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Approaches to discourse analysis 1
VIJAY K. BHATIA
JOHN FLOWERDEW
RODNEY H. JONES
M.bolouri9@gmail.com
Ch1 presented by M.Bolouri
Discourse analysis:
an interdisciplinary field of inquiry
a history of less than 50 years
extending the conventional boundaries of
linguistics.
the analysis of linguistic behavior, written
and spoken, beyond the limits of
individual sentences
focusing primarily on the meaning
constructed and interpreted as language
is used in particular social contexts
Two main ingredients of the definition:
1. Language can be analyzed not just on the level of the
phoneme/morpheme, the word, the clause or the sentence, but also
on the level of the text
2. language ought to be analyzed not as an abstract set or rules, but as
a tool for social action.
Early definition:
offshoot of linguistic analysis
focusing more on the ‘language as text
drawing on the work of early text analysts like Propp (1958) and
Jakobson (1937)
Current definition:
a focus on ‘language in use’
drawing on insights from sociology, psychology, semiotics,
Communication studies, rhetoric, as well as disciplines such as
business and marketing, accountancy, organizational studies, law and
information technology…
Development in the last 4 decades
it has attracted the attention not only of linguists and applied
linguists, but also
 socio-political theorists,
 sociologists,
 anthropologists,
computer experts,
 business and legal specialists,
 communication experts
different approaches, frameworks, procedures
and methodologies
with the aim of deriving insights for a variety of
purposes.
The roots of “lg in use” view
(departure from structuralist and cognitive paradigms
:  Wittgenstein (1951/1972), who saw language as a series of ‘games’
through which people construct ‘forms of life’, in relation to others and
their surroundings
 Austin’s publication1962 How to Do Things with Words: the study of
language should involve more than just its structure but also the way it is
used and the way social standards shape it.
 Foucault and Derrida made lg and discourse central to
understanding of social practice
 Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf in US and Michael
Halliday in Europe who were concerned with the relationship of
language to social actions and to the socio-cultural worlds of those who
use it
a macro-sociological level: transmit the social structure, the values, the
systems of knowledge, and patterns of the culture
a micro-sociological level: meanings are specific to particular contexts and
situations
Recent modes of communication
semiotic modes (pictures,
diagrams, gestures, colors,
differing fonts and their
sizes…)
computer mediated
communication
SMS messaging
1. Conversation analysis
 It was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s
 It has its roots in ethno methodology, a branch of sociology developed by
Harold Garfinkel (1967)
 It concerns itself with the basic competences and interpretative
processes members of a culture use to interact and interpret their
experience.
 Purpose: the description and explication of the
competences that ordinary speakers use and rely on in
participating in intelligible, socially organized interaction’.
 people’s lives should be studied only on their own terms without reference
to theoretical preconceptions.
 close analysis of people’s (often mundane) speech and actions
 CA’s guiding analytical principle: ‘Why that now?’
 Basic conception-adjacency pair: a pair of utterances that
are linguistically and socially ‘ related because they
accomplish particular social actions.
Cont.
 rules of conditional relevance: each utterance displaying a
particular understanding of the previous utterance and
creating the conditions for subsequent utterances
 It is based on naturally occurring and closely transcribed
conversational data.
 They regard observational data as prone to manipulation
by researchers or the subjects themselves.
 The difference btw linguistic ethnographers and
conversation analysis is
. the issue of context
(wide social context vs. moment by moment
constructed social context through
conversational moves)
2. Ethnography
 inspirations from anthropology and social psychology
 social context as the central aspect of communication.
 ‘ethnography of communication’ aims to provide a
description of how members of a particular community
are expected to perform linguistically in order to be
considered ‘competent’ members.
 the ability to use language in conjunction with social
practices and social identities in ways which others in the
community will recognize to perform a myriad of social
activities such as
 engaging in small talk Making transactions
 Joking Arguing
 Teasing warning.
Cont.
 Main purpose: the social world in terms of the ‘lived
experience’ of those who inhabit it.
 an emic approach to language, seeking to discover
patterns in language use based on the observation of
natural social events of native participants (Pike, 1967)
 Matter of selection: it involves a process of selection
based on the analyst’s practical concerns and
theoretical preoccupations.
 Data gathering typically involves: documenting,
describing and interpreting social practices
 through observation and analysis of a selection of
socio-linguistic behaviors.
