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RINI JOSEPH
152ZO019
HISTROY OF FERMENTATION
1. It’s a natural process.
2. People applied fermentation to make products such as
wine, cheese ,beer etc.
3. In 1850 and 1860s LOUIS PASTURE become the first
scientist to study fermentation and he demonstrated
fermentation is caused living cells.
4. He showed that lactic acid fermentation is caused by living
organisms.
5. In 1860 he demonstrated that bacteria causes souring in
milk ,Process occurred through chemical changes and his
work identified the role of microbes in food spoilage .
Pasteur’s definition: “life without air”, anaerobeic redox
reactions in organisms.
Definition :
It is an anaerobic breakdown of complex organic
materials by the action of anaerobic microbes or by the
action of free enzymes to form valuble products.
So, fermentation takes place without oxygen .
Also ,it takes in the presence of low amount of oxygen .
Eg :Penicillium –for growth and development.
WHATIS FERMENTATION ?
Produce
Micro organisms Wide variety of substances
Culture
formation of substances
due to Fermentation .
Substrate Valuable products
accepts electrons
For Industrial Production of chemicals
Large size culture vessels are selected ,for producing large
mass of cells.
So such culture vessels are named as
FERMENTERS
Or
BIOREACTORS
Provides a controlled environment for growth
and maintain constant temperature according to
specific need of microbes.
FERMENTERS
Fermentation reaction are often named
after the products of fermentation.
Production of ethanol by fermentation Ethanol
Fermentation .
Production of methane is Methane
fermentation .
STAGES OF FERMENTATION
The designing of bioreactor
Formulation of medium
Sterilization of medium
Isolation of micro organisms
Selection of right strain of microbes for the production of specific
compound.
The production of stock culture
Culture of right strain of microbes for the production of specific
compound.
Separation and purification of the product from the spent medium .
Fermentation reactions are carried out in bioreactors
Large sized vessels
Stanbury and Whitaker suggested the idea
for constructing bioreactors - 1984
FERMENTERS
Continuous working capacity for a long time
Large in size
System for providing proper aeration to the culture
Temperature – regulating device
System for checking and regulating the pH
Capacity to do work by consuming less energy
1. DESIGNING OF
BIOREACTORS
The important fermenters so designed are the stirred tank fermenter
Used - fermentation reaction
Upright cylindrical vessel
Both the end of the vessels are
closed with hemi spherical basins
Fitted - horizontal position
Stirrer properly mixes the air and the nutrient during fermentation
Heating coil – raising temperature
Vessel is covered by the water jacket
System is used to reduce the temperature inside the vessel
TYPES OF
FERMENTERS
Simple fermenters
Fed batch fermenter
Air-lift or bubble fermenter
Cyclone column fermenter
2.FORMULATION OF MEDIUM
A proper medium should be formulated for culturing the microbes
All the microbes require at least a carbon sources , a nitrogen source,
mineral elements , vitamins and one or a few amino acid for their
successful growth
Cheap raw material used to produce valuable products.
1. Carbon source : Cane juice, glucose, malts, sugar beet
2. Nitrogen source : Ammonium salts, Ammonium nitrate, peanut
granules, soyabean meal ,yeast extracts.
3. Mineral elements : Calcium, Potassium, sulphur, phosphorous,
zinc ,copper, magnesium, manganese
4. Sometimes buffering agent are also added to the medium for
maintaining its PH
5. Growth factor
6. The ph of the medium should be adjusted to 6 – 8
Fermentation medium consists of:
• Macronutrients (C, H, N, S, P, Mg sources  water,
sugars, lipid, amino acids, salt minerals)
• Micronutrients (trace elements/ metals, vitamins)
• Additional factors: growth factors, attachment
proteins, transport proteins, etc)
Medium
composition
3. STERILIZATION OF
MEDIUM
The freshly prepared medium may have a number of unwanted
micro organisms.
