .pdf
list of  states  and  organizations .pdflist of  states  and  organizations .pdf
list of states and organizations .pdf
Rbc Rbcua
 
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac SignThe Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
my Pandit
 
IMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss guessing
IMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss  guessingIMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss  guessing
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling ServiceDiscover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
obriengroupinc04
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
State of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
State of D2C in India: A Logistics UpdateState of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
State of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
RedSeer
 
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
SPATPortToamasina
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: IntroductionEnhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
Enhancing Adoption of AI in Agri-food: Introduction
 
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
Adani Group's Active Interest In Increasing Its Presence in the Cement Manufa...
 
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
NIMA2024 | De toegevoegde waarde van DEI en ESG in campagnes | Nathalie Lam |...
 
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdfRegistered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
Registered-Establishment-List-in-Uttarakhand-pdf.pdf
 
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
一比一原版(QMUE毕业证书)英国爱丁堡玛格丽特女王大学毕业证文凭如何办理
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your BusinessAI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
AI Transformation Playbook: Thinking AI-First for Your Business
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
欧洲杯投注-欧洲杯投注外围盘口-欧洲杯投注盘口app|【​网址​🎉ac22.net🎉​】
 
list of states and organizations .pdf
list of  states  and  organizations .pdflist of  states  and  organizations .pdf
list of states and organizations .pdf
 
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac SignThe Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
 
IMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss guessing
IMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss  guessingIMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss  guessing
IMG_20240615_091110.pdf dpboss guessing
 
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling ServiceDiscover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
Discover the Beauty and Functionality of The Expert Remodeling Service
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
State of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
State of D2C in India: A Logistics UpdateState of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
State of D2C in India: A Logistics Update
 
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
L'indice de performance des ports à conteneurs de l'année 2023
 

