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Books, libraries, and the
changing digital landscape
Kathryn Zickuhr
Research Associate

November 12, 2013
University of Chicago, Cultural Policy Center
@kzickuhr | @pewinternet | @pewresearch
About the Pew Research Center
•  Non-partisan “fact tank” in Washington, DC,
made up of seven projects
•  Does not promote specific technologies or make
policy recommendations
More: pewresearch.org
@pewresearch
@pewinternet

November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

2
About our libraries research
Three phases:
I. 

State of reading

II.  Library services
III.  Typology
Three-year grant from the
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to study the
changing role of public libraries in the digital age
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

3
About our libraries research
Quantitative: Phone surveys
•  Landlines and cell phones
•  English and Spanish
•  Americans ages 16 & older
•  Nationally representative

Qualitative: Online questionnaires and
in-person focus groups
More: libraries.pewinternet.org
Internet use over time
% of adults ages 18+ who go online, 1995-present

85%

(2013)

90%
80%
70%

50%

60%

(2000)

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

14%

(1995)

0%

November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

6
Daily news sources
% of respondents who got news “yesterday” from each platform
80%
70%
60%

TV
Radio
Newspaper
Online
Any Digital News

50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
1991
November 12, 2013

1994

1997

2000

2003

2006

stateofthemedia.org

2009

2012
7
Adults’ gadget ownership (18+)
•  91% of adults have a cell phone
•  61% have a laptop computer
•  58% have a desktop computer
•  55% have a smartphone
•  34% have a tablet computer
•  24% have an e-reader

November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

8
Tablets & e-readers by age group
E-readers

Tablets

50%
45%

46%

44%

40%
35%

37%

30%
25%
20%

31%

30%
24%

24%

22%
18% 18%

15%
10%
5%
0%

16-17*

18-29

Source: Pew Internet September 2013 survey.

30-49

50-64

65+
More: stateofthemedia.org
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

10
E-reading is on the rise
% of all 16+ who read a book in each format in the past year
80%
70%
60%

72%

67%

50%

2011

40%

2012

30%
20%

16%

10%

23%

0%

Print books

E-books

Source: Pew Internet December 2011 / November 2012 surveys.
Book reading by age group
Among readers, the % in each age group who read a book in print or an e-book
in the past year (2012)

Print

E-books

100%

94%

91%

80%

91%

90%

85%

60%

40%

20%

41%
28%

31%
23%

20%

0%

16-17

18-29

Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey.

30-49

50-64

65+
Why Americans read
% in each age group who read any type of material (including books, magazines,
journals, newspapers, & online content) for the following reasons:
Ages 16-29

Ages 30+

90%
80%

81%

76%

70%

81%
73%

79%

81%
73%

60%
50%
40%

49%

30%
20%
10%
0%

For work or school

For pleasure

Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey.

To keep up with To research topics
current events
of interest
libraries.pewinternet.org
E-books beyond e-readers
Among people who read e-books, the % in each age group who read their e-books on
the following devices (2011)

Ages 16-29

30 and older

60%

55%

50%
40%

46%
41%

38%

30%
20%

25%

26%

23%
16%

10%
0%

Cell phone

Desktop or laptop

Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey.

E-reader

Tablet
libraries.pewinternet.org
Which is better for these purposes, a
printed book or an e-book?
Among those 16+ who read both a print book & an e-book in the past year (2011)

Print

E-books

100%
80%

83%

81%
73%

69%

60%

53%
40%

43% 45%
35%

20%
0%

25%

19%

9%

Reading with Sharing with
a child
others

Reading in
bed

Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey.