The unwanted microbes is Inactivated by sterilizing the
medium under steam pressure .
This method is called Moist heat sterilization .
4. ISOLATION OF MICRO
ORGANISM
The culture of organisms starts with the isolation of organisms .
A specific organisms produce a specific compound in a medium.
Culture Methods
Staining Methods
Biochemical Studies
Used in isolation of
organisms
5. Selection of the micro
organism
The specific strain of microbe which producers a large amount of
product is selected by using biochemical methods.
For ex:
Penicillium a fungus be selected by culturing the mass of organism
.They produce anti biotics that kills bacteria .
The isolated microbes are serially diluted and plated on agarised
medium .
The strains producing the desired substances are selected for
producing stock culture .
6. PRODUCTION OF
STOCK CULTURE
The selected strain of microbes are cultured in
small flasks .
This culture is used to bring fermentation reaction
in industries.
So, it’s called stock culture.
Stock culture is carried out by agar slant method
7 .INOCULUM DEVELOPMENT
Fermentation based on industries requires a large number of
stock cultures .
For this purpose the stock culture is sub cultured in small
bioreactors having the capacity to hold 3,000 to 10,000 liters.
The culture is added to fermentation vessel directly
So, it's known as Inoculum.
8 .CULTURE OF MICROORGANISM IN
THE BIO REACTOR
To culture the microbes in a bioreactor or
fermenter the fermenter should be sterilized
properly
During the sterilization, microbial contaminants
are inactivated by disinfection chemicals
After proper sterilization ,the fermenter must be
washed properly with sterile water in order to
remove the toxic effect.
The Sterilized liquid medium is pumped into the
bioreactor through the inlets found at the top .
The prepared inoculums is inoculated into the
bioreactor.
The oxygen level is properly adjusted by supplying
enough oxygen.
The temperature is adjusted to get optimum growth of
the process organism.
The pH is properly regulated in the culture for the
better growth of organisms.
Down stream processes Down stream
process are the extraction and purification of
sustances produced by fermentation
Biotechnology

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Biotechnology

  • 2. HISTROY OF FERMENTATION 1. It’s a natural process. 2. People applied fermentation to make products such as wine, cheese ,beer etc. 3. In 1850 and 1860s LOUIS PASTURE become the first scientist to study fermentation and he demonstrated fermentation is caused living cells. 4. He showed that lactic acid fermentation is caused by living organisms. 5. In 1860 he demonstrated that bacteria causes souring in milk ,Process occurred through chemical changes and his work identified the role of microbes in food spoilage .
  • 3. Pasteur’s definition: “life without air”, anaerobeic redox reactions in organisms. Definition : It is an anaerobic breakdown of complex organic materials by the action of anaerobic microbes or by the action of free enzymes to form valuble products. So, fermentation takes place without oxygen . Also ,it takes in the presence of low amount of oxygen . Eg :Penicillium –for growth and development. WHATIS FERMENTATION ?
  • 4. Produce Micro organisms Wide variety of substances Culture formation of substances due to Fermentation . Substrate Valuable products accepts electrons
  • 5. For Industrial Production of chemicals Large size culture vessels are selected ,for producing large mass of cells. So such culture vessels are named as FERMENTERS Or BIOREACTORS Provides a controlled environment for growth and maintain constant temperature according to specific need of microbes.
  • 7. Fermentation reaction are often named after the products of fermentation. Production of ethanol by fermentation Ethanol Fermentation . Production of methane is Methane fermentation .
  • 8. STAGES OF FERMENTATION The designing of bioreactor Formulation of medium Sterilization of medium Isolation of micro organisms Selection of right strain of microbes for the production of specific compound. The production of stock culture Culture of right strain of microbes for the production of specific compound. Separation and purification of the product from the spent medium .
