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Assessing and Changing School
Culture and Climate :
Chapter 9
Presented by:
Siti Khalijah binti Zainol
2013977165
Preview
• School culture and school climate are critical elements in
determining the success of a school.
• School can create cultures that encourage learning and
improvement among all participants.
• School climate is relatively enduring quality of the school
environment.
The School Workplace
• Organizational culture and organizational climate are
the two concepts that captured the researchers’
attention.
• The approaches to examine the collective identity of
the workplace come from different intellectual
traditions.
Scholars of Organizational Culture
• Use qualitative and ethnographic
technique of anthropology and sociology
• Interested in thick, rich descriptions
• Understanding how the elements of
culture fit together
• Use quantitative techniques and multivariate analyses.
• Their background and training are more likely to be in
multivariate statistics and psychology.
• The researchers are more interested in how climate
influences organizational outcomes.
• The goal : to determine effective strategies of change and
the impacts to organization.
Scholars of Organizational Climate
What is Organizational Culture?
 Organizational culture : the behaviour of humans who are part
of an organization.
 The groups have certain things that are shared or held in
common that make them generally accepted.
 The shared element : customs, rituals, traditions of the
organizations, values and norms.
 Shared orientation that binds the organization together and
gives it a distinctive identity. (Hoy & miskel, 2008)
Levels of culture :
Tacit assumptions
- Nature of human nature
- Nature of interaction
- Nature of reality
- Nature of knowledge
- Relationship to colleagues
- Relationship to environment
Core values
- Trust
- Authenticity
- Commitment
- Teamwork
- Collaboration
Shared Norms
- Never criticize colleagues
- Stick together as a group
- Handle your own discipline
- Help students after school
Artifacts
- Stories
- Myths and legends
- Icons
- Rituals
abstract
concrete
Deep
Superficial
Culture as Tacit Assumptions
• The most abstract level.
• Taught to new member when the pattern considered
valid
• What to pay attention to, what things mean, how to
react, what actions to take in different situation
(Schein, 1992)
Considerations of Strong Culture
The school can be considered has a strong culture by these
following basic assumptions:
1. Relationships among teachers are primarily group
oriented and shared decisions are determined through
debate.
2. Teachers are highly motivated and competent.
3. All teacher are evaluated by the same fair standards.
4. Teachers view the school as a big family.
Tacit Assumptions : Problem
• Any challenge or questioning may lead to anxiety and
defensiveness. Change is very difficult.
• Scheins (1992, 1999) : the shared basic assumptions making up
the culture of a group can be conceived of –at both the
individual and group levels-as psychological defense
mechanism that protect the individual and group and permit
them to function.
• Distortions of information are quite possible because the basic
assumptions are always unconscious.
Culture as Core Values
• Values – abstract conceptions of the desirable
• Shared values – the basic character and identity of
the school
• Values are on higher level than norms
- common expectations of how teachers
should behave
Values Norms
Deals with ideals
and ends.
Deal with the
specific means to
achieve those ends.
Define on the ends
of human conduct.
Distinguish the
legitimate and
illegitimate means to
accomplish those
ends
School culture
• Schools develop their own culture
• Develop a core of common value that
member embrace and guide their behavior
• In strong culture - core values are held
intensely, shared widely and guide
organizational behaviour
• must be consistent with authentic principal
practices
Culture as Shared Norms
• Norms are expectations, not behavior
• Norms – unwritten and informal expectations
that people learn as they become socialized.
• Universal and guide group activity.
• Communicated to members by stories and
significant events in the school’s history.
