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Birds.pptx
Animal Diversity: Vertebrates
by
Maryam Riasat
BIRDS
Birds
Birds
 Birds includes pigeons, owls and flamingos
 Birds are bipedal and clawed vertebrates
 Body is covered by feathers
 Birds body is divisible into head, neck, trunk
and tail
 Small head is placed on a fairly long movable
neck
• A beak with no teeth
• Have sharp eyesight
• A lightweight but strong skeleton
• Production of hard-shelled eggs
• Forelimbs are modified into wings
• Hind limbs are strong and are useful to walk
• High metabolism
• A four chambered heart
• They have well developed flight muscles
Respiration
 The birds respiratory system is
different from that of other
vertebrates
 They have relatively small lungs
plus nine air sacs that play an
important role in respiration
 The air sacs permit a
unidirectional flow of air through
the lungs
 The birds respiratory
system delivers oxygen from the
air to the tissues and also removes
carbon dioxide
Circulation
 Birds have four chambered hearts made of the right atrium,
right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle
 The division helps for efficient flow of oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood
 Birds also have specific adaptations for flight, including a
larger heart relative to body weight and a faster heart rate
Nervous system
 Highly developed nervous system,
includes brain and sense organs
 The nervous system integrates and
controls the various functions of the
body, while the sensory organs detect
the various stimuli in the bird's
environment
 The avian nervous system can be
divided into the central nervous system
(CNS) which comprises the brain and
spinal cord
 The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
which includes the cranial and spinal
nerves and ganglia
Digestive System
 Birds have complete digestive
system
 The digestive order is as
follows: bill, mouth, tongue,
pharynx, esophagus, crop,
proventriculus, gizzard, small
intestine, caeca, rectum, cloaca.
 Alimentary canal contains gizzard
for crushing the food due to
absence of teeth.
Excretory system
• The excretory system consists of the
two kidneys, each with a ureter that
carries the urine produced by the
kidneys to the cloaca where it leaves
the body
• Unlike mammals, do not have
separate exits for urine and feces.
Both waste products are eliminated
simultaneously through the cloaca
• Birds excrete nitrogenous wastes in
the form uric acid or guanine, which
reduces water loss
Reproduction
 Birds reproduce by internal fertilization,
during which the egg is fertilized inside the
female
 All birds reproduce by laying eggs
 Eggs are produced inside the female and then
deposited in a nest
 Fertilized ovum then forms the nucleus of the
egg and the formation of the yolk, whites and
shell
Birds.pptx

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Birds.pptx

  • 4. Birds  Birds includes pigeons, owls and flamingos  Birds are bipedal and clawed vertebrates  Body is covered by feathers  Birds body is divisible into head, neck, trunk and tail  Small head is placed on a fairly long movable neck • A beak with no teeth • Have sharp eyesight • A lightweight but strong skeleton • Production of hard-shelled eggs • Forelimbs are modified into wings • Hind limbs are strong and are useful to walk • High metabolism • A four chambered heart • They have well developed flight muscles
  • 5. Respiration  The birds respiratory system is different from that of other vertebrates  They have relatively small lungs plus nine air sacs that play an important role in respiration  The air sacs permit a unidirectional flow of air through the lungs  The birds respiratory system delivers oxygen from the air to the tissues and also removes carbon dioxide
  • 6. Circulation  Birds have four chambered hearts made of the right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium and left ventricle  The division helps for efficient flow of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood  Birds also have specific adaptations for flight, including a larger heart relative to body weight and a faster heart rate
  • 7. Nervous system  Highly developed nervous system, includes brain and sense organs  The nervous system integrates and controls the various functions of the body, while the sensory organs detect the various stimuli in the bird's environment  The avian nervous system can be divided into the central nervous system (CNS) which comprises the brain and spinal cord  The peripheral nervous system (PNS) which includes the cranial and spinal nerves and ganglia
  • 8. Digestive System  Birds have complete digestive system  The digestive order is as follows: bill, mouth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, crop, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine, caeca, rectum, cloaca.  Alimentary canal contains gizzard for crushing the food due to absence of teeth.
  • 9. Excretory system • The excretory system consists of the two kidneys, each with a ureter that carries the urine produced by the kidneys to the cloaca where it leaves the body • Unlike mammals, do not have separate exits for urine and feces. Both waste products are eliminated simultaneously through the cloaca • Birds excrete nitrogenous wastes in the form uric acid or guanine, which reduces water loss
  • 10. Reproduction  Birds reproduce by internal fertilization, during which the egg is fertilized inside the female  All birds reproduce by laying eggs  Eggs are produced inside the female and then deposited in a nest  Fertilized ovum then forms the nucleus of the egg and the formation of the yolk, whites and shell