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Tushar B. Kute, Department of Information Technology, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik An Imperative Study of ‘C’
Outline ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why ‘C’ only?
Problem Solving ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Two views of program user interface software layers hidden by user interface user’s view programmer’s view
Alphabets, Digits, Special Symbols. Constants, Variables, And Keywords Instructions Program. Forming a C program
Compiling a C program
Basic Programming Concepts ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Sample C Program ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Control Statements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
if  Statements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Condition ? statement1 statement2 statement3 true false
The  if...else  Statement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
if...else  Example ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Multiple Alternative if Statements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],if (score >= 90) grade = ‘A’; else if (score >= 80) grade = ‘B’; else if (score >= 70)  grade = ‘C’; else if (score >= 60) grade = ‘D’; else  grade = ‘F’;
switch   Statements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
switch  Statement Flow Chart
Repetitions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
while  Loop while (continuation-condition)  { // loop-body; }
while  Loop Flow Chart, cont. int i = 0; while (i < 100) { printf(&quot;Welcome to C!&quot;); i++; }
do-while  Loop do { // Loop body; } while (continue-condition);
for  Loop  for (initialization; condition; increment/decrement) { //loop body; }
Caution ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Wrong
Caution, cont. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Wrong Correct
Which Loop to Use?
The  break  Keyword
Example:  break  statement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The  continue  Keyword
Example:  continue  statement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Arrays Array is a data structure that represents a collection of the same types of data.  An Array of 10 Elements of type  int
Declaring Array Variables ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Creating Arrays ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Declaring and Creating in One Step ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Length of Arrays ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Declaring, creating, initializing Using the Shorthand Notation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
CAUTION ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Copying Arrays ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Multidimensional Arrays ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Multidimensional Array Illustration
Function
What is a Function ? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Types of Functions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
User defined functions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Declaration of many functions. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Some conclusions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summarization ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summarization Contd………. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summarization Contd………. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Summarization Contd………. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Why use functions ? ,[object Object],[object Object]
Passing values to functions. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],i, j, k are actual arguments x, y, z are formal arguments.
Returning a value ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
return ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Function declaration and Prototype. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Function prototype.
Structures ,[object Object],[object Object]
‘ C’ implementation of Structure. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Accessing structure elements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
How structure elements are stored ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],z.name  z.pages  z.price   ‘ s’ 125 90.0
Valid declaration ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Remember: ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Example: Creating a student database of 3 students. ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Array of structures ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Memory map for arrays a[i].roll  a[i].name  a[i].marks i 2 1 9 3 0 7 6 5 4 8 a[5].roll a[9].name
Pointers
Pointer Variables ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],int * p; /*  variable  p  can hold the address of a   memory location that contains an  int  */ char * chptr; /*  chptr  can hold the address of a   memory location that contains a  char   */
Dereferencing Operator ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],int *p; p ? *p = 7; Address in  p  could be any memory location Attempt to put a value into an unknown memory location will result in a  run-time error , or worse, a  logic error
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Pointer
The Address Operator ,[object Object],[object Object],int x, *p; p ? x ? p = &x; *p = 4; p x ? p x 4 Value of  x  has been changed Value of  p  has been changed
The Null Pointer ,[object Object],[object Object]
Pointer Example int *p, x, y, *q = NULL; p = &x; *p = 4; p x  (or *p) y 4 ? p = &y; p x  y 4 ? *p   is now another name for   y q q . .
*p = 8; p x  y 4 8 q = p; p x  y 4 8 q *p or *q q *p .
p = &x; p x  y 4 8 *q *p = *q; p x  y 8 8 q *p q *p *q 8
Arrays of Pointers ,[object Object],[object Object],int j = 6; k = 4; int * arrayOfPtr[4]; j k 6 4 arrayOfPtr ? ? ? ? 0 1 2 3 Pointers in array are not initialized yet
arrayOfPtr[0] = &k;  arrayOfPtr[2]=&j;  j k 6 4 arrayOfPtr ? 0 1 2 3 ?
Array Names as Pointers ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Functions Calls ,[object Object],[object Object]
References ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]

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An imperative study of c

  • 1. Tushar B. Kute, Department of Information Technology, Sandip Institute of Technology and Research Centre, Nashik An Imperative Study of ‘C’
  • 2.
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  • 5. Two views of program user interface software layers hidden by user interface user’s view programmer’s view
  • 6. Alphabets, Digits, Special Symbols. Constants, Variables, And Keywords Instructions Program. Forming a C program
  • 7. Compiling a C program
  • 8.
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  • 16. switch Statement Flow Chart
  • 17.
  • 18. while Loop while (continuation-condition) { // loop-body; }
  • 19. while Loop Flow Chart, cont. int i = 0; while (i < 100) { printf(&quot;Welcome to C!&quot;); i++; }
  • 20. do-while Loop do { // Loop body; } while (continue-condition);
  • 21. for Loop for (initialization; condition; increment/decrement) { //loop body; }
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 25. The break Keyword
  • 26.
  • 27. The continue Keyword
  • 28.
  • 29. Arrays Array is a data structure that represents a collection of the same types of data. An Array of 10 Elements of type int
  • 30.
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  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62. Memory map for arrays a[i].roll a[i].name a[i].marks i 2 1 9 3 0 7 6 5 4 8 a[5].roll a[9].name
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. Pointer Example int *p, x, y, *q = NULL; p = &x; *p = 4; p x (or *p) y 4 ? p = &y; p x y 4 ? *p is now another name for y q q . .
  • 70. *p = 8; p x y 4 8 q = p; p x y 4 8 q *p or *q q *p .
  • 71. p = &x; p x y 4 8 *q *p = *q; p x y 8 8 q *p q *p *q 8
  • 72.
  • 73. arrayOfPtr[0] = &k; arrayOfPtr[2]=&j; j k 6 4 arrayOfPtr ? 0 1 2 3 ?
  • 74.
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  • 76.