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PHARMACOLOGY
Chapter 5
Drugs Acting On Cardiovascular System Anti-Hypertensive Drugs
→ A condition in which the blood pressure of systemic artery increased beyond the normal
pressure is known as Hypertension.
→ Normal range
● Systolic 120mm Hg above,Diastolic 80mm Hg above.
→ The drugs are used to treat High Blood Pressure are called Anti-hypertensive Drugs.
Classification
1) Diuretics:
● Thiazides: Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone.
● Potassium Sparing Diuretics: Spironolectone, Amiloride.
● Loop Diuretics: Furosemide, Bumetanide.
2) Adrenergic drugs:
● a blocker: Prazosin, Doxazosin.
● ẞ Blockers: Atenolol, Propranolol.
● a &ẞ blockers: Labetalol, Carvedilol.
3) Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, Amlodipine, Nifedipine.
4) Vasodilators: Hydralazine.
Pharmacological action
● Vasodilation, and lower SBP and DBP.
● Increase Blood Flow (Renal, Coronary etc.)
● Effect on CVS: Hypotension, fall in BP
● On Eye: miosis
● Decrease the heart rate
● Bronchodilation.
Indication
● To treat hypertension.
● In congestive heart failure.
● In migraine.
Contraindication
● Hepatic and renal disease
● Peptic ulcer
● Any drug allergy
Doses
● Coronary artery disease
● Prazosin (1-15 mg/d)
● Doxazosin (1-20 mg/d)
● Atenolol: (25- twomg daily)
● Propanolol: (80-240 mg 12 hourly)
Anti Anginal Drugs
→ Angina is referred to chest pain due to low or no blood supply to the Heart muscles.
→ The Drugs are used to treat Angina pectoris are called anti anginal Drugs
Classification
1. Vasodilators:
● Nitrites and nitrates: Isosorbide dinitrate Nitro-glycerine.
● Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, amlodipine, Nifedipine
● Potassium Channel Opener: Nicorandil
2. B adrenoceptor antagonist (ẞ blockers): Atenolol, Prapranolol, Metoprolol.
Pharmacological Actions
● Dilation: they dilate the coronary arteries.
● Blood Flow: Reduce oxygen demand by increasing blood flow to the heart muscles.
● They dilate peripheral Blood vessels and decrease the load of heart.
Indications
They are used to angina
● In MI
● Chronic heart failure
Contraindications
● Hypotension
● Low blood volume
● Pulmonary oedema left ventricle failure
● Cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscles)
● Close angle Glaucom.
Doses
● Isosorbide dinitrate: (5-10 mg sublingual) (20-40 mg sustained release oral)
● Nitro Glycerine: (0.5 mg sublingual) (5-15 mg oral) (5-20 ug/min i.v.)
● Nicorandil (5-20mg/ BD)
Anti- Arrhythmic Drugs
Arrhythmia
→ Cardiac arrhythmia is an abnormalit of heart rhythm.
→ Arrhythmia is improper beating of heart whether irregular, toofast, or too slow.
→Anti-Arrhythmic drugs may be used to control or correct cardiac rhythm.
→The drugs are used to treat Arrhythmia are called Anti- Arrhythmic Drugs.
→Also Known as Anti-dysrhythmic drugs, Anti-Fibrillatory drugs.
Classification
● Sodium Channel Blocker: Quinidine, Procanamide, Lidocaine, Phenytoin.
● Beta blockers: Atenolol, Propranolol )
● Potassium channel blockers: amiodaron, bretylium.
● Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, Nifedipine.
Pharmacological Actions
● They block mayocardial Na + Channels.
● They slow down heart rate.
● They block potassium channel in myocardium.
Indication
● Arrhythmia
● Learn and Educate
● Atrial fibrillation (irregular or rapid heart rate)
Contraindications
● Hypersensitivity
● Coronary artery diseases.
● Severe hepatic disorder
Doses
● Quinidine: (100-200mg/tds) oral
● Procainamide: (.5-1 g/d) oral
● Amiodaron (400-600mg/d) orally
● Sotlol (40-80mg/bd) orally.
Drugs Used In Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis
→Formation of Plaque inside the arteries is referred to as a state of Atherosclerosis..
→With the Time plaque harder and narrows the arteries.
→ As the arteries are narrowed the flow of oxygen rich blood to heart as well as to other areas
of the body is reduced or stopped.
Drugs Used In Atherosclerosis
Classification
● HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Satins): Atorvastatin, Lovastatin.
● Bile Acid Sequestrants (Resins): Cholestyramine, Colestipol.
● Fibric Acid Derivatives (Fibrates): Clofibrate, Fenofibrate.
4. Triglyceride Synthesis and lipolysis Inhibitors: Nicotinic Acid, Probucol.
5.Others: Omega 3 fatty acids
Pharmacological Action
They slow or inhibit the production / synthesis of cholesterol.
They prevent deposition of lipids in blood vessels (formation of plaque)
They bind with bile and prevent reabsorption of bile from GIT.
Indications
They are used to treat hyperlipidemia.
They are used to reduce the risk of MI.
They are used to remove plaque in blood vessels.
Educate
These are used to maintain or reduce cholesterol level.
Contraindication
Liver Diseases
In pregnant & lacting women
◆ Hypersensitivity
Dose
Gall bladder disorder
Cholestyramine (4 g/d in starting in divided dose)
Colestipol (2-16 g/d in divided dose)
Clofibrate (1.5-2 g/d in divided dose)
Fenofibrate (50-150mg/d).
