2. • The drugs are loose the bowels
(Intestine) or the drugs producing
• Laxatives are indicated in constipation
and in evacuation of the bowel, prior to
diagnostic procedure or surgery.
3. Synonyms:- Aloe, Aloevera
Biological source:- It is the dried juice of the leaves of Aloe
barbadensis Miller. (Curacao aloes)
Aloes contain a yellow coloured crystalline substance known
as barbaloin (C-glycoside) resin and aloe-emodin.
• Aloe emodin
Color Bright yellow-ish or rich reddish
brown to black.
Size Various Size
4. Therapeutic uses:
It used as irritant purgative
It is used as laxative
It use for cosmetic and protective
It also used for treatment of radiation burns.
Promotes oral health.
Relieves anal fissures
5. Castor oil Synonyms:- Oleum Ricini
Biological Source:- It is the fixed oil obtained by the cold
expression of the kernels of seeds of Ricinus communis.
Color Pale yellow or almost colourless
Taste Slighthly acrid
Triglyceride of ricinoleic acid, fatty acids.
Isoricinoleic, linoleic, stearic and isostearic
1. The oil is obtained by two ways; either after
the removal of the seed coat or with the seed
2. Seed coats are removed by crushing the seeds
under the grooved rollers and then they are
subjected to a current of air to blow the testas.
3. The kernels are fed in oil expellers and at
room temperature they are expressed with 1 to
2 tons pressure per square inch till about 30%
oil is obtained.
4. The oil is filtered, steamed 80–100°C to
facilitate the coagulation and precipitation of
5. Oil is then filtered and this oil with 1% acidity
is used for medical purpose.
7. Therapeutic uses :-
1. Castor oil is used as a cathartic.
2. It also used for lubrication
3. Castor oil can be used as an
4. Castor oil is a natural emollient
About 5 ml of light petroleum (50° to
60°) when mixed with 10 ml of castor
oil at 15.5° shows a clear solution,
8. Ispaghula Synonyms:- Isapgol, Isabgol
Biological source:- It consists of dried seeds of the
plant known as Plantago ovata Forskal.
Chemical Constituent :-
• Ispaghula seeds contain about 10% mucilage
• It consists of pentosan and aldobionic acid.
• Protein and fixed oil are present in endosperm
Color Pinkish-grey or brown
Size Length : 10 to 35 mm Width: 1 to 1.75
9. Therapeutic uses :-
• It is also useful in dysentery, chronic diarrhoea,
in cases of duodenal ulcers and piles.
• It works effectively as a soothing agent.
• The husk are used as demulcent, laxatives and
• It used as the treatment of chronic construction
amoebic and bacillary dysentery.
• Ispaghula is used in the treatment of
Ispaghula seeds when
treated with ruthenium
red give red color due
to the presence of
10. Senna Leaves
Synonyms:-Tinnevelly Senna, Indian Senna
It consist of dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia.
• It consists not less than 2.0%
• of hydroxyanthracene
• derivatives calculated as sennoside B.
• It contains anthraquinone derivatives.
• The active constituents of the drug. They are sennosideA, sennosideB,
sennoside C, and Sennoside D.
• Senna Leaves also contains rhein, kaempferol, Aloe-emodin and isorhamnetin
12. Therapeutic uses :-
Senna Leaves are used as laxatives.
It is an irritant purgative due to
presence of anthraquinone derivatives.
It causes irritation of large intestine and
have some griping effect.
They are prescribed along with
Senna is stimulant cathartic and exerts
its action by increasing the tone of the
smooth muscles in large intestine.
Borntrager test for anthraquinones
1. leaves are boiled with dilute sulphuric
acid and filtered.
2. To the filtrate organic solvent like
benzene, ether or chloroform is added
3. organic layer is separated, and to it add
4. The ammoniacal layer produces pink to
red colour indicating the presence of