  • 9. Fermentation reactions are carried out in bioreactors Large sized vessels Stanbury and Whitaker suggested the idea for constructing bioreactors - 1984 FERMENTERS Continuous working capacity for a long time Large in size System for providing proper aeration to the culture Temperature – regulating device System for checking and regulating the pH Capacity to do work by consuming less energy 1. DESIGNING OF BIOREACTORS
  • 10.
  • 11. The important fermenters so designed are the stirred tank fermenter Used - fermentation reaction Upright cylindrical vessel Both the end of the vessels are closed with hemi spherical basins Fitted - horizontal position Stirrer properly mixes the air and the nutrient during fermentation Heating coil – raising temperature Vessel is covered by the water jacket System is used to reduce the temperature inside the vessel
  • 12. TYPES OF FERMENTERS Simple fermenters Fed batch fermenter Air-lift or bubble fermenter Cyclone column fermenter
  • 13. 2.FORMULATION OF MEDIUM A proper medium should be formulated for culturing the microbes All the microbes require at least a carbon sources , a nitrogen source, mineral elements , vitamins and one or a few amino acid for their successful growth Cheap raw material used to produce valuable products. 1. Carbon source : Cane juice, glucose, malts, sugar beet 2. Nitrogen source : Ammonium salts, Ammonium nitrate, peanut granules, soyabean meal ,yeast extracts. 3. Mineral elements : Calcium, Potassium, sulphur, phosphorous, zinc ,copper, magnesium, manganese 4. Sometimes buffering agent are also added to the medium for maintaining its PH 5. Growth factor 6. The ph of the medium should be adjusted to 6 – 8
  • 14. Fermentation medium consists of: • Macronutrients (C, H, N, S, P, Mg sources  water, sugars, lipid, amino acids, salt minerals) • Micronutrients (trace elements/ metals, vitamins) • Additional factors: growth factors, attachment proteins, transport proteins, etc) Medium composition
  • 15. 3. STERILIZATION OF MEDIUM The freshly prepared medium may have a number of unwanted micro organisms. The unwanted microbes is Inactivated by sterilizing the medium under steam pressure . This method is called Moist heat sterilization .
  • 16. 4. ISOLATION OF MICRO ORGANISM The culture of organisms starts with the isolation of organisms . A specific organisms produce a specific compound in a medium. Culture Methods Staining Methods Biochemical Studies Used in isolation of organisms
  • 17. 5. Selection of the micro organism The specific strain of microbe which producers a large amount of product is selected by using biochemical methods. For ex: Penicillium a fungus be selected by culturing the mass of organism .They produce anti biotics that kills bacteria . The isolated microbes are serially diluted and plated on agarised medium . The strains producing the desired substances are selected for producing stock culture .
  • 18. 6. PRODUCTION OF STOCK CULTURE The selected strain of microbes are cultured in small flasks . This culture is used to bring fermentation reaction in industries. So, it’s called stock culture. Stock culture is carried out by agar slant method
  • 19. 7 .INOCULUM DEVELOPMENT Fermentation based on industries requires a large number of stock cultures . For this purpose the stock culture is sub cultured in small bioreactors having the capacity to hold 3,000 to 10,000 liters. The culture is added to fermentation vessel directly So, it's known as Inoculum.
  • 20. 8 .CULTURE OF MICROORGANISM IN THE BIO REACTOR To culture the microbes in a bioreactor or fermenter the fermenter should be sterilized properly During the sterilization, microbial contaminants are inactivated by disinfection chemicals After proper sterilization ,the fermenter must be washed properly with sterile water in order to remove the toxic effect.
  • 21. The Sterilized liquid medium is pumped into the bioreactor through the inlets found at the top . The prepared inoculums is inoculated into the bioreactor. The oxygen level is properly adjusted by supplying enough oxygen. The temperature is adjusted to get optimum growth of the process organism. The pH is properly regulated in the culture for the better growth of organisms. Down stream processes Down stream process are the extraction and purification of sustances produced by fermentation