• Norms influence the way teachers dress and interact
• In brief – norms are the informal rules that govern
behaviour in schools
• Norms are enforced by such informal sanctions as
invitations to participate in special events and
ostracism
Culture as Artifacts
• The most basic and concrete level
• Include - physical environment
- language
- activities
- ceremonies
- Types of artifacts – stories
- myths
- legends
- icons
- rituals
- Although artifacts are easy to observe, they are
sometimes difficult to decipher
Functions of Culture
1. Creates distinctions among organizations
2. Provides sense of identity
3. Facilitates the development of commitment to the
group
4. Enhance stability in the social system
5. Social glue that binds the organization together
6. Guide and shape the attitudes and behavior of
organizational members
Common Elements of Culture
1. Innovation : be creative and take risk
2. Stability : focus on the status quo rather than change
3. Attention to detail : concern for precision and detail
4. Outcome orientation : emphasizes result
5. People orientation : sensitive to individuals
6. Team orientation : collaboration and teamwork
7. Aggressiveness : competitive rather than easygoing
The Heart of Learning Culture
 Teachers and students are proactive
 Knowledge is found in many forms
 Teachers have good intentions and flexible to change and
improvement
 Creative and innovative to student learning
 Individualism and teamwork are important aspect
 Information and communication are central
 Diversity is a resource that has the potential to enhance learning
 Productive learning is enhance by challenge and support
A Culture of Academic Optimism
Collective set of beliefs about strengths and
school capabilities
 3 Aspects of academic optimism:
 collective efficacy : the faculty believes in itself
 faculty trust in students and parents: teachers, parents and
students cooperate to improve learning
 academic emphasis : the faculty focuses on student success
in academics
Ways to Build Academic Optimism
• Improve the component parts
• Create school conditions in which teachers believe in
themselves and so are their students
• Celebrate the achievements of students and faculty
especially the academic ones
School Climate
• refers to teachers’ perceptions of the school’s work
environment.
• Affected by the formal organization, informal
organization and politics
• The set of internal characteristics that
distinguishes one school from another and
influence the behaviour of its members
Organizational Climate : Open to Closed
• The best-known conceptualization and measurement of the
organizational climate was developed by Andrew W. Halpin and Don B.
Croft (1962)
• An Open School Climate is characterized by teacher relations that are
professional, collegial, friendly, and committed to the education of
students. The principal is supportive and professional and does not
restrict or direct teachers with orders.
• An Open School Climate is characterized by teacher relations that are
professional, collegial, friendly, and committed to the education of
students. The principal is supportive and professional and does not
restrict or direct teachers with orders.
Organizational Climate Frameworks
Four School Climate Frameworks:
• The Openness of Interpersonal Relations
measured by the OCDQ – principal behavior
- teachers’ behaviour
• The Health of Interpersonal Relations measured by
the OHI
• Openness and Health Synthesis measured by the OCI
• A Climate of Citizenship measured by the OCB
Dimensions of Organizational Climate
Dimensions of the OCDQ for Elementary Schools
Principal’s Behaviour : principal’s style of interacting with teachers
Supportive—reflects a concern for teachers, is open to suggestions, respects
teachers’ professional competence. Praise is genuine and frequent and criticism is
constructive.
The principal uses constructive criticism.
The principal listens to and accepts teachers’ suggestions.
Directive—maintains close and constant control over all teacher and school activities.
The principal rules with an iron fist.
The principal monitors everything teachers do.
Restrictive—Hinders rather than facilitates teacher work; burdens with busywork.
•Routine duties interfere with the job of teaching.
•Teachers have too many committee requirements
Teachers’ behaviour
• Collegial behaviour : supportive professionalism among teachers.
They are pleased with the school and support each other.
• Intimate behaviour : close personal relationship among teachers
(inside and outside school)
• Disengaged behaviour : general sense of alienation and
separation among teachers in the school. They are not productive in
group efforts or team building
Sample Items for Each Dimension of the OCDQ-RE
Principal Behaviour Teacher Behaviour
Supportive Behaviour
o The principal uses constructive critism
o The principal compliment teachers
o The principal listens to and accepts teachers’
suggestions
Collegial Behaviour
o Teachers help and support each other
o Teachers respect the professional
competence of their collegues
o Teachers accomplish their work with vim,
vigor and pleasure
Directive Behaviour
o The principal monitors everything teachers
do
o The principal rules with an iron first
o The principal checks lesson plans
Intimate Behaviour
o Teachers socialize with each other
o Teachers’ closet friends are other faculty
members at this school
o Teachers have parties for each other
Restrictive Behaviour
o Teachers are burdened with busywork
o Routine duties interfere with the job of
teaching
o Teachers have too many committer
requirements
Disengaged Behaviour
o Faculty meetings are useless
o There is a minority group of teachers who
always oppose the majority
o Teachers ramble when they talk at faculty
meetings
Climate Types
open Engaged Disengaged Closed
- Cooperation and
respect between
the faculty and
principal
- Principals listen
and open to
teachers’
suggestion
- Principals give
freedom to the
teachers
- Teachers know
each other well
and committed to
their work
- Ineffective
attempts of the
principals to
control
- The principal is
rigid and
autocratic
- The principal
hinders the
teachers with
burdensome
activities and
busywork
- Teachers ignore
the principals
behavior and
conduct
themselves as
professionals
- The principal
behaviour is
open, concerned and
supportive
- The principal listens
and gives faculty
freedom to act and
relieves most of the
burdensome
- The faculty is
unwilling to accept
the principal
- Teachers do not
respects each other
and disengaged form
task
- Ineffective attempts of
the principals to
control
- The principal is rigid
and autocratic
- The principal hinders
the teachers with
burdensome activities
and busywork
- Teachers ignore the
principals behavior
and conduct
themselves as
professionals
Health of Organizational Climate
School Climate: Healthy to Unhealthy
• A Healthy School Climate
- teachers are protected from disruptive outside forces.