 This selection invariably takes place in the fieldwork, and
often consists of what researchers finds interesting, and
of course, depends on what the subjects allow them to
Areas of decision making
 Process of selection: by the observers and the
ones being observed
 make use of a specific theory or framework within
which they select and interpret their
observations.
 Instruments:
1. observations structured
2. semi-structured interviews
3. focus group interviews
4. ‘lived narratives of experience’
ethnographic analysis
and language
relies relatively less on actual analysis of
linguistic data and more on text-external
social and contextual factors
view purely linguistic analysis of data as
less than satisfactory for understanding
language as it is used in social and
cultural contexts
3. Corpus-based discourse analysis
. It works with large amounts of machine-readable
text. It was initially used primarily in the fields of
lexicography and grammar.
 It represent language use in a variety of contexts, both
written as well as spoken, to draw insights from
observations about how people use language, both in
terms of lexico-grammar features and their functional
variations.
Developments in this field:
1. the size of corpora (insightful, effective and reliable)
pre-constructed phrases (idiom principle) vs. constraint encounter
‘open choice’ principle (Sinclair 1991)
the unit of analysis : shift from individual words to pre-constructed
phrases with special semantic preference and prosodies
2. useful in the study of language variations in specific
academic and professional genres. specialized corpora often
focus on one particular genre … or specific situation …
4. Multimodal discourse analysis
 It regards text as just one of the many modes of
communication available for social interaction
 Global flows of capital dissolve not only cultural and
political boundaries but also semiotic boundaries.
 multiculturalism, electronic media of communication,
technologies of transport and global economic
developments
 gestures, posture, proxemics, visual images, document
layout, music and architectural design

The difference btw traditional text-based
approaches to DA and the new multimodal
approach to DA:
1. the centrality of lg
2. blurring of boundaries among the
different semiotic dimensions (changes in
‘semiotic landscape’): new roles allocated
to language, image, page layout, document
design
3. it can also integrate various other
approaches to discourse analysis.
5. Genre analysis
 an extension of linguistic analysis to study functional
variation in the use of English in academic contexts
 Swales’ earliest work (1981) on research article
introductions marked the beginning of the genre analytical
model for a grounded description of academic research
genres. three main contextual categories of field, mode
and tenor of discourse to identify register but Swales
identified genre on the basis of its communicative
purpose
 Three different framework for G.A:
1. Swales(1990) consistency of communicative
purposes
2. Australian version regularities of staged, goal
oriented social processes
3American version: typification of rhetorical action
G.A definition:
 the study of situated linguistic behavior in
institutionalized academic or professional settings
 offer increasingly more complex (‘thicker’) descriptions of
language use
 taking analyses beyond mere linguistic descriptions to
offer explanation for specific uses of language in
conventionalized and institutionalized settings
 Recently a more comprehensive exploration of what
Bhatia (2004) specifies as ‘social space’ to raise a number
of other interesting issues, including some about the
integrity of generic descriptions
 three-space model for the analysis of discourse as genre:
1. social professional space,
2. social space
3. textual space.
6. Critical discourse analysis
 focuses on socio-political domination, which includes
issues of social change, power abuse, ideological
imposition, and social injustice by critically analyzing
language as social action.
 Assumption: the analysis of discourse provides
insightful information on such social issues as they are
largely constituted in language.
Language
Discourse
Social action
culture
society
injusticeinequality
unfairness
lack of
democracy
The focus of CDA Van Dijk (1993)
exploring relationship between discourse and
social actors. Fairclough (1989)
Social
inequality
Dominance
power
language
Discourse
Social
action
Discourse has the potential for the expression
and construction of
Ideologies
Individual ID
Social ID
Fairclough (1995) suggestion as an
Approach to CDA
 a multi-dimensional framework for studying
discourse by mapping three separate forms of
analysis onto one another
1. ‘analysis of discourse
2. analysis of discourse practice (processes of
text production, distribution and consumption)
3. analysis of discursive events as instances
of sociocultural practice’
Other approaches:
 van Dijk adopts a more socio-cognitive approach to
analysis (a useful link between social structures and
discourse structures)
 Wodak (1996), on the other hand, uses CDA to study the
issues of racism and anti-semitism by looking critically
at the historical dimension of discourse.
Critics of CDA
 Widdowson (2004) has criticized CDA for bias.