Atorvastatin (10-20mg/d) Lovastatin (20-80mg/d)

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Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf

  • 1. PHARMACOLOGY Chapter 5 Drugs Acting On Cardiovascular System Anti-Hypertensive Drugs → A condition in which the blood pressure of systemic artery increased beyond the normal pressure is known as Hypertension. → Normal range ● Systolic 120mm Hg above,Diastolic 80mm Hg above. → The drugs are used to treat High Blood Pressure are called Anti-hypertensive Drugs. Classification 1) Diuretics: ● Thiazides: Chlorothiazide, Hydrochlorothiazide, chlorthalidone. ● Potassium Sparing Diuretics: Spironolectone, Amiloride. ● Loop Diuretics: Furosemide, Bumetanide. 2) Adrenergic drugs: ● a blocker: Prazosin, Doxazosin. ● ẞ Blockers: Atenolol, Propranolol. ● a &ẞ blockers: Labetalol, Carvedilol. 3) Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, Amlodipine, Nifedipine. 4) Vasodilators: Hydralazine. Pharmacological action ● Vasodilation, and lower SBP and DBP. ● Increase Blood Flow (Renal, Coronary etc.) ● Effect on CVS: Hypotension, fall in BP ● On Eye: miosis ● Decrease the heart rate ● Bronchodilation.
  • 2. Indication ● To treat hypertension. ● In congestive heart failure. ● In migraine. Contraindication ● Hepatic and renal disease ● Peptic ulcer ● Any drug allergy Doses ● Coronary artery disease ● Prazosin (1-15 mg/d) ● Doxazosin (1-20 mg/d) ● Atenolol: (25- twomg daily) ● Propanolol: (80-240 mg 12 hourly)
  • 3. Anti Anginal Drugs → Angina is referred to chest pain due to low or no blood supply to the Heart muscles. → The Drugs are used to treat Angina pectoris are called anti anginal Drugs Classification 1. Vasodilators: ● Nitrites and nitrates: Isosorbide dinitrate Nitro-glycerine. ● Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, amlodipine, Nifedipine ● Potassium Channel Opener: Nicorandil 2. B adrenoceptor antagonist (ẞ blockers): Atenolol, Prapranolol, Metoprolol. Pharmacological Actions ● Dilation: they dilate the coronary arteries. ● Blood Flow: Reduce oxygen demand by increasing blood flow to the heart muscles. ● They dilate peripheral Blood vessels and decrease the load of heart. Indications They are used to angina ● In MI ● Chronic heart failure Contraindications ● Hypotension ● Low blood volume ● Pulmonary oedema left ventricle failure ● Cardiomyopathy (disease of heart muscles)
  • 4. ● Close angle Glaucom. Doses ● Isosorbide dinitrate: (5-10 mg sublingual) (20-40 mg sustained release oral) ● Nitro Glycerine: (0.5 mg sublingual) (5-15 mg oral) (5-20 ug/min i.v.) ● Nicorandil (5-20mg/ BD) Anti- Arrhythmic Drugs Arrhythmia → Cardiac arrhythmia is an abnormalit of heart rhythm. → Arrhythmia is improper beating of heart whether irregular, toofast, or too slow. →Anti-Arrhythmic drugs may be used to control or correct cardiac rhythm. →The drugs are used to treat Arrhythmia are called Anti- Arrhythmic Drugs. →Also Known as Anti-dysrhythmic drugs, Anti-Fibrillatory drugs. Classification ● Sodium Channel Blocker: Quinidine, Procanamide, Lidocaine, Phenytoin. ● Beta blockers: Atenolol, Propranolol ) ● Potassium channel blockers: amiodaron, bretylium. ● Calcium Channel Blockers: Verapamil, Nifedipine. Pharmacological Actions ● They block mayocardial Na + Channels. ● They slow down heart rate. ● They block potassium channel in myocardium.
  • 5. Indication ● Arrhythmia ● Learn and Educate ● Atrial fibrillation (irregular or rapid heart rate) Contraindications ● Hypersensitivity ● Coronary artery diseases. ● Severe hepatic disorder Doses ● Quinidine: (100-200mg/tds) oral ● Procainamide: (.5-1 g/d) oral ● Amiodaron (400-600mg/d) orally ● Sotlol (40-80mg/bd) orally. Drugs Used In Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis →Formation of Plaque inside the arteries is referred to as a state of Atherosclerosis.. →With the Time plaque harder and narrows the arteries. → As the arteries are narrowed the flow of oxygen rich blood to heart as well as to other areas of the body is reduced or stopped. Drugs Used In Atherosclerosis
  • 6. Classification ● HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (Satins): Atorvastatin, Lovastatin. ● Bile Acid Sequestrants (Resins): Cholestyramine, Colestipol. ● Fibric Acid Derivatives (Fibrates): Clofibrate, Fenofibrate. 4. Triglyceride Synthesis and lipolysis Inhibitors: Nicotinic Acid, Probucol. 5.Others: Omega 3 fatty acids Pharmacological Action They slow or inhibit the production / synthesis of cholesterol. They prevent deposition of lipids in blood vessels (formation of plaque) They bind with bile and prevent reabsorption of bile from GIT. Indications They are used to treat hyperlipidemia. They are used to reduce the risk of MI. They are used to remove plaque in blood vessels. Educate These are used to maintain or reduce cholesterol level. Contraindication Liver Diseases In pregnant & lacting women ◆ Hypersensitivity Dose Gall bladder disorder
  • 7. Cholestyramine (4 g/d in starting in divided dose) Colestipol (2-16 g/d in divided dose) Clofibrate (1.5-2 g/d in divided dose) Fenofibrate (50-150mg/d). Atorvastatin (10-20mg/d) Lovastatin (20-80mg/d)