- The principal has influence with superiors, gets needed resources, and has an
integrated leadership style that is concerned with both the task at hand and the
social well being of teachers.
- Morale is high and there is a general press for academic achievement by
teachers, parents, and students.
• A Unhealthy School Climate
- vulnerable to disruptive outside forces.
- The principal has little influence with superiors, resources are scarce, and the
principal neither sets direction nor is supports teachers.
- Morale is poor and there is limited attention to academic matters because the
teacher have given up.
OHI-Dimensions
Institutional Integrity-describes a school that is not vulnerable to narrow, vested interests from the
community. The school is able to cope well with outside destructive forces.
Principal Influence-refers to the principal’s ability to affect the action of superiors. The influential principal
works successfully with the superintendent for the benefit of teachers.
Consideration-behaviour by the principal that is friendly, supportive, open, and collegial.
Initiating Structure-behaviour by the principal that is task and achievement oriented. The principal makes his
expectations clear and maintains standards of performance.
Resource Support-refers provisions at the school where adequate classroom supplies and instructional
materials are available and extra materials are easily obtained.
Morale- a collective sense of friendliness, openness and trust within the faculty. The teachers form an
enthusiast unit about teaching
Academic Emphasis- the extent to which the school is driven by a quest for academic excellence. High but
attainable standards of academic performances are set
Sample Items for Each Dimension of the OHI
Institutional Level (School)
Institutional Integrity
 Teachers are protected from unreasonable community and parental demands
 The school is open to the whims of the public
Managerial Level (Administration)
Principal Influence
 The principal is able to influence the actions of his or her superiors
 The principal is impeded by superiors
Consideration
 The principal is friendly and approachable
 The principal is impeded by superiors
Initiating Structure
 The principal lets faculty members know what is expected of them
 The principal maintains definite standards of performance
Resource Support
 Teachers receive necessary classroom supplies
 Supplementary materials are available for classroom use
Technical Level (Teachers)
Morale
 There is a feeling of trust and confidence among the staff
 Teachers in this school are cool and aloof to each other
Academic Emphasis
 The learning environment is orderly and serious
 This school set high standards for academic performance
Organizational Health Inventory (OHI-S)
- is a descriptive questionnaire
- administered to the professional staff of the school, and teachers
are asked to describe the extent to which each item characterizes
their school along a four-point scale: rarely occurs,
sometimes occurs, often occurs and very
frequently occurs
Healthy School Climate vs Unhealthy School Climate
Changing School Climate
Some assumptions about change in schools (Hoy & Tarter, 1997)
1. Change is a characteristic of all organizations
- Change cab be random or a resource for improvement, but it cannot be eliminated
2. Change has direction
- Change can be progressive or regressive or aimless
3. Organizational learning is possible
- Schools can develop their own learning processes to solve their problems. Principals and
teachers have the potential to learn how to solve problems together
4. Schools can be learning organizations
- Schools can become places where professionals can continually expand their capacity to
create the results that they desire
Strategy to develop healthy and open learning organizations
1. Identify the problem – discrepancies in the climate profiles
2. Establish a problem-solving team – to change climate, teachers
must be involved
3. The team takes on the problem – teachers examine the data with
the principal and express a willingness to resolve the troubling issues
4. Diagnosis of the problem – the team diagnoses the causes of the
problem
5. Develop an action plan – the team develops an action plan by
examining alternatives and consequences
6. Implement action plan – put the plan into action
7. Evaluate – assess the consequences of the plan by collecting new
data and evaluating discrepancies
Conclusion:
1. School’s cultures have 4 levels – artifacts, shared norms, core values and tacit
assumptions.