Start: ideological commitment
Then the selection of texts that are suitable for presenting
the desired analysis
 a total lack of objectivity: the analyst is necessarily
subject to a certain bias, given that all human beings are
socially positioned,
 A set of criteria for assessing the quality of CDA (Meyer ,
2001 representiveness,
reliability,
validity,
completeness,
accessibility
triangulation
7. Mediated discourse analysis (MDA)
 Mediated discourse analysis (MDA) shares the goals of
CDA, but focuses on social action rather than on
discourse.
 Like CDA, mediated discourse analysis takes the analysis,
interpretation and explanation of social problems as its
central concern
 MDA argues, society and culture are constituted in the
material products and a myriad of non-discursive
practices.
 it views discursive practice as just one form of social
practice, not necessarily the main form of practice out of
which society creates its institutions and power relations.
 MDA aims to understand how discourse is used to take
concrete social actions, and how, in those social
actions social structures and ideologies are created and
re-created.
Two ends of MDA
 Like conversation analysis, it is concerned with the
fundamental mechanics of human action and its
sequential organization in ‘chains of action’.
 Sharing with CDA and ethnographers of language a
commitment to understanding the relationships
between these concrete, situated social actions and
social practice that reproduce larger patterns of
social relations and ideology within the ‘historical
body’ of the social actor.
‘text or context’,
 mediated discourse analysis claims neither, choosing
to focus instead on where text and context come
together in mediated actions.
The main concerns of mediated
discourse analysis:
1. mediated actions themselves
2. mediational means, the ‘cultural tools’
3. the ‘practices’ that develop through
these actions the ‘historical body’
4. the ‘sites of engagement’
5. the way of ‘agency’ distribution over
individuals and tools
a nexus of practice
 mediated discourse analysis uses resources from
different frameworks:
1. critical discourse analysis
2. Ethnography - anthropological linguistics
3. interactional sociolinguistics
4. multimodal discourse analysis
5. conversational analysis
6. the social practice theory of Bourdieu
these relationships exist only in and through
concrete intersections of these practices in
specific research projects.
we should not see this nexus of practice as a
set of objectivized or structural relationships
among different schools.
The 7 approaches were developed in reaction to !!
 Conversation analysis, for instance, was a reaction to an
overwhelming concern with broad social structures and
theory
 the multimodal approach to discourse analysis was a
reaction to an equally overwhelming concern with text in
other forms of discourse analysis such as conversation
analysis and corpus-based discourse analysis.
 The corpus-based approach in itself was a
reaction to a number of approaches that confined
themselves to the detailed analysis of rather small sets of
data.
 Genre analysis, in a similar manner, was a reaction to
analyses of de-contextualized lexico-grammatical features
of language, providing a way to make the analysis of texts
more functional and grounded in professional contexts.
Cont.
 Critical discourse analysis was an attempt to
combine discourse analysis with social
analysis, with implications for the
understanding of socio-cultural practices.
 mediated discourse analysis was a reaction to
what was seen as an overemphasis on the
analysis of discourse without a sufficient
understanding of the concrete social actions
people use discourse to carry out.
Thank you very much

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discourse analysis

  • 1. Approaches to discourse analysis 1 VIJAY K. BHATIA JOHN FLOWERDEW RODNEY H. JONES M.bolouri9@gmail.com Ch1 presented by M.Bolouri
  • 2. Discourse analysis: an interdisciplinary field of inquiry a history of less than 50 years extending the conventional boundaries of linguistics. the analysis of linguistic behavior, written and spoken, beyond the limits of individual sentences focusing primarily on the meaning constructed and interpreted as language is used in particular social contexts
  • 3. Two main ingredients of the definition: 1. Language can be analyzed not just on the level of the phoneme/morpheme, the word, the clause or the sentence, but also on the level of the text 2. language ought to be analyzed not as an abstract set or rules, but as a tool for social action. Early definition: offshoot of linguistic analysis focusing more on the ‘language as text drawing on the work of early text analysts like Propp (1958) and Jakobson (1937) Current definition: a focus on ‘language in use’ drawing on insights from sociology, psychology, semiotics, Communication studies, rhetoric, as well as disciplines such as business and marketing, accountancy, organizational studies, law and information technology…
  • 4. Development in the last 4 decades it has attracted the attention not only of linguists and applied linguists, but also  socio-political theorists,  sociologists,  anthropologists, computer experts,  business and legal specialists,  communication experts different approaches, frameworks, procedures and methodologies with the aim of deriving insights for a variety of purposes.
