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RINI JOSEPH
 Water equivalent of the green revolution and
primarily refers to management of water resources.
 Started in India in 1970 during fifth five year plan.
 It implies adoption of package techniques to
increase production of fish and marine.
 It is the rapid expansion of intensive commercial
aquaculture.
 Aim is to rapidly increase fish production in small
ponds and water bodies, a boon to farmers, the
nations nutrition and its gross domestic product.
 Marine fish contribute 50% of the total fish
production in India
 India farms 1.6 million tonnes of freshwater fish
per year compared to estimated domestic
demand of 4.5 million tonnes.
 Of the 2.2 hectares of freshwater bodies, only 80
thousand hectares are currently used.
 Significance in agriculture by
- Providing food security
- Providing nutritional security
- Providing employment, fishing,
aquaculture and a host allied activities to
source of livelihood to over 14 million people
in India
- a major foreign exchange earner
 Encourage fish farming where farmers rear
fish in tanks, ponds or enclosed areas
 Conditions like
- water quality
- breeding conditions
- health
- nutritional requirements
 Medicine and vaccines are used to improve
the health and nutrition of fish.
 Developed ways to increase the fertility of
fish.
 Improve their growth rate
 Increase their resistance to diseases
 Chemical additives like antibiotics and special
feed are administrated into aquaculture cages,
which may contaminate surrounding water
 Fish have less health benefits due to injection of
hormones
 As fish are grown closely together, they are very
disease prone, which not only affect fish output,
but other marine life as well
 As intensive, commercial aquaculture is very
costly
 By catch, accidental species such as sharks,
turtles, seabirds.
 Destruction of thousands of hectares of
mangrove forests, which protected shorelines
from erosion.
 Triggers ‘red tides’ outbreak and pollutes the
foreshore with waste – an explosive growth of
toxic algae that can kill fish and fatally poison
people who eat contaminated seafood.
 Also known as “operational flood”
 Project of national dairy development board
(NDDB) in1970
 World’s biggest dairy development
programme
 Made India the largest milk producer in the
world surpassing USA in 1998,with about 17%
of global milk output in 2010-11
 Made dairy farming India's largest self
sustainable rural employment generator.
 NDDB in 1969 designed a dairy development
programme to lay the foundation for a viable self-
supportive national dairy industry.
 This programme sought to link rural milk
production to urban milk marketing through the
cooperatives
 In July 1970with technical assistance from the
United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) and
FAO, the programme was launched as Operation
Flood (OF)
 Based on Anand pattern experiment at AMUL, a
single cooperative dairy.
 Chairman of NDDB- Verghese Kurien appointed by
PM of India- Lal Bahadur Shastri.
 He was the chairman and founder of AMUL as well.
 Dr. Kurien is therefore recognized as the architect
of this programme
 Creation of national milk grid linking milk
producers.
 Connecting 700 towns and cities.
 The cooperatives provide services and make
modern technology management available to
members.
 Thus, middle men are cut out.
 Seasonal and regional price variations reduced.
 Producers gets major share of profits.
 To increase milk production.
 Augment rural incomes
 Fair prices for consumers
Operational flood was implemented in three phases:
PHASE 1 (1970-1980)
 Financed by the scale of skimmed milk powder and
butter oil by the European union through the world
food programme.
 Mother dairies were setup in Delhi, Mumbai,
Kolkata and Chennai.
 The operational flood I originally meant to be
completed in1975,actually spanned the period of
about nine years from1970-1979,at a total cost of
Rs.116 crores.
PHASE II (1980-1985)
 Increased milk shed from 18 to136; 290 urban
market expanded the outlets for milk.
 By the end of 1985, 43000 village cooperatives and
42,50000 milk producers were covered.
 Domestic milk powder production increased from
22000 tons -140000 tons by 1989.
 Direct marketing of milk by cooperatives increased
by 1989.
 Direct marketing of milk by cooperatives increased
by several million litres per day.
 ‘RAKSHA’ vaccine was developed and given to the
cattle.
PHASE III (1985-1996)
 Expansion and strengthening of Infrastructure.
 Operation flood phase III consolidated India’s daisy
cooperative movement, adding 30,000 new dairy
cooperatives to 43000 existing socities organized
during phase III
 Milk sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-1989 with the
number of women, members and women’s Dairy
cooperative societies increasing significantly.
 Veterinary first aid, health care services, feed
for animal and improved.
 Emphasis on research and development in:
- Animal health- vaccine for Theileriosis
- Animal nutrition- protein rich feeds
etc...
 Imported breeds of cattle have caused
decimation of Indian breeds.
 Foreign breeds gave higher yields, but require
more feed and are not suited to Indian
conditions.