Having a
wide
selection

Reading
while
traveling

13%

Get books
quickly

libraries.pewinternet.org
AT THE LIBRARY

Books & browsing still central
Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year, the %
who did the following activities

Borrow books

73%

Browse the stacks

73%
54%

Research topics of interest

50%

Get help from a librarian
Read magazines/newspapers

31%

Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
What Americans say it is important
for libraries to offer
Very important

Somewhat important

Librarians to help people find info

80

16

Borrowing books

80

15

Free access to computers/internet

77

18

Quiet study spaces

76

19

Programs for children & teens

74

21

Research resources like databases

73

20

Job/career resources

67

Free events/activities

22

63

Free public meeting spaces

30

49
0

20

36
40

60

80

100
“Our customers are still using
the library but in different ways.
They browse our catalog
online, place reserves on the
items they want, then pick
them up at their location of
choice… Fewer browse the
collection in person.”
– Library staff member
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

19
AT THE LIBRARY

Technology & media use at the library
Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year,
the % who did the following activities
46%

Use a research database

40%

Borrow a DVD
Use computer or internet

26%

Borrow an audio book

17%

Borrow a music CD

16%

Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
E-reading is on the rise
Borrowing is just getting started

23% of Americans read an
e-book in 2012, up from
16% in 2011
5% of recent library
users have borrowed an
e-book in past year, as
of late 2012
“We spend a significant
part of our day explaining
how to get library books
onto e-book readers.”
– Library staff member

November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

22
?
?

?

62% of Americans
say they do not
know if their library
lends out e-books.
This includes 58% of
library card holders.

Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey.
What Americans say it is important
for libraries to offer
Very important

Somewhat important

Librarians to help people find info

80

16

Borrowing books

80

15

Free access to computers/internet

77

18

Quiet study spaces

76

19

Programs for children & teens

74

21

Research resources like databases

73

20

Job/career resources

67

Free events/activities

22

63

Free public meeting spaces

30

49
0

20

36
40

60

80

100
AT THE LIBRARY

Libraries as community spaces
Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year,
the % who did the following activities

49%

Sit, read, and study, etc

41%

Event for children/teens

Attend a meeting of a group

Attend a class/lecture for adults

23%
21%

Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
What Americans say it is important
for libraries to offer
Very important

Somewhat important

Librarians to help people find info

80

16

Borrowing books

80

15

Free access to computers/internet

77

18

Quiet study spaces

76

19

Programs for children & teens

74

21

Research resources like databases

73

20

Job/career resources

67

Free events/activities

22

63

Free public meeting spaces

30

49
0

20

36
40

60

80

100
Summary: How Americans use libraries
56% of Americans 16+ used a library in the past year
•  53% visited in person
•  25% used website
Books, browsing, librarians are still central, both in how
people use libraries and in their conception of libraries
…but technology is also a common use and a high priority
More: libraries.pewinternet.org
Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey.
How likely would you be to use…
Very likely

Somewhat likely

"Ask a librarian" online service

Not too likely or not at all likely
37

36

26

Library app

35

Tech try-out program

35

Cell GPS app

34

28

36

Library kiosks in community

33

30

35

Personalized accounts

35

34

29

Classes on borrowing e-books

28

28

29

35

34

29

41

Pre-loaded e-readers

26

32

39

Digital media lab

26

32

40

Classes on e-readers

23
0

28
20

40

48
60

80

100
Should libraries…
Should definitely do

Should maybe do

Should definitely not do

Coordinate more with schools

85

Free literacy programs

11 2

82

Separate spaces for different services

61

Have more comfortable spaces

14

59

Offer more e-books

30

47

Help users digitize own materials

12
14

34

41
20

5

39

42

Make MOST services automated

9

38

43

Move MOST library services online

9

28

53

More interactive learning experiences

Move stacks out of public locations

27

36
39

19
20
36

3
What do Americans want?
More activities, events for
children & teens, separate
spaces
…and print books, quiet
Convenience (apps, e-books,
kiosks)
… and closer relationships with
librarians
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

30
Now what?
Fewer traditional touchpoints
•  E-books and online services
•  Search engines for “short answer” questions
•  Awareness of services

