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PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
1. Glycosides
● In a glycoside molecules, sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another
group via glcosidic bond. A glycosidic bond is a covalent bond that binds the sugar
molecule to another molecule (that may or may not be sugar molucles.) Thus a
sunstance containing a glycosidic bond is called a glycoside.
ग्लाइकोसाइड अणुओं में, चीनी समूह अपने एनोमेरिक कार्बन क
े माध्यम से ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन क
े
माध्यम से दूसरे समूह से बंधा होता है। ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन एक सहसंयोजक बंधन होता है जो चीनी
अणु को दूसरे अणु से बांधता है (जो चीनी अणु हो भी सकता है और नहीं भी)। इस प्रकार एक सनस्टांस
युक्त होता है। ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन को ग्लाइकोसाइड कहा जाता है
● Glycosidic may be defined as "the organic compounds of plants or animals origin which
on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis give one or more sugar moieyics along with non-sugar
moiety.
ग्लाइकोसिडिक को "पौधों या जानवरों क
े कार्बनिक यौगिकों क
े रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है जो
एंजाइमैटिक या एसिड हाइड्रोलिसिस पर गैर-शर्क रा अंश क
े साथ एक या अधिक चीनी अंश देते हैं”
● The sugar group is known as the glycone and the non-sugar group as aglycone or genin
part of the glycoside.
शर्क रा समूह को ग्लाइकोन क
े रूप में जाना जाता है और गैर-शर्क रा समूह को एग्लीकोन या ग्लाइकोसाइड
क
े जेनिन भाग क
े रूप में जाना जाता है।
Occurance and Distribution
● Glycosides widely occurs in root, bark, fruits, and to a small extent in leaves.
ग्लाइकोसाइड व्यापक रूप से जड़, छाल, फलों और क
ु छ हद तक पत्तियों में पाया जाता है
Isolation
. Sta-Otta method
Identification Tests
Borntragers Test: 1 gm of drug is boiled with 5-10 ml dilute HCL for 10 Min on a water bath.
● After boiling the solution is filtered and the filtrate is extracted with CCl4 / benzene.
● The obtained extracted solution is shaken with an equal quantity of ammonia solution. A
pink or red colour Appears in the ammonical layer Which confirms the presence of
anthraquinone moiety.
1 ग्राम दवा को 5-10 मिलीलीटर पतला एचसीएल क
े साथ पानी क
े स्नान में 10 मिनट तक उबाला जाता
है। उबलने क
े बाद घोल को छान लिया जाता है और छानकर CCl4/बेंजीन क
े साथ निकाल लिया जाता है।
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
प्राप्त निकाले गए घोल को समान मात्रा में अमोनिया घोल क
े साथ हिलाया जाता है। अमोनिकल परत में
एक गुलाबी या लाल रंग दिखाई देता है जो एन्थ्राक्विनोन भाग की उपस्थिति की पुष्टि करता है।
Therapeutics Activity
Cardiac glycosides are compounds derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). Initially,
digitalis was used to treat dropsy (i.e., oedema). Later studies revealed that digitalis may treat
oedema caused by a weakened heart (i.e., heart failure).
कार्डियक ग्लाइकोसाइड्स फॉक्सग्लोव पौधे (डिजिटलिस पुरपुरिया) से प्राप्त यौगिक हैं। प्रारंभ में, डिजिटलिस का
उपयोग ड्रॉप्सी (यानी, एडिमा) क
े इलाज क
े लिए किया जाता था। बाद क
े अध्ययनों से पता चला कि डिजिटलिस
कमजोर दिल (यानी, दिल की विफलता) क
े कारण होने वाली सूजन का इलाज कर सकता है।
2. Volatile Oils
● Volatile oils are obtained from various plant parts. They are basically the mixture of
hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and polyterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives.
