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BODY FLUIDS
AND
CIRCULATION
PRESENTED BY,
PRAMATHESH KALITA
BIOLOGY FACULTY
VIDYARTHI EDUCATIONS PVT. LTD.
GUWAHATI, ASSAM (INDIA)
INTRODUCTION
• Simple organisms are single
celled and are in direct contact
with atmosphere and thus do
not require any circulatory
system for metabolic processes.
• Complex multicellular organisms
have a special fluid for
transportation of substances
within the body.
• Blood and Lymph are the two
fluids that act as a carrier in the
body.
What is Blood???
• Blood is a special fluid connective tissue.
• Study of Blood is called HAEMATOLOGY.
• Contributes 7-8% of total body weight.
• Forms about 30-35% of total ECF.
• Slightly alkaline (pH 7.4)
• Volume: 5-6 L (In males)
4-5 L (In females)
• False tissue, because no power of cell
division and without fibres.
William Harvey, an English
physician discovered how
blood circulated around
the body (1628)
Components of blood
BLOOD
FLUID MATRIX PLASMA
(55%)
FORMED ELEMENTS
(RBC, WBC, PLATELETS)
(45%)
Plasma
• Straw coloured (due to the presence of
UROBILLINOGEN), viscous fluid, slightly
alkaline (pH 7.8) aqueous solution.
Composition:
➢ 90-92% water
➢ 8-10% solutes (various ions, glucose,
amino acids, hormones, vitamins,
enzymes, waste products, proteins etc.
❖ Coagulation factors are also present in
plasma.
Plasma – Coagulation factors = Serum
Albumin
• Smallest plasma protein.
• Synthesized in liver.
• Maintains water-ion balance in
the body.
Globulin
• Synthesized in liver.
• Helps in defence mechanism of the
body.
Fibrinogen
• Largest plasma protein.
• Synthesized in liver.
• Helps in blood coagulation.
Plasma protein
RBC (Red Blood Corpuscle)
• Also known as Erythrocyte.
• Bioconcave, circulated, non
nucleated.
• Single RBC is pale yellow in
colour but on maturity they
appear as a group of cells
and becomes red in colour
(Due to the presence of
Hb).
• Most abundant of all the
cells present in blood.
Shape- Disc shaped
Size- 7-8 micron
Approximately 26.5 crores of Hb are
present in each RBC.
No. of RBC (in males) = 5-5.5 m/m3
(in females) = 4.5-4.8 m/m3
Life span= 120 days
Formation of RBC- Erythropoesis (Occurs in
Bone marrow)
Destruction of RBC- Graveyard of RBC
(Occurs in Spleen)
WBC (White Blood Corpuscle)
• Also known as Leucocyte.
• Nucleated.
• White in colour due to the
absence of Hb.
• Most active constituent of
blood.
• Life span = 20-30 days
• No. of WBC = 6000-8000 /m3
➢ Increase in TLC-
Leucocytosis
➢ Decrease in TLC-
Leucocytopenia
➢ Abnormal increase in TLC-
Leukemia (Blood cancer)
Category of WBC
Granulocytes
• Granules present
• Contain multilobed nucleus in the
cytoplasm (Polymorphonuclear WBC)
Neutrophil
• Contributes 60-65% of total TLC
• Nucleus is with 3-5 lobes
• Phagocytic in nature, engulfing
bacteria and virus
Eosinophil
• Contributes 2-3% of total TLC
• Nucleus is bilobed (2 lobes)
• Producing anti allergic reaction
against parasitic infection
Basophil
• Contributes 0.5-1% of total TLC
• Nucleus is with 2-3 lobes
• Develops anti inflammatory
response by secreting heparin,
histamine and serotonin
Agranulocytes
• Granules absent
• Nucleus do not divide into lobes
(Mononuclear WBC)
Monocyte
• Contributes 6-8% of TLC
• Nucleus is kidney shaped
• Acts as scavenger that engulf
dead and damaged blood
corpuscles.
Lymphocyte
• Contributes 20-25% of TLC
• Nucleus is large and rounded
• Producing antibodies (B-
lymphocyte & T- lymphocyte)
RBC
NEUTROPHIL
EOSINOPHIL
BASOPHIL
MONOCYTE
LYMPHOCYTE
Platelets (Thrombocyte)
• Size- 2-3 micron
• Life span- 2-5 days
• Number- 1.5-3.5 lacs/
• Non nucleated
• Produced in bone marrow,
granules are present.
