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Renaissance Architecture
Outline
 Time and Place
 Map of Italy during the Renaissance
 Socio-Historical Background
- The lessons of Greece and Rome
- New technologies and inventions
- A new way of thinking

 Renaissance Architects and their Works
 The Renaissance in France and England
Time and Place
The Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento, from ri- "again"
  and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that
  spanned roughly from the 14th to the 17th
  century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages
  and later spreading to the rest of Europe.

 App 1400 – 1700AD
 Italy - In the middle ages, was composed of different
  city-states and fiefdoms eg
  Florence, Venice, Milan, Mantua.
Florence – is considered as the birthplace of the
  Renaissance

In Florence, the wealthy wool merchants and bankers
  sought prestige and status through their patronage of
  arts and letters, and architects and artists displayed their
What was the Renaissance?
The intellectual transformation that happened during
the Renaissance has resulted with this period being
viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the
                     Modern era.
The Renaissance in
As a cultural movement, it                Italy
encompassed a resurgence of
learning based on:
•classical sources
•the development of linear
perspective in painting
•gradual but widespread
educational reform.

Although the Renaissance
saw revolutions in many
intellectual pursuits, as well as
social and political upheaval, it
is perhaps best known for its
artistic developments and the
contributions of such
polymaths as Leonardo da
Vinci and Michelangelo, who
inspired the term
"Renaissance man―.
Access to the Classical
  Texts and the Teaching of
         Humanities
 The key to a new vision of human
  life and therefore of architecture
  came from the scholars’ access to
  the classical texts.
 International trading exchanges had
  helped to disseminate ideas, and a
  group of teachers of the humanities
  (grammar, rhetoric, history and
  philosophy) who acquired the name
  of Humanists, played a crucial part
  in their propagation.
 These texts, including eventually     The Duke of Urbino. The Duke
  about architecture were spread        collected one of the finest libraries in
  through developments in printing.     Italy, employing it is said, thirty or
                                        forty scribes for fourteen years to
  (Gutenberg invented the movable
                                        copy the great classical and modern
  type in 1450)
                                        texts.
Humanism and the Renaissance
 Humanism was a new world view. It celebrated rationality
  and mankind’s ability to make and act upon empirical
  observations of the physical world.
 Humanist scholars and artists recovered classical Greek
  and Roman texts and aspired to create a modern world
  rivalling that of the ancients. One of the most important was
  Vitruvius’ text on architecture which had been re discovered
  in Switzerland.
 Rather than train professionals in jargon and strict
  practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry
  (including, sometimes, women) able to speak and write with
  eloquence and clarity. Thus, they would be capable of
  better engaging the civic life of their communities and
  persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions.
 This was to be accomplished through the study of the
  studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities:
  grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
Vitruvius’ Ten Books of Architecture
In 1487 the ancient text of Vitruvius
was one of the first books printed.
The impact of printing was
tremendous.
The architectural theorists of the
revived antique style –
Alberti, Serlio, Francesco de
Giorgio, Palladio, Vignola, Guilio
Romano – all wrote treatises that
owed something to Vitruvius. These
men were no longer master
masons, however brilliant, they were
scholars.
Architecture was no longer the
continuation of a practical
tradition, handed on through
mason’s lodges; it was a literary
idea. The architect was not just
De Architectura ("On
Architecture")




               Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70
               BC, died after c. 15 BC) was a Roman
               writer, architect and engineer, active in the
               1st century BC. He is best known as the
               author of the multi-volume work De
               Architectura ("On Architecture").
                Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his
                book De architectura that a structure must
                exhibit the three qualities
                of firmitas, utilitas, venustas – that is, it
                must be solid, useful, beautiful. These are
                sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or
                the Vitruvian Triad.
The Vitruvian Man
 Rather than using the
  complex, geometric
  transformations of medieval
  master masons, Renaissance
  architects favoured simple
  forms such as the square and
  the circle.