  • 5. The roots of “lg in use” view (departure from structuralist and cognitive paradigms :  Wittgenstein (1951/1972), who saw language as a series of ‘games’ through which people construct ‘forms of life’, in relation to others and their surroundings  Austin’s publication1962 How to Do Things with Words: the study of language should involve more than just its structure but also the way it is used and the way social standards shape it.  Foucault and Derrida made lg and discourse central to understanding of social practice  Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf in US and Michael Halliday in Europe who were concerned with the relationship of language to social actions and to the socio-cultural worlds of those who use it a macro-sociological level: transmit the social structure, the values, the systems of knowledge, and patterns of the culture a micro-sociological level: meanings are specific to particular contexts and situations
  • 6. Recent modes of communication semiotic modes (pictures, diagrams, gestures, colors, differing fonts and their sizes…) computer mediated communication SMS messaging
  • 7. 1. Conversation analysis  It was developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s  It has its roots in ethno methodology, a branch of sociology developed by Harold Garfinkel (1967)  It concerns itself with the basic competences and interpretative processes members of a culture use to interact and interpret their experience.  Purpose: the description and explication of the competences that ordinary speakers use and rely on in participating in intelligible, socially organized interaction’.  people’s lives should be studied only on their own terms without reference to theoretical preconceptions.  close analysis of people’s (often mundane) speech and actions  CA’s guiding analytical principle: ‘Why that now?’  Basic conception-adjacency pair: a pair of utterances that are linguistically and socially ‘ related because they accomplish particular social actions.
  • 8. Cont.  rules of conditional relevance: each utterance displaying a particular understanding of the previous utterance and creating the conditions for subsequent utterances  It is based on naturally occurring and closely transcribed conversational data.  They regard observational data as prone to manipulation by researchers or the subjects themselves.  The difference btw linguistic ethnographers and conversation analysis is . the issue of context (wide social context vs. moment by moment constructed social context through conversational moves)
  • 9. 2. Ethnography  inspirations from anthropology and social psychology  social context as the central aspect of communication.  ‘ethnography of communication’ aims to provide a description of how members of a particular community are expected to perform linguistically in order to be considered ‘competent’ members.  the ability to use language in conjunction with social practices and social identities in ways which others in the community will recognize to perform a myriad of social activities such as  engaging in small talk Making transactions  Joking Arguing  Teasing warning.
  • 10. Cont.  Main purpose: the social world in terms of the ‘lived experience’ of those who inhabit it.  an emic approach to language, seeking to discover patterns in language use based on the observation of natural social events of native participants (Pike, 1967)  Matter of selection: it involves a process of selection based on the analyst’s practical concerns and theoretical preoccupations.  Data gathering typically involves: documenting, describing and interpreting social practices  through observation and analysis of a selection of socio-linguistic behaviors.  This selection invariably takes place in the fieldwork, and often consists of what researchers finds interesting, and of course, depends on what the subjects allow them to
  • 11. Areas of decision making  Process of selection: by the observers and the ones being observed  make use of a specific theory or framework within which they select and interpret their observations.  Instruments: 1. observations structured 2. semi-structured interviews 3. focus group interviews 4. ‘lived narratives of experience’
  • 12. ethnographic analysis and language relies relatively less on actual analysis of linguistic data and more on text-external social and contextual factors view purely linguistic analysis of data as less than satisfactory for understanding language as it is used in social and cultural contexts
  • 13. 3. Corpus-based discourse analysis . It works with large amounts of machine-readable text. It was initially used primarily in the fields of lexicography and grammar.  It represent language use in a variety of contexts, both written as well as spoken, to draw insights from observations about how people use language, both in terms of lexico-grammar features and their functional variations. Developments in this field: 1. the size of corpora (insightful, effective and reliable) pre-constructed phrases (idiom principle) vs. constraint encounter ‘open choice’ principle (Sinclair 1991) the unit of analysis : shift from individual words to pre-constructed phrases with special semantic preference and prosodies 2. useful in the study of language variations in specific academic and professional genres. specialized corpora often focus on one particular genre … or specific situation …
  • 14. 4. Multimodal discourse analysis  It regards text as just one of the many modes of communication available for social interaction  Global flows of capital dissolve not only cultural and political boundaries but also semiotic boundaries.  multiculturalism, electronic media of communication, technologies of transport and global economic developments  gestures, posture, proxemics, visual images, document layout, music and architectural design 
  • 15. The difference btw traditional text-based approaches to DA and the new multimodal approach to DA: 1. the centrality of lg 2. blurring of boundaries among the different semiotic dimensions (changes in ‘semiotic landscape’): new roles allocated to language, image, page layout, document design 3. it can also integrate various other approaches to discourse analysis.
