Historical Foundations of Curriculum in the Philippines
Education in the
Before 1521 Education before the coming of
1521-1896 Education during the Spanish
1896-1899 Education during the Philippine
1898-1935 Education during the American
1935-1941 Education during the Philippine
1941-1944 Education during the Japanese
(Pre-Spanish Period) Education
•No formal schools
•Learning began at home
•Oral, practical, hands on
•Reading, ‘riting, ‘rithmetic (3r’s)
•The objective was basically to promote
reverence for, and adoration of Bathala,
respect for laws, customs, and authorities
represented by parents and elders.
Education During the Spanish Regime
-establishment of schools in the country
•Friars - established parochial
schools linked with churches to
teach catechism to the natives.
- goal is to spread
•Religion (Christian Doctrine) –
was a compulsory subject at all
• Education was privileged only to Spanish
• 19th century – public education for the
• Educational decree of 1863 – required the
establishment of one primary school for
girls and one for boys in each major town
of the country.
• Establishment of the normal school for the
training of teachers.
• Spanish Language – medium of instruction in
Problems faced during the period
• Absence of systematic government supervision of
•Over emphasis on religion.
•Limited and Irrelevant Curriculum
•Lack of trained teachers
(150 teacher-missionaries to instruct over
half a million inhabitants)
•Obsolete Teaching Methods.
• Poor classroom facilities
• Inadequate instructional materials.
• Racial discrimination against Filipino
• Absence of academic freedom.
Because of need, higher level
schools were established much later
by virtue of royal decrees.
Subjects: Based on the Royal Decree of
•Languages(Latin, Spanish grammar and literature,
elementary Greek, French and English)
•History( Universal, Spanish)
•Mathematics(Arithmetic, Algebra, Trigonometry,
•Philosophy (Rhetoric, Logic, Ethics)
•Ilustrados - spearheaded the
1. Secularization of education.
2. Instruction of Spanish.
3. Greater attention to natural science.
4. The design of a relevant curriculum.
5. Improvement of higher center of
6. Improvement of educational system.
»Jose Rizal - criticized unequivocally the friars’
method of instruction in his two novels Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo.
1. Disproportionate focus on religion.
2. Discourage the attempt of Filipino students to
speak in Spanish.
3. Lack of pedagogical skills.
4. Irrelevant courses in the curriculum.
To improve the existing curriculum, Rizal considered the
ff. Subjects as required courses in secondary schools.
•Education – priority during the
•August 29, 1898 – schools were
re-opened by the Secretary
of the Interior.
•Free and compulsory primary
•Secondary Education – Burgos
Institute in Malolos.
•Tertiary Education – Literary
University in the Philippines.
•The Americans used education as a
vehicle for its program benevolent
•Restore damaged school houses, build
new ones and conduct classes.
•American teachers infused their
students the spirit of democracy
and progress as well as fair play.
•January 1901 – Taft Commission Act.
• Act no. 74 – established the Philippine
Public School System.
• Volunteer American Soldiers
• Thomasites – USS Thomas
• August 23, 1901
• 365 males and 165 females.
• 3 levels of Education during the
• English language
• Filipino Pensionados
Most important Colleges during American rule
• Philippine Normal
• University of the
• Siliman University
• Centro Escolar de Señoritas
• Philippine Women’s
•Americans discarded the religious bias.
•Educational Act of 1901- Separation of Church
and State in education.
•Encourage Filipino in the field of teaching.
•Outstanding Filipino scholars were sent to US to
train as teachers.
•Intensive teaching of
•Government established NORMAL SCHOOL for future
>Methods of teaching >science
>Practice teaching >history and government
>Psychology > social sciences
>Mathematics > P.E
•All schools should develop moral
character, personal discipline,
civic conscience and
•Promote effective participation
of the citizens in the
processes of a democratic
• National Council of Education
•Educational Act of 1940
•6 basic principles of japanese Education
1. Realization of NEW ORDER and promote friendly
relations between Japan and the Philippines to the
2. Foster a new Filipino culture based
3. Endeavor to elevate the morals of people, giving
up over emphasis of materialism
4. Diffusion of the Japanese language in the
5. Promotion of VOCATIONAL course
6. To inspire people with the spirit of love and labor
•School calendar became longer
•No summer vacation for students
•Class size increased to 60
•Deleted anti-asian opinions, banned the singing of
american songs, deleted american symbols, poems
•Nihongo as a means of introducing and cultivvating
love for Japanese culture
Spanish- Reign for 300 years
American- 50 years
Japanese- about four years
•It is thus not surprising that despite the measure
they had instituted, the Japanese failed to succeed in
transforming the values and attitudes of the people in
line with their vision of the NEW ORDER.
