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Anti-psychotics / Neuroleptics
→ Schizophrenia is one of the major forms of psychiatric illness which affects young people, is
often chronic, and high disabling.
→ Symptoms of schizophrenia
. Hallucination (in which a person hears, sees, smell, taste, or feel things that seems to real but
only exit in his mine) and delusions.
→ The drugs are used to treat schizophrenia (mood-altering) are called antipsychotics.
→ It may be called mood stabilizing agents.
Classification
1. Phenothiazine derivatives: Chlorpromazine
2. Butyrophenones: Haloperidol
3. Rauwolfia Alkaloids: Reserpine
4. Atypical Neuroleptics: Clozapnie, Risperidone
5. Substituted Benzamide : Sulpiride
6. Indole Derivatives: Malingole.
Pharmacological Actions
● They prevent the excess of dopamine in the brain.
● In normal individuals, chlorpromazine makes them to loss interest from surroundings.
● They act as a adrenergic blocking agents.
● They cause hypotension.
Indications
● They are used to treat Schizophrenia.
● They are used to treat manic depression
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
● They are used for controlling aggressive and destructive behavior in children
● they are used to control vomiting and Hiccups
Contraindications
These are contraindicated in severe allergy
● In severe cardiac diseases
● In narrow angle glaucoma
● In History of seizure disorder
Doses
● Chlorpromazine: 10-100 mg TDS (thrice a day) Max 800 mg a day)
● Haloperidol: 2-20mg/day
● Clozapnie: 100-300mg/day
● Risperidone: 2-8mg/day
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
Nootropic Agents / Cognitive Enhancer / Smart drugs
→ Nootropics, also known as "smart drugs" are a diverse group of medicinal substances whose
action improves human thinking, learning, and memory,
Or
→ Nootropics are those substances which increase mental functions including: Memory,
Motivation, Concentration, Attention
Classification
● Cholinergic Activators: Piracetam
● Seratonergics: Theamine
● Dopaminergic: L-Dopa
● Some other examples Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Hydergine, Vincamine Meclofenoxate.
Pharmacological Actions
● They increase Metabolism in brain.
● They increase cerebral circulation.
● They protect brain from Chemical damage.
Indications
● They are used to treat alzheimer's disease.
● They are used in those who are suffering from learning and attention problems,.
● They are used to increase intelligence, smartness.
● They are used to treat amnesia.
● They are used to treat dementia (abnormalities in to remember, think, and decision)
Contraindications
● In Hypersensitivity
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
● In pregnancy
● In lactation
Dose
● Piracetam: 2-3mg/day in divided dose
● Hydergine: 4.5-9 mg/day
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxant
→The centrally acting muscle relaxants are a group of drugs that act in the central nervous
system (CNS) to mitigate tension and spasm of skeletal muscles.
OR
→ The drugs are used to relax the skeletal muscle by acting on central nervous system are
called " centrally acting muscle relaxants.
→ They are used to treat spasm and pain in muscles.
Classification
1) Barbiturates: phenobarbitone
2) Benzodiazepines: Diazepam
3) GABA derivatives: Baclofen
4) Mephenesin Congeners: Mephenesin, Meprobamate, Chlormezanon
Pharmacological actions
● Voluntary Muscles: They relax the voluntary muscles by depressing the CNS.
● CNS: They depress the CNS, Show sedative effects.
Indications
● Muscles Spasm: They are used to treat spasm and pain of muscles, and rheumatic
disorders.
● Anxiety and Tension: They are used in treatment of anxiety and tension.
● Tetanus: They are used in treatment of tetanus in combination with other medicines.
● Convulsion: They are also used in treatment of convulsion.
Contraindication
● .Mephenesin Congeners and Baclofen are contraindicated in hypersensitivity.
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
Doses
● Diazepam : Tablets 2, 5, and 10omg and slow releasing capsule 15 mg
● Phenobarbitone: 30-120 mg/day in divided dose.
● Mephenesin: Ointment as required.
● Baclofen: 10-15 mg/day orally
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
1
Opioid (Narcotic) Analgesics
→ Analgesics are those substances which reduce pain by acting on central nervous system.
→ Opioid Analgesics are pain killers that obtained from opioids.
→ They reduce pain without disturbing other sensory functions, or without causing
unconsciousness.
→ Opioid Analgesics may be natural, semi synthetic, or synthetic.
Classification
1) Morphine: It is a potent analgesic drug .It is also called gold standard drug for treating severe
pain .It has a high potential for addiction.
Eg: Morphine, dimorphine, Codeine.
2) Synthetic: Pethidine, tramadol Methadone, pentazocine, cyclazocine.
Pharmacological Action
: It interacts with different types of brain receptors and produces following actions
1) CNS
● Analgesia: It reduces pain sensation.
● Euphoria: It produces a feeling of excitement and happiness.
● sedation: it causes sleep.
● vomiting: It stimulates Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone in medulla and causes
● vomiting. respiratory depression: It depresses the respiratory volume, and may cause
death.
● antitussive: It suppresses the cough reflex by depressing cough center in medulla
2) Action on GIT: It causes constipation, It inhibits peristaltic movement.
3) CVS: it causes Vasodilatation..
1
Notes by Sumit Tiwari
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
4) It causes pain in bile duct.
5) It causes urine urgency and difficulty in urination.
6) It prolongs labours.
Indications
● Analgesia: they are used to relief severe pain.
● They are used to treat Diarroea.
● They are used to relief cough.
● They are used as pre anaesthetic.
Contraindications
● In head injury.
● In Bronchial Asthma.
● Undiagnosed abdominal pain.
● Chronic lungs diseases
● In Hypothyrodism.
● In Hepatic failure.
Doses:
● Morphine: (10-15mg oral) 0.1-0.2 mg/kg (4 hours) as need to manage pain
● Codeine: 30-60 mg
● Pethidine: 50-100 mg oral
● Tramadol: 50-100 mg oral
● Methadone: 2.5-10mg oral
● Pentazocine: 50-100 mg oral
NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI

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D.pharmacy Pharmacology 4th unit notes.pdf

  • 1. Anti-psychotics / Neuroleptics → Schizophrenia is one of the major forms of psychiatric illness which affects young people, is often chronic, and high disabling. → Symptoms of schizophrenia . Hallucination (in which a person hears, sees, smell, taste, or feel things that seems to real but only exit in his mine) and delusions. → The drugs are used to treat schizophrenia (mood-altering) are called antipsychotics. → It may be called mood stabilizing agents. Classification 1. Phenothiazine derivatives: Chlorpromazine 2. Butyrophenones: Haloperidol 3. Rauwolfia Alkaloids: Reserpine 4. Atypical Neuroleptics: Clozapnie, Risperidone 5. Substituted Benzamide : Sulpiride 6. Indole Derivatives: Malingole. Pharmacological Actions ● They prevent the excess of dopamine in the brain. ● In normal individuals, chlorpromazine makes them to loss interest from surroundings. ● They act as a adrenergic blocking agents. ● They cause hypotension. Indications ● They are used to treat Schizophrenia. ● They are used to treat manic depression NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 2. ● They are used for controlling aggressive and destructive behavior in children ● they are used to control vomiting and Hiccups Contraindications These are contraindicated in severe allergy ● In severe cardiac diseases ● In narrow angle glaucoma ● In History of seizure disorder Doses ● Chlorpromazine: 10-100 mg TDS (thrice a day) Max 800 mg a day) ● Haloperidol: 2-20mg/day ● Clozapnie: 100-300mg/day ● Risperidone: 2-8mg/day NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 3. Nootropic Agents / Cognitive Enhancer / Smart drugs → Nootropics, also known as "smart drugs" are a diverse group of medicinal substances whose action improves human thinking, learning, and memory, Or → Nootropics are those substances which increase mental functions including: Memory, Motivation, Concentration, Attention Classification ● Cholinergic Activators: Piracetam ● Seratonergics: Theamine ● Dopaminergic: L-Dopa ● Some other examples Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Hydergine, Vincamine Meclofenoxate. Pharmacological Actions ● They increase Metabolism in brain. ● They increase cerebral circulation. ● They protect brain from Chemical damage. Indications ● They are used to treat alzheimer's disease. ● They are used in those who are suffering from learning and attention problems,. ● They are used to increase intelligence, smartness. ● They are used to treat amnesia. ● They are used to treat dementia (abnormalities in to remember, think, and decision) Contraindications ● In Hypersensitivity NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 4. ● In pregnancy ● In lactation Dose ● Piracetam: 2-3mg/day in divided dose ● Hydergine: 4.5-9 mg/day NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 5. Centrally Acting Muscle Relaxant →The centrally acting muscle relaxants are a group of drugs that act in the central nervous system (CNS) to mitigate tension and spasm of skeletal muscles. OR → The drugs are used to relax the skeletal muscle by acting on central nervous system are called " centrally acting muscle relaxants. → They are used to treat spasm and pain in muscles. Classification 1) Barbiturates: phenobarbitone 2) Benzodiazepines: Diazepam 3) GABA derivatives: Baclofen 4) Mephenesin Congeners: Mephenesin, Meprobamate, Chlormezanon Pharmacological actions ● Voluntary Muscles: They relax the voluntary muscles by depressing the CNS. ● CNS: They depress the CNS, Show sedative effects. Indications ● Muscles Spasm: They are used to treat spasm and pain of muscles, and rheumatic disorders. ● Anxiety and Tension: They are used in treatment of anxiety and tension. ● Tetanus: They are used in treatment of tetanus in combination with other medicines. ● Convulsion: They are also used in treatment of convulsion. Contraindication ● .Mephenesin Congeners and Baclofen are contraindicated in hypersensitivity. NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 6. Doses ● Diazepam : Tablets 2, 5, and 10omg and slow releasing capsule 15 mg ● Phenobarbitone: 30-120 mg/day in divided dose. ● Mephenesin: Ointment as required. ● Baclofen: 10-15 mg/day orally NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 7. 1 Opioid (Narcotic) Analgesics → Analgesics are those substances which reduce pain by acting on central nervous system. → Opioid Analgesics are pain killers that obtained from opioids. → They reduce pain without disturbing other sensory functions, or without causing unconsciousness. → Opioid Analgesics may be natural, semi synthetic, or synthetic. Classification 1) Morphine: It is a potent analgesic drug .It is also called gold standard drug for treating severe pain .It has a high potential for addiction. Eg: Morphine, dimorphine, Codeine. 2) Synthetic: Pethidine, tramadol Methadone, pentazocine, cyclazocine. Pharmacological Action : It interacts with different types of brain receptors and produces following actions 1) CNS ● Analgesia: It reduces pain sensation. ● Euphoria: It produces a feeling of excitement and happiness. ● sedation: it causes sleep. ● vomiting: It stimulates Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone in medulla and causes ● vomiting. respiratory depression: It depresses the respiratory volume, and may cause death. ● antitussive: It suppresses the cough reflex by depressing cough center in medulla 2) Action on GIT: It causes constipation, It inhibits peristaltic movement. 3) CVS: it causes Vasodilatation.. 1 Notes by Sumit Tiwari NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI
  • 8. 4) It causes pain in bile duct. 5) It causes urine urgency and difficulty in urination. 6) It prolongs labours. Indications ● Analgesia: they are used to relief severe pain. ● They are used to treat Diarroea. ● They are used to relief cough. ● They are used as pre anaesthetic. Contraindications ● In head injury. ● In Bronchial Asthma. ● Undiagnosed abdominal pain. ● Chronic lungs diseases ● In Hypothyrodism. ● In Hepatic failure. Doses: ● Morphine: (10-15mg oral) 0.1-0.2 mg/kg (4 hours) as need to manage pain ● Codeine: 30-60 mg ● Pethidine: 50-100 mg oral ● Tramadol: 50-100 mg oral ● Methadone: 2.5-10mg oral ● Pentazocine: 50-100 mg oral NOTES BY SUMIT TIWARI