  • 16. 5. Genre analysis  an extension of linguistic analysis to study functional variation in the use of English in academic contexts  Swales’ earliest work (1981) on research article introductions marked the beginning of the genre analytical model for a grounded description of academic research genres. three main contextual categories of field, mode and tenor of discourse to identify register but Swales identified genre on the basis of its communicative purpose  Three different framework for G.A: 1. Swales(1990) consistency of communicative purposes 2. Australian version regularities of staged, goal oriented social processes 3American version: typification of rhetorical action
  • 17. G.A definition:  the study of situated linguistic behavior in institutionalized academic or professional settings  offer increasingly more complex (‘thicker’) descriptions of language use  taking analyses beyond mere linguistic descriptions to offer explanation for specific uses of language in conventionalized and institutionalized settings  Recently a more comprehensive exploration of what Bhatia (2004) specifies as ‘social space’ to raise a number of other interesting issues, including some about the integrity of generic descriptions  three-space model for the analysis of discourse as genre: 1. social professional space, 2. social space 3. textual space.
  • 18. 6. Critical discourse analysis  focuses on socio-political domination, which includes issues of social change, power abuse, ideological imposition, and social injustice by critically analyzing language as social action.  Assumption: the analysis of discourse provides insightful information on such social issues as they are largely constituted in language. Language Discourse Social action culture society injusticeinequality unfairness lack of democracy
  • 19. The focus of CDA Van Dijk (1993) exploring relationship between discourse and social actors. Fairclough (1989) Social inequality Dominance power language Discourse Social action
  • 20. Discourse has the potential for the expression and construction of Ideologies Individual ID Social ID
  • 21. Fairclough (1995) suggestion as an Approach to CDA  a multi-dimensional framework for studying discourse by mapping three separate forms of analysis onto one another 1. ‘analysis of discourse 2. analysis of discourse practice (processes of text production, distribution and consumption) 3. analysis of discursive events as instances of sociocultural practice’
  • 22. Other approaches:  van Dijk adopts a more socio-cognitive approach to analysis (a useful link between social structures and discourse structures)  Wodak (1996), on the other hand, uses CDA to study the issues of racism and anti-semitism by looking critically at the historical dimension of discourse.
  • 23. Critics of CDA  Widdowson (2004) has criticized CDA for bias. Start: ideological commitment Then the selection of texts that are suitable for presenting the desired analysis  a total lack of objectivity: the analyst is necessarily subject to a certain bias, given that all human beings are socially positioned,  A set of criteria for assessing the quality of CDA (Meyer , 2001 representiveness, reliability, validity, completeness, accessibility triangulation
  • 24. 7. Mediated discourse analysis (MDA)  Mediated discourse analysis (MDA) shares the goals of CDA, but focuses on social action rather than on discourse.  Like CDA, mediated discourse analysis takes the analysis, interpretation and explanation of social problems as its central concern  MDA argues, society and culture are constituted in the material products and a myriad of non-discursive practices.  it views discursive practice as just one form of social practice, not necessarily the main form of practice out of which society creates its institutions and power relations.  MDA aims to understand how discourse is used to take concrete social actions, and how, in those social actions social structures and ideologies are created and re-created.
  • 25. Two ends of MDA  Like conversation analysis, it is concerned with the fundamental mechanics of human action and its sequential organization in ‘chains of action’.  Sharing with CDA and ethnographers of language a commitment to understanding the relationships between these concrete, situated social actions and social practice that reproduce larger patterns of social relations and ideology within the ‘historical body’ of the social actor.