November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

31
Now what?
Fewer traditional touchpoints
•  E-books and online services
•  Search engines for “short answer” questions
•  Awareness of services

Convenience and connection
•  Social media, email, apps, websites
•  Personalized services, recommendations
•  “Digital literacies” beyond the classroom
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

32
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)
Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

33
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools
(computers, internet)
Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

34
71% of teens with home
computer access say the laptop
or desktop they use most often
is one they share with other
family members.
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

35
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)
Access to information
resources (books,
media, databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

36
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)
Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

37
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)
Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

38
The sources students are “very likely” to use in a
typical research assignment*:
•  Google / search engine (94%)
•  Wikipedia (75%)
•  YouTube / social media (52%)
•  Their peers (42%)
•  Spark Notes, Cliff Notes (41%)
•  News sites of major news organizations (25%)
•  Print or electronic textbooks (18%)
•  Online databases such as EBSCO, JSTOR (17%)
•  A research librarian at school or public library (16%)
•  Printed books other than textbooks (12%)
•  Student-oriented search engines like Sweet Search (10%)
* According to middle and high school AP & NWP teachers
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)
Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)
How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

40
Libraries’ evolving roles
Providing access to
information – and
guidance:
Access to tools (computers,
internet)

•  More complicated
research queries

Access to information
resources (books, media,
databases)

•  Databases / “beyond
search engines”

How to use tools
How to find & verify
information
November 12, 2013

•  New literacies
•  All types of information
www.pewinternet.org

41
Libraries’ evolving roles

“[Our strength is]
connecting the community
with technology and
knowledge.”
“A warm, welcoming and
friendly space is hard to
find these days”
More: bit.ly/libthoughts
November 12, 2013

www.pewinternet.org

42
Thank you!
Kathryn Zickuhr

Pew Research Center

Research Associate

pewresearch.org
pewresearch.org/internet

kzickuhr@pewresearch.org

November 12, 2013
University of Chicago, Cultural Policy Center
@kzickuhr | @pewinternet | @pewresearch

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Books, libraries, and the changing digital landscape