वाष्पशील तेल विभिन्न पौधों क
े भागों से प्राप्त होते हैं। वे मूल रूप से हाइड्रोकार्बन सेस्क्यूटरपीन, और
पॉलीटरपीन और उनक
े ऑक्सीजनयुक्त डेरिवेटिव का मिश्रण हैं।
● Volatile oils carry the plant's active constituents and hence are also called essential oils.
Mostly the volatile oils are already present in special secretory tissues in the Plant, e.g.,
the oil ducts in umbelliferous fruits.
वाष्पशील तेलों में पौधे क
े सक्रिय घटक होते हैं और इसलिए उन्हें आवश्यक तेल भी कहा जाता है।
अधिकतर वाष्पशील तेल पहले से ही पौधे क
े विशेष स्रावी ऊतकों में मौजूद होते हैं, उदाहरण क
े लिए,
नाभिदार फलों में तेल नलिकाएं।
● Volatile or ethereal oils are defined principles of plant as, "odorous volatile principle of
plants and animal origin which evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary temperature"
वाष्पशील या ईथर तेलों को पौधे क
े सिद्धांतों क
े रूप में परिभाषित किया गया है, "पौधों और जानवरों की
उत्पत्ति का गंधयुक्त अस्थिर सिद्धांत जो सामान्य तापमान पर हवा क
े संपर्क में आने पर वाष्पित हो
जाता है”
Occurrence and Distribution
● Aromatic plants contain essential oils
● Volatile oils can be formed by two methods, i.e., by hydrolysis of some glycosides, and
directly by the Protoplasm
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
Isolation
● The amount of volatile oils present in plants reaches its maximum at some particular
time, e.g.. jasmine has the greatest concentration of volatile oil at sunset, and thus the
plant parts containing volatile oils should be collected at this particular time.
● Extraction by Steam Distillation:
● Extraction by Scarification:
Identification Tests
1) A thin section of drug is treated with an alcoholic solution of Sudan III. A red colour appears
that confirms the presence of volatile oils.
2) A thin section of drug is treated with a tincture of alkane. A red colour appears that confirms
the presence of volatile oils.
Therapeutic Activity
volatile oil molecules enter the body, they correlate with physiological functions through the
following three modes of action:
A. Biochemical (Pharmacological): They chemically interact in the bloodstream with
hormones and enzymes (like farnesene).
B. Physiological: They interact by participating in specific physiological function; For example,
the volatile oil present in fennel contains oestrogen-like compounds which prevent female
problems (like lactation and menstruation).
C. Psychological: On inhaling the volatile oil molecules, the factory area of the brain (limbic
system) gets triggered and releases chemical and neurotransmitter messengers.
Pharmaceutical Applications
Volatile oils are employed as flavouring agent, perfuming agent in pharmaceutical products,
foods, beverages, and in cosmetics.
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
3. Tannins
● The term tannin was first used by Seguin in 1976 to denote substances present in plant
extracts which are able to combine with proteins of animal hides, prevent their
putrefaction, and convert them into leather.
● On this basis tannin is a substance which is detected qualitatively by a tanning test (the
Goldbeater's skin test) and is determined quantitatively by its absorption on standard
hide powder.
● Tannins are defined as, "complex substances that usually Occur as mixtures of
polyphenols that are very difficult to separate since they do not crystallise".
टैनिन को इस प्रकार परिभाषित किया गया है, "जटिल पदार्थ जो आमतौर पर पॉलीफ
े नोल्स क
े मिश्रण क
े
रूप में होते हैं जिन्हें अलग करना बहुत मुश्किल होता है क्योंकि वे क्रिस्टलीकृ त नहीं होते हैं"।
● Tannins are present in the aerial parts, e.g., leaves, fruits, barks, or stem, generally
occurs in immature fruits, but disappears during the ripening process.
