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Accounting ConceptsAccounting Concepts
and Principlesand Principles
Accounting ConceptsAccounting Concepts
.GAAP may be defined as those rules of.GAAP may be defined as those rules of
actions or conduct which are derived fromactions or conduct which are derived from
experience and practice and when they proveexperience and practice and when they prove
useful they become accepted priniples ofuseful they become accepted priniples of
accountingaccounting
2
3
Accounting Concepts
• Business entity
• Money Measurement/stable
monetary unit
• Going Concern
• Historical Cost
• Prudence/conservatism
• Materiality
4
• Objectivity
• Consistency
• Accruals/matching
• Realization
• Uniformity
• Disclosure
• Relevance
Basic assumptions
5
6
Business Entity
• Meaning
– The business and its owner(s) are two
separate existence entity
– Any private and personal incomes and
expenses of the owner(s) should not be
treated as the incomes and expenses of
the business
7
Business EntityBusiness Entity
8
• Examples
– Insurance premiums for the owner’s
house should be excluded from the
expense of the business
– The owner’s property should not be
included in the premises account of the
business
– Any payments for the owner’s personal
expenses by the business will be treated
as drawings and reduced the owner’s
capital contribution in the business
9
Money MeasurementMoney Measurement
10
Money Measurement
• Meaning
– All transactions of the business are
recorded in terms of money
– It provides a common unit of
measurement
• Examples
– Market conditions, technological
changes and the efficiency of
management would not be disclosed in
the accounts
11
Going ConcernGoing Concern
12
Going Concern
• Meaning
– The business will continue in operational
existence for the foreseeable future
– Financial statements should be prepared
on a going concern basis unless
management either intends to liquidate
the enterprise or to cease trading, or
has no realistic alternative but to do so
Accounting period concept:
13
Accounting period concept:
o Divides entire indefinite life of
business into smaller periods.
o 12 months considered as one
accounting period. Reports the results of
the activity undertaken in ‘specific
period’.
Basic principles
14
Dual aspect concept:
Dual aspect concept:
o “For every debit, there is a credit”.
o Two sided effect to the extent of same
amount.
o This concept has resulted in an accounting
equation:
Assets – Liabilities = Proprietor’s claim
15
16
Historical CostHistorical Cost
17
Historical Cost
• Meaning
– Assets should be shown on the balance
sheet at the cost of purchase instead of
current value
• Example
– The cost of fixed assets is recorded at
the date of acquisition cost. The
acquisition cost includes all expenditure
made to prepare the asset for its
intended use. It included the invoice
price of the assets, freight charges,
insurance or installation costs
18
Prudence/ConservatismPrudence/Conservatism
Modifying principlesModifying principles
19
Prudence/Conservatism
• Meaning
– Revenues and profits are not
anticipated. Only realized profits with
reasonable certainty are recognized in
the profit and loss account
– However, provision is made for all known
expenses and losses whether the amount
is known for certain or just an
estimation
– This treatment minimizes the reported
profits and the valuation of assets
20
• Example
– Stock valuation sticks to rule of the
lower of cost and net realizable value
– The provision for doubtful debts should
be made
– Fixed assets must be depreciated over
their useful economic lives
21
MaterialityMateriality
Modifying principlesModifying principles
22
Materiality
• Meaning
– Immaterial amounts may be aggregated
with the amounts of a similar nature or
function and need not be presented
separately
– Materiality depends on the size and
nature of the item
23
• Example
– Small payments such as postage,
stationery and cleaning expenses should
not be disclosed separately. They should
be grouped together as sundry expenses
– The cost of small-valued assets such as
pencil sharpeners and paper clips should
be written off to the profit and loss
account as revenue expenditures,
although they can last for more than one
accounting period
24
ObjectivityObjectivity
25
Objectivity
• Meaning
– The accounting information should be
free from bias and capable of
independent verification
– The information should be based upon
verifiable evidence such as invoices or
contracts
26
• Example
– The recognition of revenue should be
based on verifiable evidence such as the
delivery of goods or the issue of
invoices
27
ConsistencyConsistency
Modifying principlesModifying principles
28
Consistency
• Meaning
– Companies should choose the most
suitable accounting methods and
treatments, and consistently apply them
in every period
– Changes are permitted only when the
new method is considered better and
can reflect the true and fair view of the
financial position of the company
– The change and its effect on profits
should be disclosed in the financial
statements
29
• Examples
– If a company adopts straight line
method and should not be changed to
adopt reducing balance method in other
period
– If a company adopts weight-average
method as stock valuation and should not
be changed to other method e.g. first-
in-first-out method
30
Accruals/MatchingAccruals/Matching
Basic principlesBasic principles
31
Accruals/Matching
• Meaning
– Revenues are recognized when they are
earned, but not when cash is received
– Expenses are recognized as they are
incurred, but not when cash is paid
– The net income for the period is
determined by subtracting expenses
incurred from revenues earned
32
• Example
– Expenses incurred but not yet paid in
current period should be treated as
accrual/accrued expenses under current
liabilities
– Expenses incurred in the following
period but paid for in advance should be
treated as prepayment expenses under
current asset
– Depreciation should be charged as part
of the cost of a fixed asset consumed
during the period of use
33
RealizationRealization
Basic principleBasic principle
34
Realization
• Meaning
• Revenues should be recognized when
the major economic activities have
been completed
• Sales are recognized when the goods
are sold and delivered to customers
or services are rendered
35
Recognition of revenue
• The concept provides that revenues are
recognized when it is earned, and not when
money is received
• A receipt in advance for the supply of
goods should be treated as prepaid income
under current liabilities
• Since revenue is a principal component in
the measurement of profit, the timing of
its recognition has a direct effect on the
profit
36
• Example
– Goods sent to our customers on sale or
return basis
– This means the customer do not pay for
the goods until they confirm to buy. If
they do not buy, those goods will return
to us
– Goods on the ‘sale or return’ basis will
not be treated as normal sales and
should be included in the closing stock
unless the sales have been confirmed by
customers
37
DisclosureDisclosure
Basic principleBasic principle
38
Disclosure
• Meaning
– Financial statements should be prepared
to reflect a true and fair view of the
financial position and performance of
the enterprise
– All material and relevant information
must be disclosed in the financial
statements
39
RelevanceRelevance
Modifying principleModifying principle
40
Relevance
• Meaning
– Financial statements should be prepared
to meet the objectives of the users
– Relevant information which can satisfy
the needs of most users is selected and
recorded in the financial statement
41
Matching PrincipleMatching Principle
Modifying principleModifying principle
Basic principle
Matching Concept:
o Expenses should be matched to the
revenue of the appropriate accounting
period.
o For Example- Salary paid in January
2011 relating to December 2010 should
be treated as expenditure for the year
2010 and not 2011.
42

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