Chap07 Establishing Objectives And Budgeting For The Promotional Program

  • 1. 7 Establishing Objectives and Budgeting for the Promotional Program McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. Value of Objectives Focus and Coordination They help to orient everyone involved toward one, common goal. Plans and Decisions They serve as criteria for developing plans and making decisions. Measurement and Control They provide the standards and benchmarks for evaluating results.
  • 3. Types of Objectives Marketing Objectives Statements of what is to be accomplished by the overall marketing program within a given time period. Need to be quantifiable such as sales volume, market share, profits, or ROI. Need to be realistic, measurable and attainable IMC Objectives Statements of what various aspects of the IMC program will accomplish based on communication tasks required to deliver appropriate messages to the target audience.
  • 4. Not all Ads are Designed to Achieve Sales
  • 5. Problems With Sales Objectives Sales are a function of many factors, not just advertising and promotion. Effects of IMC tools such as advertising often occur over an extended time period. Sales objectives provide little guidance to those responsible for planning and developing the IMC program
  • 6. Many Factors Influence Sales Promotion Product Quality Competition Technology SALES Distribution The Economy Price Policy
  • 7. When Sales Objectives Are Appropriate For promotional efforts that are direct action in nature and can induce an immediate behavioral response. Sales promotion Direct response advertising Retail advertising for sales or special events When advertising plays a dominant role in a firm’s marketing program and other factors are relatively stable When sales effects of an IMC variable can be isolated.
  • 8. Sales Objectives are Appropriate for Direct Response Advertising
  • 9. Communication Objectives The primary goal of an IMC program is to communicate and planning should be based on communications objectives such as brand awareness, knowledge, interest, attitudes, image and purchase intention
  • 10. Advertising and Movement Toward Action Related behavioral Movement Types of promotions and dimensions toward purchase advertising at each step Point of purchase Conative Purchase Retail store ads, Deals “Last-chance” offers Realm of motives. Price appeals, Testimonials Ads stimulate or direct Conviction desires. Affective Preference Competitive ads Argumentative copy Realm of emotions. Ads change attitudes Liking “Image” copy Status, glamour appeals and feelings Knowledge Announcements Cognitive Descriptive copy Realm of thoughts. Classified ads Slogans, jingles, skywriting Ads provide information and facts. Awareness Teaser campaigns
  • 11. Inverted Pyramid of Communications Effects 90% Awareness Co gn 70% Knowledge iti ve 40% Liking Af fe 25% Preference ct iv e 20% Trial Co 5% Use na tiv e
  • 12. The DAGMAR Approach Define Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results
  • 13. Characteristics of Objectives Good Objectives Should Include: Concrete, Measurable Communication Tasks Well-Defined Target Audience Have an Existing Benchmark Measure Specify Degree of Change Sought Specific Time Period
  • 14. DAGMAR Difficulties Legitimate Problems Questionable Objections Sales Objectives Are Response Hierarchy Needed Problems Sales are all that really Doesn't always define the counts, not process people use to reach purchase/use. communications objectives. Attitude - Behavior Costly and Impractical Relationship The research and efforts Attitude change doesn't cost more then the always lead to change in results are worth. actions or behavior. Inhibition of Creativity Too many rules and structure curb genius.
  • 15. Advertising-Based View of Communications Advertising Through Media One-Way Purchase Attitudes Knowledge Preference Conviction Behavior Linear Acting on Consumers
  • 16. Budgeting Decisions Budgeting decisions involve determining how much money will be spent on advertising and promotion each year and how the monies will be allocated Two major decisions • Establishing the size of the budget • Allocating the budget
  • 17. Marginal Analysis Sales Gross Margin Sales in $ Ad. Expenditure Profit Point A Advertising / Promotion in $
  • 18. BASIC Principles of Marginal Analysis Increase Spending . . . IF: The increased cost is less than the incremental (marginal) return. Decrease Spending . . . IF: The increased cost is more than the incremental (marginal) return. Hold Spending Level. . . IF: The increased cost is equal to the incremental (marginal) return.
  • 19. Problems with Marginal Analysis Assumption: Sales are the principal objective of advertising and/or promotion. Assumption: Sales are the result of advertising and promotion and nothing else.
  • 20. Advertising Sales/Response Functions A. Concave-Downward B. S-Shaped Response Response Curve Function Incremental Sales Incremental Sales High Effect Middle Level Little Effect Initial Spending Little Effect High Spending Range A Range B Range C Advertising Expenditures Advertising Expenditures
  • 21. Top-Down Budgeting Top Management Sets the Spending Limit The Promotion Budget Is Set to Stay Within the Spending Limit
  • 22. Top-Down Approaches The Affordable Method What we have to spare. What's left to spend. Arbitrary Allocation Method No system. Seemed like a good idea at the time. Percentage of Sales Method Set percentage of sales or amount per unit. Competitive Parity Method Match competitor or industry average spending. Return on Investment Method Spending is treated as a capital investment.
  • 23. Bottom-Up Budgeting Total Budget Is Approved by Top Management Cost of Activities are Budgeted Activities to Achieve Objectives Are Planned Promotional Objectives Are Set
  • 24. Objective and Task Method Establish Objectives Establish Objectives (create awareness of new product among (create awareness of new product among 20 percent of target market) 20 percent of target market) Determine Specific Tasks Determine Specific Tasks (advertise on market area television and (advertise on market area television and radio and local newspapers) radio and local newspapers) Estimate Costs Associated with Tasks Estimate Costs Associated with Tasks (create awareness of new product among (create awareness of new product among 20 percent of target market) 20 percent of target market)
  • 25. Payout Planning To determine how much to spend, marketers develop a payout plan that determines the investment value of the advertising and promotion appropriation Example of a three-year payout plan ($ millions) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Product sales 15.0 35.50 60.75 Profit contribution (@$.50 per case) 7.5 17.75 30.38 Advertising/promotions 15.0 10.50 8.50 Profit (loss) (7.5) 7.25 21.88 Cumulative profit (loss) (7.5) (0.25) 21.63
  • 26. Allocating the IMC Budget Factors Affecting Allocation to Various IMC Elements Client/Agency Policies Size of Market Market Potential Market Share Goals Market Share and Economies of Scale Organizational Characteristics
  • 27. Share of Voice and Ad Spending