2. Artifacts are more concrete and tacit assumptions are more abstract.
3. Academic optimism creates a culture with a collective beliefs and norms.
4. School climate is a relatively enduring quality of the school environment that is
experiences by teachers, influences their behavior and is based on their collective
perceptions
5. School climate was conceptualized and measured from two perspectives
- OCDQ : measure the openness of interactions among teachers and
administrators
- OHI : an inventory to gauge the health of the interactions among
teachers, students and administrators
6. Organizations are in a constant state of flux
7. Schools can develop their own learning procedures to solve their
problems

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Assessing and changing school culture and climate

  • 1. Assessing and Changing School Culture and Climate : Chapter 9 Presented by: Siti Khalijah binti Zainol 2013977165
  • 2. Preview • School culture and school climate are critical elements in determining the success of a school. • School can create cultures that encourage learning and improvement among all participants. • School climate is relatively enduring quality of the school environment.
  • 3. The School Workplace • Organizational culture and organizational climate are the two concepts that captured the researchers’ attention. • The approaches to examine the collective identity of the workplace come from different intellectual traditions.
  • 4. Scholars of Organizational Culture • Use qualitative and ethnographic technique of anthropology and sociology • Interested in thick, rich descriptions • Understanding how the elements of culture fit together
  • 5. • Use quantitative techniques and multivariate analyses. • Their background and training are more likely to be in multivariate statistics and psychology. • The researchers are more interested in how climate influences organizational outcomes. • The goal : to determine effective strategies of change and the impacts to organization. Scholars of Organizational Climate
  • 6. What is Organizational Culture?  Organizational culture : the behaviour of humans who are part of an organization.  The groups have certain things that are shared or held in common that make them generally accepted.  The shared element : customs, rituals, traditions of the organizations, values and norms.  Shared orientation that binds the organization together and gives it a distinctive identity. (Hoy & miskel, 2008)
  • 7. Levels of culture : Tacit assumptions - Nature of human nature - Nature of interaction - Nature of reality - Nature of knowledge - Relationship to colleagues - Relationship to environment Core values - Trust - Authenticity - Commitment - Teamwork - Collaboration Shared Norms - Never criticize colleagues - Stick together as a group - Handle your own discipline - Help students after school Artifacts - Stories - Myths and legends - Icons - Rituals abstract concrete Deep Superficial
  • 8. Culture as Tacit Assumptions • The most abstract level. • Taught to new member when the pattern considered valid • What to pay attention to, what things mean, how to react, what actions to take in different situation (Schein, 1992)
  • 9. Considerations of Strong Culture The school can be considered has a strong culture by these following basic assumptions: 1. Relationships among teachers are primarily group oriented and shared decisions are determined through debate. 2. Teachers are highly motivated and competent. 3. All teacher are evaluated by the same fair standards. 4. Teachers view the school as a big family.
  • 10. Tacit Assumptions : Problem • Any challenge or questioning may lead to anxiety and defensiveness. Change is very difficult. • Scheins (1992, 1999) : the shared basic assumptions making up the culture of a group can be conceived of –at both the individual and group levels-as psychological defense mechanism that protect the individual and group and permit them to function. • Distortions of information are quite possible because the basic assumptions are always unconscious.
  • 11. Culture as Core Values • Values – abstract conceptions of the desirable • Shared values – the basic character and identity of the school • Values are on higher level than norms - common expectations of how teachers should behave
  • 12. Values Norms Deals with ideals and ends. Deal with the specific means to achieve those ends. Define on the ends of human conduct. Distinguish the legitimate and illegitimate means to accomplish those ends
  • 13. School culture • Schools develop their own culture • Develop a core of common value that member embrace and guide their behavior • In strong culture - core values are held intensely, shared widely and guide organizational behaviour • must be consistent with authentic principal practices
  • 14. Culture as Shared Norms • Norms are expectations, not behavior • Norms – unwritten and informal expectations that people learn as they become socialized. • Universal and guide group activity. • Communicated to members by stories and significant events in the school’s history.