• Helps in coagulation of blood.
Blood coagulation
• Transformation of
liquid blood into jelly
like mass is called
coagulation or clotting.
It is essential as it
provides defence
against bleeding.
Injured tissue
Thromboplastin (Protein)
Prothrombinase (Enzyme)
Pro-thrombin Thrombin
Fibrinogen Fibrin monomer
Fibrin polymer
Clot (Jelly like)
Blood group
• Discovered by Karl Landsteiner (1901).
• Blood group is based on the presence of antigen on
the surface of RBC (Agglutinogen), against which
antibodies are developed in plasma (Agglutinin).
Blood group Antigen (+) Antibody (+) Genotypes
A A Anti-B IAIA/IAIO
B B Anti-A IBIB/IBIO
AB A, B NIL IAIB
O NIL Anti-A, B IOIO
What is
+ve & -ve
blood group??
In World,
80% Rh +ve
20% Rh –ve
In India,
97% Rh +ve
3% Rh -ve
•This is because
of Rh factor,
discovered by
Landsteiner and
Weiner.
• First studied in
Rhesus monkey .
IAIO
Eg. 1 Parents having blood group A (IAIA) and B (IBIO).
What will the percentage probability of having their child
with blood O?
Blood group A B
Genotype IA IA IB Io
IAIBIAIOIAIB
0%
Eg. 2 Parents having blood group AB (IAIB) and O (IOIO).
What will the percentage probability of having their child
with blood A?
Circulatory system
OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Blood pumped by heart passes
through large vessels into open space
Blood pumped by heart passes
through closed network into blood
vessels
Tissues are in direct contact with
circulatory fluid
Tissues are not in direct contact with
circulatory fluid
Blood returns to heart very slowly
(Low BP)
Blood returns to heart very rapidly
(High BP)
Respiratory pigment absent
Eg. Arthropoda, Mollusca
Respiratory pigment present
Eg. Chordata, Annelida
Types of circulation
• Depending upon the types of circulation
HEART is of three types-
1. 2- chambered heart (1A/ 1V):
• Found in Fishes, comprises one auricle
and one ventricle. Heart pumps out
deoxygenated blood (impure) which
gets oxygenated in gills and then
supplied to different body parts,
becomes impure and again returns
back to heart.
• Known as Single circulation.
2. 3- chambered heart (2A/ 1V):
• Found in Amphibians and Reptiles
(except crocodile). Left auricle
receives oxygenated blood from
lung and right auricle receives
deoxygenated blood from body
parts. Blood gets mixed in single
ventricle and further pumps out to
lung for purification.
• Known as Incomplete Double
circulation.
3. 4- chambered heart (2A/ 2V):
• Found in Crocodiles, Birds,
Mammals. Left auricle receives
oxygenated blood from lung and
right auricle receives
deoxygenated blood from body
parts. Blood from both auricles
move towards ventricles of same
side. No mixing of pure and
impure blood occurs here as
ventricles are separated by
septum.
• Known as Double circulation.
Circulatory system in Human
• Also known as Blood Vascular System.
• Consists of muscular chambered heart, a
network of capillaries and fluid.
Position and Appearance of HEART:
• Mesodermally derived organ.
• Situated in thoracic cavity between two
lungs.
• Appears to be slightly tilted towards left.
• Slightly conical in shape (12 cm in length, 9
cm in breath).
• Upper part – Base, Lower part – Apex
• Protected by double membranous structure
called pericardium, cavity between
membranes (pericardial cavity), fluid
present there (pericardial fluid).
• Human heart has 4 chambers – 2
Auricles and 2 Ventricles.
• Size of chambers – LV>RV>RA>LA
• Auricles: Upper two chambers,
serve to receive blood, called
receiving chamber.
➢ Right auricle: Receive impure blood
from body parts.
➢ Left auricle: Receive pure blood
from lung.
Structure of Heart
• Ventricles: Lower two chambers, serve to
pump out blood away from heart, called
pumping chamber.
➢ Right ventricle: Receive impure blood
from right auricle & pumps out to lung.
➢ Left ventricle: Receive pure blood from
left auricle and pumps out towards body
parts.
