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Gothic architecture


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Gothic architecture

  1. 1. Gothic Architecture History of Architecture (World) D.A.A Semester : 3rd Butler Polytechnic
  2. 2. • Introduction • Forms • Construction Methods and Techniques • Characteristics of typical Gothic Cathedral • Notre Dame , Paris • Bibliography Gothic Architecture Sub Topics 2
  3. 3. • Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. • It evolved from Romanesque Architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance Architecture. • It originated in France in 12th century, then spread throughout Western Europe till 15th century and lasted up to 16th century. • Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many great Cathedrals, Abbeys, Churches, Castles, Palaces, Town halls, Guild halls, Universities of Europe, etc. • A great number of ecclesiastical buildings of this period are considered priceless works of art and are listed with UNESCO as World Heritage Sites. • A series of Gothic revivals began in mid-18thcentury England, spread Gothic Architecture Introduction through 19th-century Europe and continued, 3
  4. 4. • • • The various features of the Gothic Architecture were pointed arch, the ribbed vault and the flying buttresses. The Gothic Architecture emphasized strong vertical lines, high vaulted ceilings, minimal wall space, pointed window & door openings and buttresses walls. Gothic structure is a skeleton system that transfers roof loads down to ground at discrete points, therefore freeing large expanses of walls. • • The flying buttresses had automatically become the aesthetic component by cutting out arches from it and emphasizing the end of it by raising it high.. The widespread introduction of a single feature of the Gothic Architecture, the pointed arch, brought about the change that separated Gothic architecture from the Romanesque tradition. It lent itself to elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex. Gothic Architecture Forms 4
  5. 5. • The painted arches were more flexible in design as one could vary the angle of the arch. • • • Ribs were used to minimize the load of vault, as the dead load on vaulting was created primarily by the weight of the stone and thus, reducing this weight was not only economical but also gave great heights to buildings. • The flying buttress in the Gothic construction concentrate loads at pillars so that there remains no need of reinforcement at specific points, as they were the structural members, they carried the load of very high and long walls. • The entire structures were conceived as frame works of arches and arches were organized in the coherent systems which reduced structural function of wall to Window tracery, the decorative and intersecting stonework in the upper not load minimum. Thus, the walls were section of windows was introduced and became increasingly slender evolving bearing walls. from plate tracery to bar tracery as the Gothic style developed. The technique of filling windows with stained glass, added a dimension of color to the light within the building along with providing a medium for figurative and narrative art. Gothic Architecture Construction Methods and Techniques 5
  6. 6. • • • The Gothic architects wanted to bring lights in the cathedral as the light was the purest substance on the earth and a representative of God. Thus, the upper portion of the nave was having large stained glass to bring adequate light. The only mathematical calculations were the dimensions of space frames. The technological change in the Romanesque tradition permitted a stylistic change which broke the tradition of massive masonry and solid walls penetrated by small openings, replacing it with a style where light appears to triumph over substance. Gothic Architecture Construction Methods and Techniques 6
  7. 7. • • • • The Gothic Cathedrals have a Latin cross plan, with a long nave making the body of church a traverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. The nave is generally flanked on either side by aisles, usually single, but sometimes doubles and is generally considerably taller than the aisles, having clerestory windows which light the central space.. The end of the cathedral is semicircular or polygonal convex termination. At the apse end, the big idol of God is there & small chapels are laid around it.. • Gothic Architecture The bays of the nave are covered at right angles by vaulting so that independent character of bay is emphasized. • The rejection of galleries and crypt is one of the most decisive differences between Roman and Gothic style.. • In English cathedrals transepts tend to project boldly and there may be two of them but are not the case with lesser churches. • The eastern arm shows considerable diversity. It is often square ended or has a projecting Lady Chapel, dedicated to the Virgin Mary. Characteristics of Gothic 7 • Cathedral The Gothic vault, unlike the semi-
  8. 8. • • This enabled architects to raise vaults much higher than was possible in Romanesque architecture. While, structurally, use of the pointed arch gave a greater flexibility to architectural form, it also gave Gothic architecture a very different and more vertical visual character than Romanesque. Gothic openings such as doorways, windows, arcades and galleries have pointed arches. Gothic vaulting above spaces both large and small is usually supported by richly molded ribs. Rows of pointed arches upon delicate shafts form a typical wall decoration known as blind arcading. Niches with pointed arches and • containing statuary are a major external feature. • The pointed arch lent itself to • elaborate intersecting shapes which developed within window spaces into complex Gothic tracery forming the structural support of the large windows. • A characteristic of Gothic cathedral architecture is its height, both absolute and in proportion to its width, the verticality suggesting an aspiration to Heaven. A section of the Gothic body of a Gothic church Characteristics of Gothic main Architecture usually Cathedral shows the nave as considerably • 8