  • 15. • Norms influence the way teachers dress and interact • In brief – norms are the informal rules that govern behaviour in schools • Norms are enforced by such informal sanctions as invitations to participate in special events and ostracism
  • 16. Culture as Artifacts • The most basic and concrete level • Include - physical environment - language - activities - ceremonies - Types of artifacts – stories - myths - legends - icons - rituals - Although artifacts are easy to observe, they are sometimes difficult to decipher
  • 17. Functions of Culture 1. Creates distinctions among organizations 2. Provides sense of identity 3. Facilitates the development of commitment to the group 4. Enhance stability in the social system 5. Social glue that binds the organization together 6. Guide and shape the attitudes and behavior of organizational members
  • 18. Common Elements of Culture 1. Innovation : be creative and take risk 2. Stability : focus on the status quo rather than change 3. Attention to detail : concern for precision and detail 4. Outcome orientation : emphasizes result 5. People orientation : sensitive to individuals 6. Team orientation : collaboration and teamwork 7. Aggressiveness : competitive rather than easygoing
  • 19. The Heart of Learning Culture  Teachers and students are proactive  Knowledge is found in many forms  Teachers have good intentions and flexible to change and improvement  Creative and innovative to student learning  Individualism and teamwork are important aspect  Information and communication are central  Diversity is a resource that has the potential to enhance learning  Productive learning is enhance by challenge and support
  • 20. A Culture of Academic Optimism Collective set of beliefs about strengths and school capabilities  3 Aspects of academic optimism:  collective efficacy : the faculty believes in itself  faculty trust in students and parents: teachers, parents and students cooperate to improve learning  academic emphasis : the faculty focuses on student success in academics
  • 21. Ways to Build Academic Optimism • Improve the component parts • Create school conditions in which teachers believe in themselves and so are their students • Celebrate the achievements of students and faculty especially the academic ones
  • 22. School Climate • refers to teachers’ perceptions of the school’s work environment. • Affected by the formal organization, informal organization and politics • The set of internal characteristics that distinguishes one school from another and influence the behaviour of its members
  • 23. Organizational Climate : Open to Closed • The best-known conceptualization and measurement of the organizational climate was developed by Andrew W. Halpin and Don B. Croft (1962) • An Open School Climate is characterized by teacher relations that are professional, collegial, friendly, and committed to the education of students. The principal is supportive and professional and does not restrict or direct teachers with orders. • An Open School Climate is characterized by teacher relations that are professional, collegial, friendly, and committed to the education of students. The principal is supportive and professional and does not restrict or direct teachers with orders.
  • 24. Organizational Climate Frameworks Four School Climate Frameworks: • The Openness of Interpersonal Relations measured by the OCDQ – principal behavior - teachers’ behaviour • The Health of Interpersonal Relations measured by the OHI • Openness and Health Synthesis measured by the OCI • A Climate of Citizenship measured by the OCB
  • 25. Dimensions of Organizational Climate Dimensions of the OCDQ for Elementary Schools Principal’s Behaviour : principal’s style of interacting with teachers Supportive—reflects a concern for teachers, is open to suggestions, respects teachers’ professional competence. Praise is genuine and frequent and criticism is constructive. The principal uses constructive criticism. The principal listens to and accepts teachers’ suggestions. Directive—maintains close and constant control over all teacher and school activities. The principal rules with an iron fist. The principal monitors everything teachers do. Restrictive—Hinders rather than facilitates teacher work; burdens with busywork. •Routine duties interfere with the job of teaching. •Teachers have too many committee requirements
  • 26. Teachers’ behaviour • Collegial behaviour : supportive professionalism among teachers. They are pleased with the school and support each other. • Intimate behaviour : close personal relationship among teachers (inside and outside school) • Disengaged behaviour : general sense of alienation and separation among teachers in the school. They are not productive in group efforts or team building
  • 27. Sample Items for Each Dimension of the OCDQ-RE Principal Behaviour Teacher Behaviour Supportive Behaviour o The principal uses constructive critism o The principal compliment teachers o The principal listens to and accepts teachers’ suggestions Collegial Behaviour o Teachers help and support each other o Teachers respect the professional competence of their collegues o Teachers accomplish their work with vim, vigor and pleasure Directive Behaviour o The principal monitors everything teachers do o The principal rules with an iron first o The principal checks lesson plans Intimate Behaviour o Teachers socialize with each other o Teachers’ closet friends are other faculty members at this school o Teachers have parties for each other Restrictive Behaviour o Teachers are burdened with busywork o Routine duties interfere with the job of teaching o Teachers have too many committer requirements Disengaged Behaviour o Faculty meetings are useless o There is a minority group of teachers who always oppose the majority o Teachers ramble when they talk at faculty meetings
  • 28. Climate Types open Engaged Disengaged Closed - Cooperation and respect between the faculty and principal - Principals listen and open to teachers’ suggestion - Principals give freedom to the teachers - Teachers know each other well and committed to their work - Ineffective attempts of the principals to control - The principal is rigid and autocratic - The principal hinders the teachers with burdensome activities and busywork - Teachers ignore the principals behavior and conduct themselves as professionals - The principal behaviour is open, concerned and supportive - The principal listens and gives faculty freedom to act and relieves most of the burdensome - The faculty is unwilling to accept the principal - Teachers do not respects each other and disengaged form task - Ineffective attempts of the principals to control - The principal is rigid and autocratic - The principal hinders the teachers with burdensome activities and busywork - Teachers ignore the principals behavior and conduct themselves as professionals
  • 29. Health of Organizational Climate School Climate: Healthy to Unhealthy • A Healthy School Climate - teachers are protected from disruptive outside forces. - The principal has influence with superiors, gets needed resources, and has an integrated leadership style that is concerned with both the task at hand and the social well being of teachers. - Morale is high and there is a general press for academic achievement by teachers, parents, and students. • A Unhealthy School Climate - vulnerable to disruptive outside forces. - The principal has little influence with superiors, resources are scarce, and the principal neither sets direction nor is supports teachers. - Morale is poor and there is limited attention to academic matters because the teacher have given up.