  • 26. ‘text or context’,  mediated discourse analysis claims neither, choosing to focus instead on where text and context come together in mediated actions. The main concerns of mediated discourse analysis: 1. mediated actions themselves 2. mediational means, the ‘cultural tools’ 3. the ‘practices’ that develop through these actions the ‘historical body’ 4. the ‘sites of engagement’ 5. the way of ‘agency’ distribution over individuals and tools
  • 27. a nexus of practice  mediated discourse analysis uses resources from different frameworks: 1. critical discourse analysis 2. Ethnography - anthropological linguistics 3. interactional sociolinguistics 4. multimodal discourse analysis 5. conversational analysis 6. the social practice theory of Bourdieu these relationships exist only in and through concrete intersections of these practices in specific research projects. we should not see this nexus of practice as a set of objectivized or structural relationships among different schools.
  • 28. The 7 approaches were developed in reaction to !!  Conversation analysis, for instance, was a reaction to an overwhelming concern with broad social structures and theory  the multimodal approach to discourse analysis was a reaction to an equally overwhelming concern with text in other forms of discourse analysis such as conversation analysis and corpus-based discourse analysis.  The corpus-based approach in itself was a reaction to a number of approaches that confined themselves to the detailed analysis of rather small sets of data.  Genre analysis, in a similar manner, was a reaction to analyses of de-contextualized lexico-grammatical features of language, providing a way to make the analysis of texts more functional and grounded in professional contexts.
  • 29. Cont.  Critical discourse analysis was an attempt to combine discourse analysis with social analysis, with implications for the understanding of socio-cultural practices.  mediated discourse analysis was a reaction to what was seen as an overemphasis on the analysis of discourse without a sufficient understanding of the concrete social actions people use discourse to carry out.
  • 30.

Editor's Notes

  1. it has acquired the status, stability, significance and integrity of a well-established discipline, extending the conventional boundaries of linguistics.
  2. Halliday’s systemic functional grammar (SFG) has had a profound influence Although they were primarily developed at the level of the clause, the analytical tools of Halliday’s grammar have been found to be well adapted to tracking participants, logical relations, processes, qualities, and evaluations of these by speakers and writers as they develop throughout a given text or across a group of texts
  3. opened up the possibilities of looking at nonlinear extra-linguistic forms
  4. ‘interpretive ethnography’ to ‘explore a particular social group’s discourse practices – as these are instantiated in writing, speaking, or other symbolic actions – in order to learn how members of the group view and operate within their mutually constructed conceptual world’ (Smart). Smart (1998 and this volume) distinguishes several kinds of ethnographies, such as analytical, reflexive, naturalistic, institutional and interpretative. 5 types
  5. Increase/ greater size These large-scale general corpora are effective and reliable in providing insightful information about the preferred use of specific lexico-grammatical patterns in everyday language use. The most important aspect of this approach is that it makes it possible for linguists and discourse analysts to go beyond the analysis of sentences and short texts to the analysis of huge amounts of text. Work with large corpora has demonstrated that language follows to a large extent very regular patterns consisting of pre-constructed phrases. This is referred to as the ‘idiom principle’ by Sinclair (1991), in contrast to the ‘open choice’ principle, which refers to word-by-word ‘slot and filler’ combinations Discourse and register analyses in their early days were constrained by the fact that any manual processing and analysis of data was seen as an impossible task, but with the availability of computers and a variety of analytical software, these tasks have become not only less cumbersome, but the results have also become more reliable and convincing.
  6. the fact that they all take textual (linguistic) data to be the primary resource for social interactions. There is a widespread belief now that textual data is not necessarily the most important mode used for the construction and interpretations of social meaning.
  7. one of the founders of CDA, typically characterizes its focus relationship between discourse, power, dominance and social inequality
  8. first, mediated actions themselves, the concrete things we do when we interact in the world; second, mediational means, the ‘cultural tools’ (which may or may not be texts) with which we take actions, and which enable or constrain these actions; third, the ‘practices’ that develop through these actions as they become part of the ‘historical body’ of the social actor; fourth, the ‘sites of engagement’ in which multiple social practices converge, opening a window for a mediated action to occur and finally, the way ‘agency’ in social actions is distributed over individual social actors and cultural tools
  9. In terms of methodology, mediated discourse analysis uses resources from different frameworks, which include critical discourse analysis, ethnography and interactional sociolinguistics, and multimodal discourse analysis
  10. these seven approaches were quite distinct and were the result of very different motivations and that they drew inspirations from different sources some of these approaches were either influenced by others, or developed as reactions to some of them