  9. 9. • Towers and spires are characteristic of Gothic churches both great and small, the number and positioning being one of the greatest variables in Gothic architecture. Smaller churches usually have just one tower, but this may also be the case at larger buildings, such as Salisbury Cathedral or Ulm Minster, which has the tallest spire in the world, slightly exceeding that of Lincoln Cathedral, the tallest which was actually completed during the medieval period, at 160 meters (520 ft.). • On the exterior, the verticality is emphasized in a major way by the towers and spires and in a lesser way by strongly projecting vertical buttresses, by narrow half-columns called attached • On the interior of the building shafts which often pass through several attached shafts often sweep storeys of the building, by long narrow unbroken from floor to ceiling and windows, vertical moldings around doors meet the ribs of the vault, like a tall and figurative sculpture which tree spreading into branches. The emphasizes the vertical and is often verticals are generally repeated in attenuated. The roofline, gable ends, the treatment of the windows and buttresses and other parts of the wall surfaces. building are often terminated by small • Increase in size between windows of pinnacles, Milan Cathedral being an the Romanesque and Gothic periods is extreme example in the use of this form of Characteristics of Gothic related to the use of the ribbed Gothic Architecture 9 decoration. Cathedral vault, and in particular, the pointed
  10. 10. • • • Gothic Architecture • The flying buttress is arched externally from the springing of the vault across the roof of the aisle to a large buttress pier projecting well beyond the line of the external wall. These piers were often surmounted by a pinnacle or statue, further adding to the downward weight, and counteracting the outward thrust of the vault and buttress arch as well as stress from wind loading. The internal columns of the arcade with their attached shafts, the ribs of the vault and the flying buttresses, with their associated vertical buttresses jutting at rightangles to the building, created a stone skeleton. Between these parts, the walls and the infill of the vaults could be of lighter construction. Between the narrow buttresses, the walls could be opened up into large windows. The façade of a large church or cathedral, often referred to as the West Front, is generally designed to create a powerful impression on the approaching worshipper, demonstrating both the might of God and the might of the institution that it represents. One of the best known and most typical of such facades is that of Notre Dame de Paris. Characteristics of Gothic Thus, these are the architectural characteristics of 10 a Cathedral typical
  11. 11. • A few cathedrals are listed below: • Durham Cathedral ( 1128-1134) – England – A rib vaulted and a pointed arch roof • Cathedral of Cefalù(1131-1471) – Sicily – In 1420, Portico was added between the two towers of the façade. • St. Denis’ Basilica( 1135- 1140) – France – The flying buttresses, pointed arches and ribbed vault were used as one unit for the first time in this cathedral. • Noyon Cathedral ( 1150-1231) – France – It is the first true Gothic Cathedral because of the heavy use of all features that came to be known as Gothic including pointed arches, flying buttresses and ribbed vaulting. • Wells Cathedral ( 1174-1239) Characteristics of Gothic Gothic Architecture – England Cathedral 11
  12. 12. • The Notre Dame de Paris is one of the finest monumental buildings of French Gothic style of Architecture. • It was started by Bishop Maurice De Sully in 1163 and the west towers were the last to be completed in 1250. • Its length is 420 ft. X 226 ft. and has height of 226 ft. • The Cathedral was to be built in the new gothic style and had to reflect Paris’s status as the capital of the kingdom France. • It was the first cathedral built on a monumental scale and became the prototype for future cathedrals in France. • The original plan contained double ambulatories and was on a bent axial line. • The interior elevation was of four levels with an area of pillars. • It has a wide nave, double aisles, transepts surrounded with chapels and western towers. • The central nave is divided into number Gothic Architecture Notre Dame, Paris of bays with cylindrical columns of 12
  13. 13. • Gothic Architecture The façade is designed to create a powerful impression on the approaching worshipper, demonstrating the might of God and of the institute that it represents. • The spectacular eastern flying buttresses at the east side of the building are 15m wide. • The Notre- Dame Cathedral has several large rose windows among which the northern 13th century window is the most impressive with a diameter of 13.1 meter. • A tribune was originally covered by barrel vaults and lit by around windows. • This cathedral is with double aisles, the transept does not project beyond the aisles. • The type of tracery that evolved to fill the spaces of equilateral arches is known in England as Geometric Decorated Gothic and can be seen here to splendid effect. Notre Dame , Paris 13 • Vigorous restoration of crumbling
  14. 14. • • • • • The spire, which reaches 295 feet was added in the 19th century by Viollet-leDuc. The site of the Notre Dame is the cradle of Paris and has always been the religious center of the city. The colt had their sacred ground here and the romans built a temple to worship Jupiter. A Christian basilica was built in the 6th century and the last religious structure before the Notre Dame Construction started was a Romanesque Church. The building with its impressive façade and imposing towers is one of the best cathedrals of Gothic Buildings. Gothic Architecture Notre Dame , Paris 14
  15. 15. • • • History of Architecture by Sir Banister Fletcher ( CBS Publication, Delhi) Gothic Architecture Bibliography 15
  16. 16. • Mudra Vyas – 126060350002 • Leena Kothalikar – 126060350009 • Sifali Patel – 126060350024 Gothic Architecture Presented By: 16