  • 30. OHI-Dimensions Institutional Integrity-describes a school that is not vulnerable to narrow, vested interests from the community. The school is able to cope well with outside destructive forces. Principal Influence-refers to the principal’s ability to affect the action of superiors. The influential principal works successfully with the superintendent for the benefit of teachers. Consideration-behaviour by the principal that is friendly, supportive, open, and collegial. Initiating Structure-behaviour by the principal that is task and achievement oriented. The principal makes his expectations clear and maintains standards of performance. Resource Support-refers provisions at the school where adequate classroom supplies and instructional materials are available and extra materials are easily obtained. Morale- a collective sense of friendliness, openness and trust within the faculty. The teachers form an enthusiast unit about teaching Academic Emphasis- the extent to which the school is driven by a quest for academic excellence. High but attainable standards of academic performances are set
  • 31. Sample Items for Each Dimension of the OHI Institutional Level (School) Institutional Integrity  Teachers are protected from unreasonable community and parental demands  The school is open to the whims of the public Managerial Level (Administration) Principal Influence  The principal is able to influence the actions of his or her superiors  The principal is impeded by superiors Consideration  The principal is friendly and approachable  The principal is impeded by superiors Initiating Structure  The principal lets faculty members know what is expected of them  The principal maintains definite standards of performance Resource Support  Teachers receive necessary classroom supplies  Supplementary materials are available for classroom use Technical Level (Teachers) Morale  There is a feeling of trust and confidence among the staff  Teachers in this school are cool and aloof to each other Academic Emphasis  The learning environment is orderly and serious  This school set high standards for academic performance
  • 32. Organizational Health Inventory (OHI-S) - is a descriptive questionnaire - administered to the professional staff of the school, and teachers are asked to describe the extent to which each item characterizes their school along a four-point scale: rarely occurs, sometimes occurs, often occurs and very frequently occurs
  • 33. Healthy School Climate vs Unhealthy School Climate
  • 34. Changing School Climate Some assumptions about change in schools (Hoy & Tarter, 1997) 1. Change is a characteristic of all organizations - Change cab be random or a resource for improvement, but it cannot be eliminated 2. Change has direction - Change can be progressive or regressive or aimless 3. Organizational learning is possible - Schools can develop their own learning processes to solve their problems. Principals and teachers have the potential to learn how to solve problems together 4. Schools can be learning organizations - Schools can become places where professionals can continually expand their capacity to create the results that they desire
  • 35. Strategy to develop healthy and open learning organizations 1. Identify the problem – discrepancies in the climate profiles 2. Establish a problem-solving team – to change climate, teachers must be involved 3. The team takes on the problem – teachers examine the data with the principal and express a willingness to resolve the troubling issues 4. Diagnosis of the problem – the team diagnoses the causes of the problem 5. Develop an action plan – the team develops an action plan by examining alternatives and consequences 6. Implement action plan – put the plan into action 7. Evaluate – assess the consequences of the plan by collecting new data and evaluating discrepancies
  • 36. Conclusion: 1. School’s cultures have 4 levels – artifacts, shared norms, core values and tacit assumptions. 2. Artifacts are more concrete and tacit assumptions are more abstract. 3. Academic optimism creates a culture with a collective beliefs and norms. 4. School climate is a relatively enduring quality of the school environment that is experiences by teachers, influences their behavior and is based on their collective perceptions 5. School climate was conceptualized and measured from two perspectives - OCDQ : measure the openness of interactions among teachers and administrators - OHI : an inventory to gauge the health of the interactions among teachers, students and administrators 6. Organizations are in a constant state of flux 7. Schools can develop their own learning procedures to solve their problems