 Focus on dairy sector during this periods was
at cost of development, research and
extension work in other areas of Indian
agriculture.
Blue and white relovutions

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Blue and white relovutions

  • 2.
  • 3.  Water equivalent of the green revolution and primarily refers to management of water resources.  Started in India in 1970 during fifth five year plan.  It implies adoption of package techniques to increase production of fish and marine.  It is the rapid expansion of intensive commercial aquaculture.  Aim is to rapidly increase fish production in small ponds and water bodies, a boon to farmers, the nations nutrition and its gross domestic product.
  • 4.  Marine fish contribute 50% of the total fish production in India  India farms 1.6 million tonnes of freshwater fish per year compared to estimated domestic demand of 4.5 million tonnes.  Of the 2.2 hectares of freshwater bodies, only 80 thousand hectares are currently used.
  • 5.  Significance in agriculture by - Providing food security - Providing nutritional security - Providing employment, fishing, aquaculture and a host allied activities to source of livelihood to over 14 million people in India - a major foreign exchange earner
  • 6.  Encourage fish farming where farmers rear fish in tanks, ponds or enclosed areas  Conditions like - water quality - breeding conditions - health - nutritional requirements
  • 7.  Medicine and vaccines are used to improve the health and nutrition of fish.  Developed ways to increase the fertility of fish.  Improve their growth rate  Increase their resistance to diseases
  • 8.  Chemical additives like antibiotics and special feed are administrated into aquaculture cages, which may contaminate surrounding water  Fish have less health benefits due to injection of hormones  As fish are grown closely together, they are very disease prone, which not only affect fish output, but other marine life as well  As intensive, commercial aquaculture is very costly  By catch, accidental species such as sharks, turtles, seabirds.
  • 9.  Destruction of thousands of hectares of mangrove forests, which protected shorelines from erosion.  Triggers ‘red tides’ outbreak and pollutes the foreshore with waste – an explosive growth of toxic algae that can kill fish and fatally poison people who eat contaminated seafood.
  • 10.
  • 11.  Also known as “operational flood”  Project of national dairy development board (NDDB) in1970  World’s biggest dairy development programme  Made India the largest milk producer in the world surpassing USA in 1998,with about 17% of global milk output in 2010-11  Made dairy farming India's largest self sustainable rural employment generator.
  • 12.  NDDB in 1969 designed a dairy development programme to lay the foundation for a viable self- supportive national dairy industry.  This programme sought to link rural milk production to urban milk marketing through the cooperatives  In July 1970with technical assistance from the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP) and FAO, the programme was launched as Operation Flood (OF)
  • 13.  Based on Anand pattern experiment at AMUL, a single cooperative dairy.  Chairman of NDDB- Verghese Kurien appointed by PM of India- Lal Bahadur Shastri.  He was the chairman and founder of AMUL as well.  Dr. Kurien is therefore recognized as the architect of this programme
  • 14.  Creation of national milk grid linking milk producers.  Connecting 700 towns and cities.  The cooperatives provide services and make modern technology management available to members.  Thus, middle men are cut out.  Seasonal and regional price variations reduced.  Producers gets major share of profits.
  • 15.  To increase milk production.  Augment rural incomes  Fair prices for consumers
  • 16. Operational flood was implemented in three phases: PHASE 1 (1970-1980)  Financed by the scale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil by the European union through the world food programme.  Mother dairies were setup in Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai.  The operational flood I originally meant to be completed in1975,actually spanned the period of about nine years from1970-1979,at a total cost of Rs.116 crores.
  • 17. PHASE II (1980-1985)  Increased milk shed from 18 to136; 290 urban market expanded the outlets for milk.  By the end of 1985, 43000 village cooperatives and 42,50000 milk producers were covered.  Domestic milk powder production increased from 22000 tons -140000 tons by 1989.  Direct marketing of milk by cooperatives increased by 1989.  Direct marketing of milk by cooperatives increased by several million litres per day.  ‘RAKSHA’ vaccine was developed and given to the cattle.
  • 18. PHASE III (1985-1996)  Expansion and strengthening of Infrastructure.  Operation flood phase III consolidated India’s daisy cooperative movement, adding 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to 43000 existing socities organized during phase III  Milk sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-1989 with the number of women, members and women’s Dairy cooperative societies increasing significantly.
  • 19.  Veterinary first aid, health care services, feed for animal and improved.  Emphasis on research and development in: - Animal health- vaccine for Theileriosis - Animal nutrition- protein rich feeds etc...
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.  Imported breeds of cattle have caused decimation of Indian breeds.  Foreign breeds gave higher yields, but require more feed and are not suited to Indian conditions.  Focus on dairy sector during this periods was at cost of development, research and extension work in other areas of Indian agriculture.