 They made drawings of the
  human figure inscribed within
  the basic outline of the circle
  and the square, thereby
  demonstrating that the human
  proportions reflected divine
  ratios.

Left: The Vitruvian Man by
  Leonardo da Vinci an
  illustration of the human body
  inscribed in the circle and the
  square derived from a passage
Brunelleschi’s Discovery of Perspective
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-
1446)

A Florentine goldsmith, Brunelleschi
moved to Rome and visited the ancient
ruins. Brunelleschi codified the principles
of geometrically accurate linear
perspective, making possible the exact
representation of a 3-dimensional object
on a 2-dimensional surface.


In making careful drawings of such
repetitive elements as the arches of
aqueducts, he realized that parallel
horizontal lines converge at a point on the
horizon and that elements of like size
diminish proportionally in the distance.
This discovery had a profound effect of
art, architecture and civic design during
Among the cultures of
                        the ancient world, only
                        the Greeks and the
                        Romans had spacial
                        depth in art figured out.
                        That is to say, they
                        understood how to
                        create an image with
                        convincing depth and a
                        painted or sculpted
                        illusion of 3
                        dimensional space.

Brunelleschi observed that with a fixed
single point of view, parallel lines appear to
converge at a single point in the distance.
Brunelleschi applied a single vanishing point
to a canvas, and discovered a method for
calculating depth. Trinity,” Masaccio (1427-28)
       Right: “The
Other Developments
 Gunpowder changed the nature of warfare and therefore
    relations among nations.
   The invention of the compass and the development of
    new techniques in shipbuilding made it possible to
    expand the limits of the known world into China, the East
    Indies, India and America.
   Banking, no longer frowned upon by the Church, began
    to play a central role in society.
   The hereditary nobles of feudal times were ousted by a
    new class of merchant princes – the Medici, the
    Strozzi, the Rucellai, the Pitti – whose commercial
    empires spread throughout Europe.
   Merchant princes and the artists to whom they extended
    financial patronage became the new universal men of the
    Renaissance.
The Periods of the Renaissance
 Early Renaissance
 ca. 1400-1500
 Brunelleschi, Alberti

 High Renaissance
 ca. 1500-1525
 Bramante

 Late Renaissance
 ca. 1525-1600
 Palladio
Renaissance Architecture
 Renaissance architecture tends to feature planar classicism (i.e.
  ―flat classicism‖). In other words, the walls of a Renaissance building
  (both exterior and interior) are embellished with classical motifs (e.g.
  columns, pediments, blind arches) of minor physical depth, such that
  they intrude minimally on the two-dimensional appearance of the
  walls. Put another way, the walls of a Renaissance building serve as
  flat canvases for a classical veneer. This contrasts sharply with
  Baroque architecture, in which walls are deeply curved and sculpted
  (―sculpted classicism‖).
 Planar classicism also tends to divide a wall into neat sections, with
  such elements as columns, pilasters, and stringcourses.
  (A stringcourse is a thin, horizontal strip of material that runs along
  the exterior of a building, often to mark the division between stories.)
  A Baroque wall, on the other hand, is treated as a
  continuous, undulating whole.
 The foremost Renaissance building types were
  the church, palazzo (urban mansion), and villa (country mansion).
  While various great names are associated with Renaissance church
  and palazzo design, the most famous villa architect by far
Characteristics of Renaissance
          Architecture
          Renaissance style places emphasis
on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of
 parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of
  classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman
   architecture, of which many examples remained.
Characteristics
 Inspired by Roman buildings, orderly arrangements
  of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of
  semicircular arches
  hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the
  more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles
  of medieval buildings.
 Plans - square, symmetrical appearance in which
  proportions are usually based on a module
 Facades - symmetrical around their vertical axis, domestic
    buildings are often surmounted by a cornice
   Columns and pilasters - the Roman orders of columns are used:
    Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite
   Arches – semi circular
   Vaults – do not have ribs
   Domes - the dome is used frequently, both as a very large
    structural feature that is visible from the exterior
Inspired by Roman buildings, orderly arrangements
of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches
hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex
proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.