टैनिन हवाई भागों में मौजूद होते हैं, जैसे, पत्तियां, फल, छाल या तने, आमतौर पर अपरिपक्व फलों में
होते हैं, लेकिन पकने की प्रक्रिया क
े दौरान गायब हो जाते हैं।
Occurrence and Distribution
▲ Rhubarb, red rose petals, bearberry leaves, Chinese galls, Turkish gall, hamamelis, chestnut,
and maple are rich in gallitannins. Pomegranate rind, pomegranate myrobolans, eucalyptus
leaves, some Australian kinds and Oak bark are rich in ellagitannins
▲ parts of plants are rich in condensed tannins
1) Barks: Cinnamon, wild cherry, cinchona, willow, acacia, oak, and hamamelis.
2) Roots and Rhizomes: Krameria and male fern.
3) Flowers: Lime and hawthorn.
4) Seeds: Cocoa, guarana, kola, and areca.
5) Leaves: Hamamelis, howathron, and tea.
6) Extracts and Dried Juice: Catechu, acacia, mangrove cutches, East Indian Kino, butea gum,
eucalyptus, and kino.
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
Isolation
The steps involved in extracting tannins are:
1) 100gm of the powdered sample is refluxed for 15 minutes in a 500ml Erlenmeyer flask.
During the reflux process, the entire sample should be covered with 70% acetone. The flask is
removed from the hot plate and filtered in another flask.
2) The residue on the filter paper is washed off using a sufficient amount of 70% acetone.
3) The washed solution is combined with the filtrate and the resultant mixture is subjected to
extraction using diethyl ether.
4) This process is repeated five times till the diethyl ether and tannin separate out completely as
distinct upper and lower layer, respectively.
5) The tannin layer is separated via separatory funnel. The tannin so collected is evaporated till
a residue, known as the extracted tannin, is obtained which is the final product.
6) The tannin percentage is calculated with the following formula:
% tannin = Wt. of dried tannin / Wt. of the powdered sample x 100%
7) After extracting the tannin, the aqueous and ethereal layers are concentrated, dried, further
iso-lated, and purified using various chromatography techniques.
Identification tests:
Gelatin Test: To a solution of tannin (0.5-1%), aqueous solutions of gelatin (1%) and sodium
chloride (10%) are added. A white buff-coloured precipitate is formed.
Therapeutic Activity
The medicinal uses of tannins are:
I. Anti-Diarrhoeal
II. Anti-Tumour
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
III.Antidote
4. Resins
● Resins can be defined as, "the hydrocarbon secretion of various plants (especially the
coniferous trees)".
रेजिन को "विभिन्न पौधों (विशेष रूप से शंक
ु धारी पेड़ों) क
े हाइड्रोकार्बन स्राव" क
े रूप में परिभाषित किया
जा सकता है।
● Apart from this, resins are also used as a raw material for synthesising organic
compounds.
इसक
े अलावा, रेजिन का उपयोग कार्बनिक यौगिकों क
े संश्लेषण क
े लिए कच्चे माल क
े रूप में भी किया
जाता है
Occurrence and Distribution
Below are the examples of different plants whose different structures or secretion zone contain
resins:
● Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) belonging to family Zingiberaceae has resin cells
● Cannabis (Cannabis sativa Linn.) belonging to family- Moraceae contain resins in their
glandular hair.
Identification Tests
i.Colophony resins are The tests recommended for colophony resins are
ii. 100mg of resin powder is dissolved in ioml acetic anhydride. To this solution, few drops of
sulphuric acid is added which results in purple violet colouration of the solution.
Guaiacum Resin: A solution of resin is prepared in ethanol and to this solution ferric chloride is
added. This results in deep blue colouration of the solution.
Therapeutic Activity
● Resins possess mild antiseptic property, hence are used topically in the form of plaster,
ointments, and cerates.
● They are also used for preparing emulsions.
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
PHARMACOGNOSY
CHAPTER 4
Pharmaceutical applications
● Resins are being used since ages in various cultures and are used as herbal medicine
for several diseases in the Eastern countries.