Wall/Septum present in Heart:
• Inter-auricular septum (In between
auricles)
• Inter-ventricular septum (In
between ventricles)
• Auriculo-ventricular septum (In
between auricles and ventricles)
Valves present in Heart:
• Bicuspid/Mitral valve: In between LA
& LV
• Tricuspid valve: In between RA & RV
• Semi-lunar valve: At the opening of
aorta and PA.
• Eustachian valve: At the opening of
IVC
• Haversian valve: At the opening of
SVC (absent in mammals)
Veins (SVC, IVC) generally carry
deoxygenated blood (impure),
except PULMONARY vein (LUNG to
LA)
Arteries generally carry oxygenated
blood (pure), except PULMONARY
artery (RV to LUNG)
Systemic heart: Left part of heart
Pulmonary heart: Right part of heart
Neurogenic heart: Impulse of heart beat
comes from outside heart.
Eg. Arthropoda, Annelida
Myogenic heart: Impulse of heart beat
developes within heart.
Eg. Mollusca, Vertebrata
For proper conduction of blood through heart,
the cardiac muscles must undergo
contraction and relaxation.
Contraction phase = Systole
Relaxation phase = Daistole
Systole + Diastole = Heart beat
The sequence of cardiac events i.e. electrical
and mechanical events that occur between
two consecutive heart beats is called
cardiac event.
Begins in embryonic development, throughout
the life till death.
Cardiac cycle Duration of
Cardiac Cycle
Normal adult heart
beats 72 times/min
Duration of Cardiac
cycle = 60/72 = 0.8 sec
As blood comes twice into heart,
cardiac cycle occurs separately
in both auricles and ventricles.
In a single cardiac cycle,
Auricular systole = 0.1 sec
Auricular diastole = 0.7 sec
Ventricular systole = 0.3 sec
Ventricular diastole = 0.5sec
Phases of cardiac cycle
Joint Diastole = 0.8-0.4=0.4 sec
Ventricular Systole:
• Contraction phase of ventricles.
• Duration = 0.3 sec
• Begins with closure of auriculo-
ventricular valve and ends with
opening of semi lunar valve
Ventricular Diastole:
• Relaxation phase of ventricles.
• Duration = 0.5 sec
• Closure of semi lunar valve,
pressure inside ventricles
decreases due to blood ejection,
relaxation of ventricles occur
Auricular Systole:
• Contraction phase of auricles.
• Duration = 0.1 sec
• Wave of contraction starts in SA
node of right auricle and
immediately move towards left
auricle.
• Pumps rest of blood towards
ventricle.
Auricular Diastole:
• Relaxation phase of auricles.
• Duration = 0.7 sec
• Pressure inside auricle is zero,
starts receiving blood from veins.
• Auriculo-ventricular valve remain
closed.
SA (Sino-atrial) node:
• Small flat tissue present in right
upper corner of right auricle.
• Impulse generated by this node
spreads towards all directions of
heart.
• Also known as Pacemaker of
heart.
AV (Atrio-ventricular) node:
• Present in lower left corner of right
auricle.
• Increases the strength of the
signal.
• Also known as Pacesetter of
heart.
Conducting system of heart
Bundle of His:
• A bundle of fibre continues from
AV node, passes through AV
septum, called Purkinje fibre.
• Purkinje fibres are collectively
called Bundle of His.
Stroke volume:
During each cardiac cycle, ventricle
pumps out about 70 ml of blood,
which is known as Stroke
volume.
Cardiac output:
Volume of blood pumped out by
ventricle in 1 minute is called
Cardiac output.
Cardiac output = Stroke volume × No.
of cardiac cycle/min
= 70 ml × 72
= 5040 ml (5 L Approx.)
Stroke volume & Cardiac output
Heart sound
Lubb: First sound, represents
the closing of auriculo-
ventricular valve and opening
of semilunar valve. Lubb marks
the beginning of ventricular
systole.
Dup: Second sound, represents
the closure of semilunar valve.
Dup marks the beginning of
ventricular diastole.
• It is the graphical representation of electrical activity of heart during each
cardiac cycle.
• Electrocardiogram is obtained by a machine known as Electrocardiograph.
• Study of recording electrocardiogram is called Electrocardiography.