  • 1. Books, libraries, and the changing digital landscape Kathryn Zickuhr Research Associate November 12, 2013 University of Chicago, Cultural Policy Center @kzickuhr | @pewinternet | @pewresearch
  • 2. About the Pew Research Center •  Non-partisan “fact tank” in Washington, DC, made up of seven projects •  Does not promote specific technologies or make policy recommendations More: pewresearch.org @pewresearch @pewinternet November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 2
  • 3. About our libraries research Three phases: I.  State of reading II.  Library services III.  Typology Three-year grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to study the changing role of public libraries in the digital age November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 3
  • 4. About our libraries research Quantitative: Phone surveys •  Landlines and cell phones •  English and Spanish •  Americans ages 16 & older •  Nationally representative Qualitative: Online questionnaires and in-person focus groups More: libraries.pewinternet.org
  • 5.
  • 6. Internet use over time % of adults ages 18+ who go online, 1995-present 85% (2013) 90% 80% 70% 50% 60% (2000) 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 14% (1995) 0% November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 6
  • 7. Daily news sources % of respondents who got news “yesterday” from each platform 80% 70% 60% TV Radio Newspaper Online Any Digital News 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1991 November 12, 2013 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 stateofthemedia.org 2009 2012 7
  • 8. Adults’ gadget ownership (18+) •  91% of adults have a cell phone •  61% have a laptop computer •  58% have a desktop computer •  55% have a smartphone •  34% have a tablet computer •  24% have an e-reader November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 8
  • 9. Tablets & e-readers by age group E-readers Tablets 50% 45% 46% 44% 40% 35% 37% 30% 25% 20% 31% 30% 24% 24% 22% 18% 18% 15% 10% 5% 0% 16-17* 18-29 Source: Pew Internet September 2013 survey. 30-49 50-64 65+
  • 10. More: stateofthemedia.org November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 10
  • 11. E-reading is on the rise % of all 16+ who read a book in each format in the past year 80% 70% 60% 72% 67% 50% 2011 40% 2012 30% 20% 16% 10% 23% 0% Print books E-books Source: Pew Internet December 2011 / November 2012 surveys.
  • 12. Book reading by age group Among readers, the % in each age group who read a book in print or an e-book in the past year (2012) Print E-books 100% 94% 91% 80% 91% 90% 85% 60% 40% 20% 41% 28% 31% 23% 20% 0% 16-17 18-29 Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. 30-49 50-64 65+
  • 13. Why Americans read % in each age group who read any type of material (including books, magazines, journals, newspapers, & online content) for the following reasons: Ages 16-29 Ages 30+ 90% 80% 81% 76% 70% 81% 73% 79% 81% 73% 60% 50% 40% 49% 30% 20% 10% 0% For work or school For pleasure Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. To keep up with To research topics current events of interest libraries.pewinternet.org
  • 14. E-books beyond e-readers Among people who read e-books, the % in each age group who read their e-books on the following devices (2011) Ages 16-29 30 and older 60% 55% 50% 40% 46% 41% 38% 30% 20% 25% 26% 23% 16% 10% 0% Cell phone Desktop or laptop Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. E-reader Tablet libraries.pewinternet.org
  • 15. Which is better for these purposes, a printed book or an e-book? Among those 16+ who read both a print book & an e-book in the past year (2011) Print E-books 100% 80% 83% 81% 73% 69% 60% 53% 40% 43% 45% 35% 20% 0% 25% 19% 9% Reading with Sharing with a child others Reading in bed Source: Pew Internet December 2011 survey. Having a wide selection Reading while traveling 13% Get books quickly libraries.pewinternet.org
  • 16.
  • 17. AT THE LIBRARY Books & browsing still central Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year, the % who did the following activities Borrow books 73% Browse the stacks 73% 54% Research topics of interest 50% Get help from a librarian Read magazines/newspapers 31% Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
  • 18. What Americans say it is important for libraries to offer Very important Somewhat important Librarians to help people find info 80 16 Borrowing books 80 15 Free access to computers/internet 77 18 Quiet study spaces 76 19 Programs for children & teens 74 21 Research resources like databases 73 20 Job/career resources 67 Free events/activities 22 63 Free public meeting spaces 30 49 0 20 36 40 60 80 100
  • 19. “Our customers are still using the library but in different ways. They browse our catalog online, place reserves on the items they want, then pick them up at their location of choice… Fewer browse the collection in person.” – Library staff member November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 19
  • 20. AT THE LIBRARY Technology & media use at the library Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year, the % who did the following activities 46% Use a research database 40% Borrow a DVD Use computer or internet 26% Borrow an audio book 17% Borrow a music CD 16% Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
  • 21. E-reading is on the rise Borrowing is just getting started 23% of Americans read an e-book in 2012, up from 16% in 2011 5% of recent library users have borrowed an e-book in past year, as of late 2012
  • 22. “We spend a significant part of our day explaining how to get library books onto e-book readers.” – Library staff member November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 22