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI

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Bilingual notes of Pharmacognosy chapter 4Glycosides, Volatile oils,Tannins,Resins.pdf

  • 1. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 1. Glycosides ● In a glycoside molecules, sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via glcosidic bond. A glycosidic bond is a covalent bond that binds the sugar molecule to another molecule (that may or may not be sugar molucles.) Thus a sunstance containing a glycosidic bond is called a glycoside. ग्लाइकोसाइड अणुओं में, चीनी समूह अपने एनोमेरिक कार्बन क े माध्यम से ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन क े माध्यम से दूसरे समूह से बंधा होता है। ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन एक सहसंयोजक बंधन होता है जो चीनी अणु को दूसरे अणु से बांधता है (जो चीनी अणु हो भी सकता है और नहीं भी)। इस प्रकार एक सनस्टांस युक्त होता है। ग्लाइकोसिडिक बंधन को ग्लाइकोसाइड कहा जाता है ● Glycosidic may be defined as "the organic compounds of plants or animals origin which on enzymatic or acid hydrolysis give one or more sugar moieyics along with non-sugar moiety. ग्लाइकोसिडिक को "पौधों या जानवरों क े कार्बनिक यौगिकों क े रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है जो एंजाइमैटिक या एसिड हाइड्रोलिसिस पर गैर-शर्क रा अंश क े साथ एक या अधिक चीनी अंश देते हैं” ● The sugar group is known as the glycone and the non-sugar group as aglycone or genin part of the glycoside. शर्क रा समूह को ग्लाइकोन क े रूप में जाना जाता है और गैर-शर्क रा समूह को एग्लीकोन या ग्लाइकोसाइड क े जेनिन भाग क े रूप में जाना जाता है। Occurance and Distribution ● Glycosides widely occurs in root, bark, fruits, and to a small extent in leaves. ग्लाइकोसाइड व्यापक रूप से जड़, छाल, फलों और क ु छ हद तक पत्तियों में पाया जाता है Isolation . Sta-Otta method Identification Tests Borntragers Test: 1 gm of drug is boiled with 5-10 ml dilute HCL for 10 Min on a water bath. ● After boiling the solution is filtered and the filtrate is extracted with CCl4 / benzene. ● The obtained extracted solution is shaken with an equal quantity of ammonia solution. A pink or red colour Appears in the ammonical layer Which confirms the presence of anthraquinone moiety. 1 ग्राम दवा को 5-10 मिलीलीटर पतला एचसीएल क े साथ पानी क े स्नान में 10 मिनट तक उबाला जाता है। उबलने क े बाद घोल को छान लिया जाता है और छानकर CCl4/बेंजीन क े साथ निकाल लिया जाता है। NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 2. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 प्राप्त निकाले गए घोल को समान मात्रा में अमोनिया घोल क े साथ हिलाया जाता है। अमोनिकल परत में एक गुलाबी या लाल रंग दिखाई देता है जो एन्थ्राक्विनोन भाग की उपस्थिति की पुष्टि करता है। Therapeutics Activity Cardiac glycosides are compounds derived from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea). Initially, digitalis was used to treat dropsy (i.e., oedema). Later studies revealed that digitalis may treat oedema caused by a weakened heart (i.e., heart failure). कार्डियक ग्लाइकोसाइड्स फॉक्सग्लोव पौधे (डिजिटलिस पुरपुरिया) से प्राप्त यौगिक हैं। प्रारंभ में, डिजिटलिस का उपयोग ड्रॉप्सी (यानी, एडिमा) क े इलाज क े लिए किया जाता था। बाद क े अध्ययनों से पता चला कि डिजिटलिस कमजोर दिल (यानी, दिल की विफलता) क े कारण होने वाली सूजन का इलाज कर सकता है। 