Electrocardiograph
ECG consists of 5 peaks (P to T) -
➢ P-wave: Represents
depolarisation of atrium.
Signal starts at SA node.
➢ QRS-wave: Represents
depolarisation of ventricles.
Signal transduction occurs
through AV node.
➢ T-wave: State of
repolarisation.
Circulatory disorder
Body fluids and circulation

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Body fluids and circulation

  • 1. BODY FLUIDS AND CIRCULATION PRESENTED BY, PRAMATHESH KALITA BIOLOGY FACULTY VIDYARTHI EDUCATIONS PVT. LTD. GUWAHATI, ASSAM (INDIA)
  • 2. INTRODUCTION • Simple organisms are single celled and are in direct contact with atmosphere and thus do not require any circulatory system for metabolic processes. • Complex multicellular organisms have a special fluid for transportation of substances within the body. • Blood and Lymph are the two fluids that act as a carrier in the body.
  • 3. What is Blood??? • Blood is a special fluid connective tissue. • Study of Blood is called HAEMATOLOGY. • Contributes 7-8% of total body weight. • Forms about 30-35% of total ECF. • Slightly alkaline (pH 7.4) • Volume: 5-6 L (In males) 4-5 L (In females) • False tissue, because no power of cell division and without fibres. William Harvey, an English physician discovered how blood circulated around the body (1628)
  • 4. Components of blood BLOOD FLUID MATRIX PLASMA (55%) FORMED ELEMENTS (RBC, WBC, PLATELETS) (45%)
  • 5. Plasma • Straw coloured (due to the presence of UROBILLINOGEN), viscous fluid, slightly alkaline (pH 7.8) aqueous solution. Composition: ➢ 90-92% water ➢ 8-10% solutes (various ions, glucose, amino acids, hormones, vitamins, enzymes, waste products, proteins etc. ❖ Coagulation factors are also present in plasma. Plasma – Coagulation factors = Serum
  • 6. Albumin • Smallest plasma protein. • Synthesized in liver. • Maintains water-ion balance in the body. Globulin • Synthesized in liver. • Helps in defence mechanism of the body. Fibrinogen • Largest plasma protein. • Synthesized in liver. • Helps in blood coagulation. Plasma protein
  • 7. RBC (Red Blood Corpuscle) • Also known as Erythrocyte. • Bioconcave, circulated, non nucleated. • Single RBC is pale yellow in colour but on maturity they appear as a group of cells and becomes red in colour (Due to the presence of Hb). • Most abundant of all the cells present in blood. Shape- Disc shaped Size- 7-8 micron Approximately 26.5 crores of Hb are present in each RBC. No. of RBC (in males) = 5-5.5 m/m3 (in females) = 4.5-4.8 m/m3 Life span= 120 days Formation of RBC- Erythropoesis (Occurs in Bone marrow) Destruction of RBC- Graveyard of RBC (Occurs in Spleen)
  • 8. WBC (White Blood Corpuscle) • Also known as Leucocyte. • Nucleated. • White in colour due to the absence of Hb. • Most active constituent of blood. • Life span = 20-30 days • No. of WBC = 6000-8000 /m3 ➢ Increase in TLC- Leucocytosis ➢ Decrease in TLC- Leucocytopenia ➢ Abnormal increase in TLC- Leukemia (Blood cancer)
  • 9. Category of WBC Granulocytes • Granules present • Contain multilobed nucleus in the cytoplasm (Polymorphonuclear WBC) Neutrophil • Contributes 60-65% of total TLC • Nucleus is with 3-5 lobes • Phagocytic in nature, engulfing bacteria and virus Eosinophil • Contributes 2-3% of total TLC • Nucleus is bilobed (2 lobes) • Producing anti allergic reaction against parasitic infection Basophil • Contributes 0.5-1% of total TLC • Nucleus is with 2-3 lobes • Develops anti inflammatory response by secreting heparin, histamine and serotonin
  • 10. Agranulocytes • Granules absent • Nucleus do not divide into lobes (Mononuclear WBC) Monocyte • Contributes 6-8% of TLC • Nucleus is kidney shaped • Acts as scavenger that engulf dead and damaged blood corpuscles. Lymphocyte • Contributes 20-25% of TLC • Nucleus is large and rounded • Producing antibodies (B- lymphocyte & T- lymphocyte)
  • 12. Platelets (Thrombocyte) • Size- 2-3 micron • Life span- 2-5 days • Number- 1.5-3.5 lacs/ • Non nucleated • Produced in bone marrow, granules are present. • Helps in coagulation of blood.