•A contributory factor was widely reported brutalities
that ushered in the Japanese occupation that the
filipinos did not experience with the same degree
during the American period
After World War II
In 1947, by the virtue of Executive Order No. 94, the
Department of Instruction was changed to
"Department of Education." During this period, the
regulation and supervision of public and private
schools belonged to the Bureau of Public and Private
Education after 1940
• The objective of the Philippine Education was to
established “integrated, nationalistic, and
democracy- inspired educational system”
included the ff.
1. Inculcate moral and spiritual values inspired by
an abiding faith in God
2. To develop an enlighten, patriotic, useful and
upright citizenry in a democratic society
3. Conservation of the national resources
4. Perpetuation of our desirable values
5. Promote the science, arts and letters
•Great experiments in the community school and the use
of vernacular in the first two grades of the primary
schools as the medium of instruction were some of
•An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in
the Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of school
and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V.
Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that
Memorandum No. 30, 1966 sets the order of priority in
the purchase of books for use in the schools were as
Books which are contributions to Phil. Literature
Books on character education and other library materials
Library equipment and permanent features
Martial Law period
• The Department of Education became the
Department of Education and Culture in 1972,
the Ministry of Education and Culture in 1978,
and with the Education Act of 1982, the
Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports.
• A bilingual education scheme was established
in 1974, requiring Filipino and English to be
used in schools.
• Science and math subjects as well as English
language and literature classes were taught in
English while the rest were taught in Filipino.
From 1986 to the present
• The bilingual policy in education was reiterated in
the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines.
• (EDCOM), Congress passed Republic Act 7722 and
Republic Act 7796 in 1994, creating
theCommission on Higher Education (CHED) and
the Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA). The institute governing basic
education was thus renamed in 2001 as
the Department of Education (DepEd).
• The quality of public school education is generally
considered to have declined since the post-war
years, mainly due to insufficient funds. The
Department of Education aims to address the
major problems affecting public education by
• Private schools are able to offer better facilities
and education, but are also much more
expensive. There is a wide variety of private
schools, including all-boys’ and all-girls’ schools,
religious schools, non-sectarian schools, Chinese
schools, special schools, and international
schools. Due to economic difficulties, there has
been a recent increase in the popularity of home
schooling and open universities in the Philippines.
Enhance Basic Education Act of 2013
(K to 12)
•PRO’S OF K to 12
•At par with international 12 year basic
•Pursue protective employment,
entrepreneurship and higher
•Graduates is expected to be equipped
with 21st century skills.
Enhance Basic Education Act of 2013
(K to 12)
•CON’S OF K to 12
•See’s as a burden for average filipino
•It does not address the basic problems
of education(classrooms,chairs, books
Bases of K to 12 implementation
•Mastery of basic competencies is
insufficient due to congested
•Philippines is the only remaining
country in asia with a 10 year basic
The K to 12 Curriculum
•Learn-centered, inclusive and
•Relevant responsive and Reseach based.
•Contextualized and global
•Use of pedagogical approaches that are
constructivist, inquiry based, reflective
collaborative and integrative.
•Adhere the principle of MOTHER TOUGUE-
BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION(MTB-MLE)
MOTHER TOUGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL
It starts from where the learners are
and from what they already knew
proceeding from the known to the
unknown; instructional materials and
capable teachers to implement the
MTB-MLE curriculum shall be
•Use of spiral progression approach to
ensure mastery of knowledge and skills
in every level
•Flexible enough to enable and allow
schools to localize, indigenize, and
enhance the same based on their
respective educational and social
The students after ongoing Senior High
School can choose among four tracks:
•Arts and Design track
Academic track includes the following
•Humanities and Social
•General Academic Strand (GAS)