2. Volatile Oils ● Volatile oils are obtained from various plant parts. They are basically the mixture of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, and polyterpenes and their oxygenated derivatives. वाष्पशील तेल विभिन्न पौधों क े भागों से प्राप्त होते हैं। वे मूल रूप से हाइड्रोकार्बन सेस्क्यूटरपीन, और पॉलीटरपीन और उनक े ऑक्सीजनयुक्त डेरिवेटिव का मिश्रण हैं। ● Volatile oils carry the plant's active constituents and hence are also called essential oils. Mostly the volatile oils are already present in special secretory tissues in the Plant, e.g., the oil ducts in umbelliferous fruits. वाष्पशील तेलों में पौधे क े सक्रिय घटक होते हैं और इसलिए उन्हें आवश्यक तेल भी कहा जाता है। अधिकतर वाष्पशील तेल पहले से ही पौधे क े विशेष स्रावी ऊतकों में मौजूद होते हैं, उदाहरण क े लिए, नाभिदार फलों में तेल नलिकाएं। ● Volatile or ethereal oils are defined principles of plant as, "odorous volatile principle of plants and animal origin which evaporate when exposed to air at ordinary temperature" वाष्पशील या ईथर तेलों को पौधे क े सिद्धांतों क े रूप में परिभाषित किया गया है, "पौधों और जानवरों की उत्पत्ति का गंधयुक्त अस्थिर सिद्धांत जो सामान्य तापमान पर हवा क े संपर्क में आने पर वाष्पित हो जाता है” Occurrence and Distribution ● Aromatic plants contain essential oils ● Volatile oils can be formed by two methods, i.e., by hydrolysis of some glycosides, and directly by the Protoplasm NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 3. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 Isolation ● The amount of volatile oils present in plants reaches its maximum at some particular time, e.g.. jasmine has the greatest concentration of volatile oil at sunset, and thus the plant parts containing volatile oils should be collected at this particular time. ● Extraction by Steam Distillation: ● Extraction by Scarification: Identification Tests 1) A thin section of drug is treated with an alcoholic solution of Sudan III. A red colour appears that confirms the presence of volatile oils. 2) A thin section of drug is treated with a tincture of alkane. A red colour appears that confirms the presence of volatile oils. Therapeutic Activity volatile oil molecules enter the body, they correlate with physiological functions through the following three modes of action: A. Biochemical (Pharmacological): They chemically interact in the bloodstream with hormones and enzymes (like farnesene). B. Physiological: They interact by participating in specific physiological function; For example, the volatile oil present in fennel contains oestrogen-like compounds which prevent female problems (like lactation and menstruation). C. Psychological: On inhaling the volatile oil molecules, the factory area of the brain (limbic system) gets triggered and releases chemical and neurotransmitter messengers. Pharmaceutical Applications Volatile oils are employed as flavouring agent, perfuming agent in pharmaceutical products, foods, beverages, and in cosmetics. NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 4. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 3. Tannins ● The term tannin was first used by Seguin in 1976 to denote substances present in plant extracts which are able to combine with proteins of animal hides, prevent their putrefaction, and convert them into leather. ● On this basis tannin is a substance which is detected qualitatively by a tanning test (the Goldbeater's skin test) and is determined quantitatively by its absorption on standard hide powder. ● Tannins are defined as, "complex substances that usually Occur as mixtures of polyphenols that are very difficult to separate since they do not crystallise". टैनिन को इस प्रकार परिभाषित किया गया है, "जटिल पदार्थ जो आमतौर पर पॉलीफ े नोल्स क े मिश्रण क े रूप में होते हैं जिन्हें अलग करना बहुत मुश्किल होता है क्योंकि वे क्रिस्टलीकृ त नहीं होते हैं"। ● Tannins are present in the aerial parts, e.g., leaves, fruits, barks, or stem, generally occurs in immature fruits, but disappears during the ripening process. टैनिन हवाई भागों में मौजूद होते हैं, जैसे, पत्तियां, फल, छाल या तने, आमतौर पर अपरिपक्व फलों में होते हैं, लेकिन पकने की प्रक्रिया क े दौरान गायब हो जाते हैं। Occurrence and Distribution ▲ Rhubarb, red rose petals, bearberry leaves, Chinese galls, Turkish gall, hamamelis, chestnut, and maple are rich in gallitannins. Pomegranate rind, pomegranate myrobolans, eucalyptus leaves, some Australian kinds and Oak bark are rich in ellagitannins ▲ parts of plants are rich in condensed tannins 1) Barks: Cinnamon, wild cherry, cinchona, willow, acacia, oak, and hamamelis. 