  • 23. ? ? ? 62% of Americans say they do not know if their library lends out e-books. This includes 58% of library card holders. Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey.
  • 24. What Americans say it is important for libraries to offer Very important Somewhat important Librarians to help people find info 80 16 Borrowing books 80 15 Free access to computers/internet 77 18 Quiet study spaces 76 19 Programs for children & teens 74 21 Research resources like databases 73 20 Job/career resources 67 Free events/activities 22 63 Free public meeting spaces 30 49 0 20 36 40 60 80 100
  • 25. AT THE LIBRARY Libraries as community spaces Among those who visited a library in-person in the past year, the % who did the following activities 49% Sit, read, and study, etc 41% Event for children/teens Attend a meeting of a group Attend a class/lecture for adults 23% 21% Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey. Data is for library visitors ages 16+.
  • 26. What Americans say it is important for libraries to offer Very important Somewhat important Librarians to help people find info 80 16 Borrowing books 80 15 Free access to computers/internet 77 18 Quiet study spaces 76 19 Programs for children & teens 74 21 Research resources like databases 73 20 Job/career resources 67 Free events/activities 22 63 Free public meeting spaces 30 49 0 20 36 40 60 80 100
  • 27. Summary: How Americans use libraries 56% of Americans 16+ used a library in the past year •  53% visited in person •  25% used website Books, browsing, librarians are still central, both in how people use libraries and in their conception of libraries …but technology is also a common use and a high priority More: libraries.pewinternet.org Source: Pew Internet November 2012 survey.
  • 28. How likely would you be to use… Very likely Somewhat likely "Ask a librarian" online service Not too likely or not at all likely 37 36 26 Library app 35 Tech try-out program 35 Cell GPS app 34 28 36 Library kiosks in community 33 30 35 Personalized accounts 35 34 29 Classes on borrowing e-books 28 28 29 35 34 29 41 Pre-loaded e-readers 26 32 39 Digital media lab 26 32 40 Classes on e-readers 23 0 28 20 40 48 60 80 100
  • 29. Should libraries… Should definitely do Should maybe do Should definitely not do Coordinate more with schools 85 Free literacy programs 11 2 82 Separate spaces for different services 61 Have more comfortable spaces 14 59 Offer more e-books 30 47 Help users digitize own materials 12 14 34 41 20 5 39 42 Make MOST services automated 9 38 43 Move MOST library services online 9 28 53 More interactive learning experiences Move stacks out of public locations 27 36 39 19 20 36 3
  • 30. What do Americans want? More activities, events for children & teens, separate spaces …and print books, quiet Convenience (apps, e-books, kiosks) … and closer relationships with librarians November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 30
  • 31. Now what? Fewer traditional touchpoints •  E-books and online services •  Search engines for “short answer” questions •  Awareness of services November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 31
  • 32. Now what? Fewer traditional touchpoints •  E-books and online services •  Search engines for “short answer” questions •  Awareness of services Convenience and connection •  Social media, email, apps, websites •  Personalized services, recommendations •  “Digital literacies” beyond the classroom November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 32
  • 33. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 33
  • 34. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 34
  • 35. 71% of teens with home computer access say the laptop or desktop they use most often is one they share with other family members. November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 35
  • 36. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 36
  • 37. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 37
  • 38. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 38
  • 39. The sources students are “very likely” to use in a typical research assignment*: •  Google / search engine (94%) •  Wikipedia (75%) •  YouTube / social media (52%) •  Their peers (42%) •  Spark Notes, Cliff Notes (41%) •  News sites of major news organizations (25%) •  Print or electronic textbooks (18%) •  Online databases such as EBSCO, JSTOR (17%) •  A research librarian at school or public library (16%) •  Printed books other than textbooks (12%) •  Student-oriented search engines like Sweet Search (10%) * According to middle and high school AP & NWP teachers
  • 40. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) Access to information resources (books, media, databases) How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 40
  • 41. Libraries’ evolving roles Providing access to information – and guidance: Access to tools (computers, internet) •  More complicated research queries Access to information resources (books, media, databases) •  Databases / “beyond search engines” How to use tools How to find & verify information November 12, 2013 •  New literacies •  All types of information www.pewinternet.org 41
  • 42. Libraries’ evolving roles “[Our strength is] connecting the community with technology and knowledge.” “A warm, welcoming and friendly space is hard to find these days” More: bit.ly/libthoughts November 12, 2013 www.pewinternet.org 42
  • 43. Thank you! Kathryn Zickuhr Pew Research Center Research Associate pewresearch.org pewresearch.org/internet kzickuhr@pewresearch.org November 12, 2013 University of Chicago, Cultural Policy Center @kzickuhr | @pewinternet | @pewresearch