  • 13. Blood coagulation • Transformation of liquid blood into jelly like mass is called coagulation or clotting. It is essential as it provides defence against bleeding. Injured tissue Thromboplastin (Protein) Prothrombinase (Enzyme) Pro-thrombin Thrombin Fibrinogen Fibrin monomer Fibrin polymer Clot (Jelly like)
  • 14. Blood group • Discovered by Karl Landsteiner (1901). • Blood group is based on the presence of antigen on the surface of RBC (Agglutinogen), against which antibodies are developed in plasma (Agglutinin). Blood group Antigen (+) Antibody (+) Genotypes A A Anti-B IAIA/IAIO B B Anti-A IBIB/IBIO AB A, B NIL IAIB O NIL Anti-A, B IOIO
  • 15. What is +ve & -ve blood group?? In World, 80% Rh +ve 20% Rh –ve In India, 97% Rh +ve 3% Rh -ve •This is because of Rh factor, discovered by Landsteiner and Weiner. • First studied in Rhesus monkey .
  • 16. IAIO Eg. 1 Parents having blood group A (IAIA) and B (IBIO). What will the percentage probability of having their child with blood O? Blood group A B Genotype IA IA IB Io IAIBIAIOIAIB 0% Eg. 2 Parents having blood group AB (IAIB) and O (IOIO). What will the percentage probability of having their child with blood A?
  • 17. Circulatory system OPEN CIRCULATORY SYSTEM CLOSED CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Blood pumped by heart passes through large vessels into open space Blood pumped by heart passes through closed network into blood vessels Tissues are in direct contact with circulatory fluid Tissues are not in direct contact with circulatory fluid Blood returns to heart very slowly (Low BP) Blood returns to heart very rapidly (High BP) Respiratory pigment absent Eg. Arthropoda, Mollusca Respiratory pigment present Eg. Chordata, Annelida
  • 18.
  • 19. Types of circulation • Depending upon the types of circulation HEART is of three types- 1. 2- chambered heart (1A/ 1V): • Found in Fishes, comprises one auricle and one ventricle. Heart pumps out deoxygenated blood (impure) which gets oxygenated in gills and then supplied to different body parts, becomes impure and again returns back to heart. • Known as Single circulation.
  • 20. 2. 3- chambered heart (2A/ 1V): • Found in Amphibians and Reptiles (except crocodile). Left auricle receives oxygenated blood from lung and right auricle receives deoxygenated blood from body parts. Blood gets mixed in single ventricle and further pumps out to lung for purification. • Known as Incomplete Double circulation.
  • 21. 3. 4- chambered heart (2A/ 2V): • Found in Crocodiles, Birds, Mammals. Left auricle receives oxygenated blood from lung and right auricle receives deoxygenated blood from body parts. Blood from both auricles move towards ventricles of same side. No mixing of pure and impure blood occurs here as ventricles are separated by septum. • Known as Double circulation.
  • 22. Circulatory system in Human • Also known as Blood Vascular System. • Consists of muscular chambered heart, a network of capillaries and fluid. Position and Appearance of HEART: • Mesodermally derived organ. • Situated in thoracic cavity between two lungs. • Appears to be slightly tilted towards left. • Slightly conical in shape (12 cm in length, 9 cm in breath). • Upper part – Base, Lower part – Apex • Protected by double membranous structure called pericardium, cavity between membranes (pericardial cavity), fluid present there (pericardial fluid).
  • 23. • Human heart has 4 chambers – 2 Auricles and 2 Ventricles. • Size of chambers – LV>RV>RA>LA • Auricles: Upper two chambers, serve to receive blood, called receiving chamber. ➢ Right auricle: Receive impure blood from body parts. ➢ Left auricle: Receive pure blood from lung. Structure of Heart • Ventricles: Lower two chambers, serve to pump out blood away from heart, called pumping chamber. ➢ Right ventricle: Receive impure blood from right auricle & pumps out to lung. ➢ Left ventricle: Receive pure blood from left auricle and pumps out towards body parts.
  • 24. Wall/Septum present in Heart: • Inter-auricular septum (In between auricles) • Inter-ventricular septum (In between ventricles) • Auriculo-ventricular septum (In between auricles and ventricles) Valves present in Heart: • Bicuspid/Mitral valve: In between LA & LV • Tricuspid valve: In between RA & RV • Semi-lunar valve: At the opening of aorta and PA. • Eustachian valve: At the opening of IVC • Haversian valve: At the opening of SVC (absent in mammals) Veins (SVC, IVC) generally carry deoxygenated blood (impure), except PULMONARY vein (LUNG to LA) Arteries generally carry oxygenated blood (pure), except PULMONARY artery (RV to LUNG) Systemic heart: Left part of heart Pulmonary heart: Right part of heart Neurogenic heart: Impulse of heart beat comes from outside heart. Eg. Arthropoda, Annelida Myogenic heart: Impulse of heart beat developes within heart. Eg. Mollusca, Vertebrata
  • 25. For proper conduction of blood through heart, the cardiac muscles must undergo contraction and relaxation. Contraction phase = Systole Relaxation phase = Daistole Systole + Diastole = Heart beat The sequence of cardiac events i.e. electrical and mechanical events that occur between two consecutive heart beats is called cardiac event. Begins in embryonic development, throughout the life till death. Cardiac cycle Duration of Cardiac Cycle Normal adult heart beats 72 times/min Duration of Cardiac cycle = 60/72 = 0.8 sec
  • 26. As blood comes twice into heart, cardiac cycle occurs separately in both auricles and ventricles. In a single cardiac cycle, Auricular systole = 0.1 sec Auricular diastole = 0.7 sec Ventricular systole = 0.3 sec Ventricular diastole = 0.5sec Phases of cardiac cycle Joint Diastole = 0.8-0.4=0.4 sec
  • 27. Ventricular Systole: • Contraction phase of ventricles. • Duration = 0.3 sec • Begins with closure of auriculo- ventricular valve and ends with opening of semi lunar valve Ventricular Diastole: • Relaxation phase of ventricles. • Duration = 0.5 sec • Closure of semi lunar valve, pressure inside ventricles decreases due to blood ejection, relaxation of ventricles occur Auricular Systole: • Contraction phase of auricles. • Duration = 0.1 sec • Wave of contraction starts in SA node of right auricle and immediately move towards left auricle. • Pumps rest of blood towards ventricle. Auricular Diastole: • Relaxation phase of auricles. • Duration = 0.7 sec • Pressure inside auricle is zero, starts receiving blood from veins. • Auriculo-ventricular valve remain closed.
  • 28. SA (Sino-atrial) node: • Small flat tissue present in right upper corner of right auricle. • Impulse generated by this node spreads towards all directions of heart. • Also known as Pacemaker of heart. AV (Atrio-ventricular) node: • Present in lower left corner of right auricle. • Increases the strength of the signal. • Also known as Pacesetter of heart. Conducting system of heart Bundle of His: • A bundle of fibre continues from AV node, passes through AV septum, called Purkinje fibre. • Purkinje fibres are collectively called Bundle of His.
  • 29. Stroke volume: During each cardiac cycle, ventricle pumps out about 70 ml of blood, which is known as Stroke volume. Cardiac output: Volume of blood pumped out by ventricle in 1 minute is called Cardiac output. Cardiac output = Stroke volume × No. of cardiac cycle/min = 70 ml × 72 = 5040 ml (5 L Approx.) Stroke volume & Cardiac output
  • 30. Heart sound Lubb: First sound, represents the closing of auriculo- ventricular valve and opening of semilunar valve. Lubb marks the beginning of ventricular systole. Dup: Second sound, represents the closure of semilunar valve. Dup marks the beginning of ventricular diastole.
  • 31. • It is the graphical representation of electrical activity of heart during each cardiac cycle. • Electrocardiogram is obtained by a machine known as Electrocardiograph. • Study of recording electrocardiogram is called Electrocardiography. Electrocardiograph ECG consists of 5 peaks (P to T) - ➢ P-wave: Represents depolarisation of atrium. Signal starts at SA node. ➢ QRS-wave: Represents depolarisation of ventricles. Signal transduction occurs through AV node. ➢ T-wave: State of repolarisation.