2) Roots and Rhizomes: Krameria and male fern. 3) Flowers: Lime and hawthorn. 4) Seeds: Cocoa, guarana, kola, and areca. 5) Leaves: Hamamelis, howathron, and tea. 6) Extracts and Dried Juice: Catechu, acacia, mangrove cutches, East Indian Kino, butea gum, eucalyptus, and kino. NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 5. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 Isolation The steps involved in extracting tannins are: 1) 100gm of the powdered sample is refluxed for 15 minutes in a 500ml Erlenmeyer flask. During the reflux process, the entire sample should be covered with 70% acetone. The flask is removed from the hot plate and filtered in another flask. 2) The residue on the filter paper is washed off using a sufficient amount of 70% acetone. 3) The washed solution is combined with the filtrate and the resultant mixture is subjected to extraction using diethyl ether. 4) This process is repeated five times till the diethyl ether and tannin separate out completely as distinct upper and lower layer, respectively. 5) The tannin layer is separated via separatory funnel. The tannin so collected is evaporated till a residue, known as the extracted tannin, is obtained which is the final product. 6) The tannin percentage is calculated with the following formula: % tannin = Wt. of dried tannin / Wt. of the powdered sample x 100% 7) After extracting the tannin, the aqueous and ethereal layers are concentrated, dried, further iso-lated, and purified using various chromatography techniques. Identification tests: Gelatin Test: To a solution of tannin (0.5-1%), aqueous solutions of gelatin (1%) and sodium chloride (10%) are added. A white buff-coloured precipitate is formed. Therapeutic Activity The medicinal uses of tannins are: I. Anti-Diarrhoeal II. Anti-Tumour NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 6. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 III.Antidote 4. Resins ● Resins can be defined as, "the hydrocarbon secretion of various plants (especially the coniferous trees)". रेजिन को "विभिन्न पौधों (विशेष रूप से शंक ु धारी पेड़ों) क े हाइड्रोकार्बन स्राव" क े रूप में परिभाषित किया जा सकता है। ● Apart from this, resins are also used as a raw material for synthesising organic compounds. इसक े अलावा, रेजिन का उपयोग कार्बनिक यौगिकों क े संश्लेषण क े लिए कच्चे माल क े रूप में भी किया जाता है Occurrence and Distribution Below are the examples of different plants whose different structures or secretion zone contain resins: ● Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) belonging to family Zingiberaceae has resin cells ● Cannabis (Cannabis sativa Linn.) belonging to family- Moraceae contain resins in their glandular hair. Identification Tests i.Colophony resins are The tests recommended for colophony resins are ii. 100mg of resin powder is dissolved in ioml acetic anhydride. To this solution, few drops of sulphuric acid is added which results in purple violet colouration of the solution. Guaiacum Resin: A solution of resin is prepared in ethanol and to this solution ferric chloride is added. This results in deep blue colouration of the solution. Therapeutic Activity ● Resins possess mild antiseptic property, hence are used topically in the form of plaster, ointments, and cerates. ● They are also used for preparing emulsions. NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 7. PHARMACOGNOSY CHAPTER 4 Pharmaceutical applications ● Resins are being used since ages in various cultures and are used as herbal medicine for several diseases in the Eastern countries. NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI