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DRUGS ACTING ON CNS.pptx
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Laxatives.pptx

  1. 1. ARCHANA B. CHAVHAN M.PHARM (QA) KYDSCT’S COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, SAKEGAON LAXATIVES
  2. 2. • The drugs are loose the bowels (Intestine) or the drugs producing intestinal evacuation. • Laxatives are indicated in constipation and in evacuation of the bowel, prior to diagnostic procedure or surgery.
  3. 3. Synonyms:- Aloe, Aloevera Biological source:- It is the dried juice of the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller. (Curacao aloes) Family :-Liliaceae Morphological characters: Chemical Constituents:- Aloes contain a yellow coloured crystalline substance known as barbaloin (C-glycoside) resin and aloe-emodin. • Aloe emodin • Barbaloin Color Bright yellow-ish or rich reddish brown to black. Odor Penetrating Taste Bitter Size Various Size
  4. 4. Therapeutic uses:  It used as irritant purgative  It is used as laxative  It use for cosmetic and protective  It also used for treatment of radiation burns.  Promotes oral health.  Clears acne.  Relieves anal fissures
  5. 5. Castor oil Synonyms:- Oleum Ricini Biological Source:- It is the fixed oil obtained by the cold expression of the kernels of seeds of Ricinus communis. Family:-Euphorbiaceae Morphological characters: Color Pale yellow or almost colourless liquid Odor Penetrating Taste Slighthly acrid Chemical Constituents:- Triglyceride of ricinoleic acid, fatty acids. Isoricinoleic, linoleic, stearic and isostearic acids.
  6. 6. Preparation 1. The oil is obtained by two ways; either after the removal of the seed coat or with the seed coat. 2. Seed coats are removed by crushing the seeds under the grooved rollers and then they are subjected to a current of air to blow the testas. 3. The kernels are fed in oil expellers and at room temperature they are expressed with 1 to 2 tons pressure per square inch till about 30% oil is obtained. 4. The oil is filtered, steamed 80–100°C to facilitate the coagulation and precipitation of poisonous principle 5. Oil is then filtered and this oil with 1% acidity is used for medical purpose.
  7. 7. Therapeutic uses :- 1. Castor oil is used as a cathartic. 2. It also used for lubrication commercially. 3. Castor oil can be used as an irritant/simulative laxative. 4. Castor oil is a natural emollient Identification Tests About 5 ml of light petroleum (50° to 60°) when mixed with 10 ml of castor oil at 15.5° shows a clear solution,
  8. 8. Ispaghula Synonyms:- Isapgol, Isabgol Biological source:- It consists of dried seeds of the plant known as Plantago ovata Forskal. Family:- Plantaginaceae Morphological characters: Chemical Constituent :- • Ispaghula seeds contain about 10% mucilage • It consists of pentosan and aldobionic acid. • Protein and fixed oil are present in endosperm and embryo Color Pinkish-grey or brown Odor None Taste Mucilaginous, Size Length : 10 to 35 mm Width: 1 to 1.75 mm
  9. 9. Therapeutic uses :- • It is also useful in dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, in cases of duodenal ulcers and piles. • It works effectively as a soothing agent. • The husk are used as demulcent, laxatives and emollient. • It used as the treatment of chronic construction amoebic and bacillary dysentery. • Ispaghula is used in the treatment of constipation. Chemical Tests Ispaghula seeds when treated with ruthenium red give red color due to the presence of mucilage.
  10. 10. Senna Leaves Synonyms:-Tinnevelly Senna, Indian Senna Biological source:- It consist of dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia. Family:-Leguminosae Chemical Constituents:- • It consists not less than 2.0% • of hydroxyanthracene • derivatives calculated as sennoside B. • It contains anthraquinone derivatives. • The active constituents of the drug. They are sennosideA, sennosideB, sennoside C, and Sennoside D. • Senna Leaves also contains rhein, kaempferol, Aloe-emodin and isorhamnetin etc
  11. 11. Indian senna Alexandria senna
  12. 12. Therapeutic uses :-  Senna Leaves are used as laxatives.  It is an irritant purgative due to presence of anthraquinone derivatives.  It causes irritation of large intestine and have some griping effect.  They are prescribed along with carminatives.  Senna is stimulant cathartic and exerts its action by increasing the tone of the smooth muscles in large intestine. Chemical Test Borntrager test for anthraquinones 1. leaves are boiled with dilute sulphuric acid and filtered. 2. To the filtrate organic solvent like benzene, ether or chloroform is added and shaken. 3. organic layer is separated, and to it add ammonia solution. 4. The ammoniacal layer produces pink to red colour indicating the presence of anthraquinone glycoside.

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