     Interior courtyard of the Palazzo                Palazzo Massimo Alle Colonn
 Farnese, Rome, by Antonio da Sangallo                    Rome, 1532-36
the Younger and Michelangelo, 1517–89.
Plans - square, symmetrical
appearance in which proportions
 are usually based on a module




                                                Plan of Chateau de Chamborg, France
                                                          1519-1527




 The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore or the
          Florence Cathedral
Facades - symmetrical around their vertical axis, domestic buildings are
                  often surmounted by a cornice.
                       Below: Palladian Villas
Characteristics of Elements
 Ceilings - roofs are fitted with flat or coffered
  ceilings, frequently painted or decorated
 Doors - usually have square lintels, set within an arch or
  surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment, in the
  Mannerist period the ―Palladian‖ arch was employed
 Walls - external walls are generally of highly
  finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses, the
  corners of buildings are often emphasised by
  rusticated quoins, basements and ground floors were
  often rusticated
 Details -courses, mouldings and all decorative details are
  carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the
  details of the ancient Romans was one of the important
  aspects of Renaissance theory, mouldings stand out
  around doors and windows rather than being
  recessed, as in Gothic Architecture, sculptured figures
  may be set in niches or placed on plinths.
Above: Sant'Agostino, Rome
                                                        Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483




Ceilings - roofs are fitted with   Doors - usually have square lintels, set within
        flat or coffered           an arch or surmounted by a triangular or
 ceilings, frequently painted      segmental pediment, in the Mannerist period the
                                   ―Palladian‖ arch was employed
Left: Palazzo Medici-
   Riccardi, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo.
      Top: Quoining on the corners
  of Palazzo Aragona Gonzaga, Rome.
Walls - external walls are generally of
highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in
straight courses, the corners of buildings
are often emphasised by
rusticated quoins, basements and ground
floors were often rusticated
Rustication
A popular decorative
   treatment of the
   Renaissance palazzo
   was rustication, in
   which a masonry wall
   is textured rather than
   smooth.

This can entail leaving
  grooves in the joints
  between smooth
  blocks, using roughly
  dressed blocks, or
  using blocks that have
  been deliberately
  textured. The
  rustication of a
  Renaissance palazzo
  is often differentiated
  between stories.
Details -courses, mouldings
 and all decorative details are
 carved with great precision.
 Studying and mastering the
 details of the ancient Romans
 was one of the important
 aspects of Renaissance
 theory, mouldings stand out
 around doors and windows
 rather than being
 recessed, as in Gothic
 Architecture, sculptured
 figures may be set in niches
Giorgio Vasari and the Vite
         Giorgio Vasari 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574)
           was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and
           architect, who is famous today for his
           biographies of Renaissance
           artists, considered the ideological foundation
           of art-historical writing.


         As the first Italian art historian, he initiated the
           genre of an encyclopedia of artistic
           biographies that continues today. Vasari
           coined the term "Renaissance" (rinascita) in
           print, though an awareness of the ongoing
           "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air from
           the time of Alberti. Vasari's Le Vite de' più
           eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed
           architettori (Lives of the Most Eminent
           Painters, Sculptors, and Architects) —
           dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de'
           Medici— was first published in 1550.
The Architects of the
   Renaissance
    Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 –1446)
  Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (1396-1472)
    Leon Battista Alberti( 1404-1472)
     Donato Bramante (1444 –1514)

      Andrea Palladio (1508 –1580)
    Giacomo da Vignola (1507 –1573)
  Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475 – 1564)
Filippo Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446) was one of the
foremost architects and engineers of the Italian
Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his
discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome
of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments
also include other architectural
works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and even
ship design. His principal surviving works are to be
found in Florence, Italy.
The Florence Cathedral dome (1436)
                    by Filippo Brunelleschi
Brunelleschi drew upon his
knowledge of ancient Roman
construction as well as lingering
Gothic traditions to produce an
innovative synthesis.


•Employed the Gothic pointed arch
cross section instead of a semi
circular one
•To reduce dead load, he created a
double shell as was done in the
Pantheon
•Employed 24 vertical ribs and 5
horizontal rings of sandstone, as
observed in the ruins of Roman
construction
•The cupola on top was a temple of
masonry acting as a weight on top of
The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444
     by Filippo Brunelleschi




        The Foundling Hospital is often
     considered as the first building of the
                Renaissance.
The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444
          by Filippo Brunelleschi

• Featured a
  continuous arcade
• At the hospital the
  arcading is three
  dimensional, creating
  a loggia with domed
  vaults in each bay.
• Use of Corinthian
  columns across its
  main facade and
  around an internal
  courtyard.
• The design was
  based in Roman
  architecture.
Other Brunelleschi projects
     Pazzi Chapel, 1460
The facade was inspired by the Roman
           triumphal arch.




                                       San Lorenzo, Florence, (1430-33)
                                          This church is seen as one of the
                                             milestones of Renaissance
                                       architecture, with pietra serena or dark
                                                 stone articulation.
The Basilica of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito
                     ("St. Mary of the Holy Spirit"), 1481




San Spirito, begun 1445. The plan
played on the configurations of the
square. The current church was
constructed over the pre-existing ruins
of an Augustinian priory from the 13th
century, destroyed by a fire.
Michelozzo di Bartolomeo
(1396-1472) Italian architect and sculptor.
Michelozzo Bartolomeo (1396-1472) and the Palazzo
                     Medici




                                                    Cosimo de Medici of
                                                     Florence

 The Palazzo Medici is a Renaissance palace located in Florence.
 •   Bartolomeo was a student of Brunelleschi.
 •   The Palazzo was influenced by the Foundling Hospital.
 •   Used the arcaded courtyard of the hospital.
The Palazzo Medici, Florence 1444
•Rustication- stone blocks with deeply recessed chamfered joints
•Had three tiers of graduated textures, beginning with rock-faced stone at
the street level and concluding with smooth ashlar at the third level below a
10-ft high cornice with modillions, egg and dart moldings and a dentil
course.
•It was the first such cornice since ancient times.
•The building reflected Renaissance ideals of symmetry, the use of
classical elements and careful use of mathematical proportions.
Leon Battista Alberti
                         (1404-1472)
                         Alberti was
an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, ph
   ilosopher, cryptographer and general Renaissance
                    humanist polymath.
Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
•Was a classical theorist who saw architecture
as a way to address societal order.
•Alberti defined the Renaissance architect as a
universalist, an intellectual, a man of genius
and a consort to those in positions of power
and authority. He himself was a Renaissance
man.
•He worked in Rome after his studies in
Florence where he had many opportunities to
see the monuments of antiquities as well as
meet the artists who were visiting them.
•Alberti studied the writings of the classical
world like Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Pliny
the Elder.
•He wrote Della Pittura (On Painting) where it
included Brunelleschi’s theories of perspective
and De Re Aedificatoria (On Building), the
first architectural treatise of the Renaissance.
•The book was influenced by Vitruvius’ The
Ten Books of Architecture.
Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)




The Palazzo Rucellai (1446-1451) was the first building to use the classical orders on a
                           Renaissance domestic building.
San Maria Novella was the first completed design for a church facade in the
Renaissance. Alberti linked the lower aisle roof to the pedimented higher nave with
                                  flanking scrolls.




                Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
Basilica of Sant'Andrea, (1472-94)
                The Basilica of
                  Sant'Andrea is in Mantua, L
                  ombardy,
                   Italy. It is one of the major
                  works of 15th
                  century Renaissance
                  architecture in Northern Italy.
                  Commissioned by Ludovico II
                  Gonzaga, the church was
                  begun in 1462 according to
                  designs by Leon Battista
                  Alberti on a site occupied by
                  a Benedictine monastery, of
                  which the bell tower (1414)
                  remains. The
                  building, however, was
                  finished only 328 years later.

                The facade of S.
                  Andrea, Mantua, (1472-94) is
Interior, S. Andrea, Mantua
The assemblage of classical elements on the interior presents the first Renaissance
vision rivalling the monumentality of the interior spaces of such ancient Roman ruins
                             as the basilicas or baths.
Donato Bramante
                         (1444 –1514)
    was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance
   architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to
  Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the
       basis of the design executed by Michelangelo.
His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginning
of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Alexander VI
appointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the
               spot where Peter was crucified.
San Maria presso San Satiro
                                            (1482-92),
For the church of San Maria
presso San Satiro (1482-92), a
street prevented Bramante from
adding a conventional choir. He
created a low relief that when
viewed on axis, has the
convincing appearance of a barrel
vaulted choir. Using the
illusionistic potential of linear
perspective , he created what
must be the ultimate use of this
device in 15th c architecture.
The Tempietto, Rome
       (begun 1502)

•Built for King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella of Spain
•The erection of a monument atop
the spot where St Peter was
believed to have been martyred.
•Bramante designed his building to
embody both the Platonic
preference for ideal form and
Christian reverence for tradition, in
this case reverence for the circular
martyrium of the early church.
•The building is a 2-story cylinder
capped by a hemispherical dome
and surrounded by a one-story
Doric colonnade with entablature
and balustrade.
•The metope panels of the frieze
displays symbols connecting the
current authority of the Pope to the
Donato Bramante (1444-1514)
                          St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, (1505)




Bramante’s scheme represented a building on the scale of the Baths of Diocletian capped by a
 dome comparable to that of the Pantheon. Started in April 1506. By the time the church was
  completed in nearly 150 years later, almost every major architect of the 16th and 17th c had
                                        been engaged.
Andrea Palladio
                           (1508 –1580)
 Andrea Palladio was an architect active in the Republic of Venice.
  Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily
  by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in
the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in
 what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in
                       the architectural treatise,
    The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition.
The Four Books of Architecture
Andrea Palladio produced a body of work in
architecture that arguably has been the most
written about in all of Western architecture.
He went on study trips to Rome and made
accurate information on classical
proportions, which he later used in his
designs for buildings.

The Four Books of Architecture:
•Orders of architecture
•Domestic architecture
•Public buildings
•Town planning
•Temples


Numerals on the plans give widths and
lengths of rooms and heights. It was the most
coherent system of proportions in the
Renaissance.
Villa Rotonda, Vicenza (1566-70)




was his most famous residential design. It is square in plan with a central 2 story rotonda. The
 central domed space radiates out to the 4 porticoes and to the elegantly proportioned rooms
   in the corner. It is a powerful yet simple scheme, one that would be copied many times.
The design is for a completely
  symmetrical building having a
  square plan with four
  facades, each of which has a
  projecting portico. The whole
  is contained within an
  imaginary circle which
  touches each corner of the
  building and centres of the
  porticos.

The name La Rotonda refers to
 the central circular hall with
 its dome. To describe the
 villa, as a whole, as a
 'rotonda' is technically
 incorrect, as the building is
 not circular but rather the
 intersection of a square with
 a cross. Each portico has
 steps leading up, and opens
 via a small cabinet or corridor
 to the circular domed central
 hall. This and all other rooms
 were proportioned with
 mathematical precision
Villa Barbaro, Maser (1557-58) was the first example of a temple front used
                   extensively on a domestic building.




    Villa Barbaro, also known as
        the Villa di Maser, is a
         large villa at Maser in
the Veneto region of northern Italy. It
was designed and built by the Italian
      architect Andrea Palladio.
San Giorgio Maggiore, 1566-1610




San Giorgio Maggiore is a 16th century Benedictine church on the island of the
same name in Venice, designed by Andrea Palladio and built between 1566 and
 1610. The church is a basilica in the classical renaissance style and its brilliant
     white marble gleams above the blue water of the lagoon opposite the
 Piazzetta and forms the focal point of the view from every part of the Riva degli
                                    Schiavoni.
Palladio offered a new solution to the Renaissance problem
   of placing a classical facade in front of a basilican cross
      section. He combined two temple fronts: a tall one
   consisting of four Corinthian columns on pedestals that
  support a pediment at the end of the nave, superimposed
    over a wide one, with smaller Corinthian pilasters, that
                matches the sloping aisle roofs.
Giacomo da Vignola
                     (1507 –1573)
     was one of the great Italian architects of 16th
  century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are
the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church
                of the Gesù in Rome.
The Villa Farnese, also known as Villa Caprarola, Northern Lazio, Italy .
    This villa should not be confused with the Palazzo Farnese and the Villa
                            Farnesina, both in Rome.




    The villa is one of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture.
Ornament is used sparingly to achieve proportion and harmony. Thus while
the villa dominates the surroundings, its severe design also complements
 the site. This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction
  to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier.
"Canon of the five orders of architecture―, 1562
His two published books helped
  formulate the canon of
  classical architectural style.
  The earliest, "Canon of the
  five orders of architecture" (first
  published in 1562, probably in
  Rome), presented Vignola's
  practical system for
  constructing columns in the
  five classical orders
  (Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthia
  n and Composite) utilizing
  proportions which Vignola
  derived from his own
  measurements of classical
  Roman monuments.

The clarity and ease of use of
  Vignola's treatise caused it to
  become in succeeding
  centuries the most published
The Church of the Gesù, Rome, 1568
The Church of the
  Gesù is the mother
  church of the Society of
  Jesus, a Roman
  Catholic religious
  order also known as
  the Jesuits. Officially
  named Church of the
  Most Holy Name of
  Jesus, its facade is "the
  first
  truly baroque façade", i
  ntroducing the baroque
  style into architecture.

The church served as
  model for
  innumerable Jesuit chu
  rches all over the
  world, especially in
  the Americas. The
  Church of the Gesù is
  located in the Piazza
Michelangelo Buonarotti
                       (1475 – 1564)
         Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti
    Simoni commonly known as Michelangelo was
an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet,
and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on
  the development ofWestern art. Despite making few
 forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines
  he took up was of such a high order that he is often
        considered a contender for the title of the
     archetypal Renaissance man, along with fellow
                Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
The Palazzo Farnese




The Palazzo Farnese facade has a cornice and central window with coat of arms
at the piano nobile level. Unlike the Florentine interpretation of the type, this
palazzo has rustication only in the form of quoins and at the entry has classically
inspired window surrounds.
The Medici Chapels are two structures at the Basilica of San
  Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, and built as
  extensions to Brunelleschi's 15th century church, with the purpose of
  celebrating the Medici family, patrons of the church and Grand Dukes of
  Tuscany. The Sagrestia Nuova, ("New Sacristy"), was designed
  by Michelangelo.
Tomb of Lorenzo di Piero
                                  de'Medici with Dusk and
                                           Dawn




Tomb of Giuliano di Lorenzo de'
  Medici with Night and Day
The Laurentian library, Florence, 1524
Laurentian Library vestibule and
stairs by Michelangelo (c. 1524-
34). The library is located on
top of an existing monastery
building in San Lorenzo, Florence.
The staircase is a piece of
dynamic sculpture that appears to
pour forth from the upper level like
lava and compress the limited
floor space of the vestibule.
The impacted columns astride this
doorway create in architecture the
same kind of tension expressed in
the reclining figures at
Michelangelo’s Medici Chapel.
The stairway connecting the
  high, narrow space of the
  vestibule to the long, low room of
  the library proper is among the
  most remarkable inventions of
  mannerist architecture. It was built
  under the direction of Bartolomeo
  Ammannati in 1559--more than
  thirty years after work on the
  vestibule had begun--in
  accordance with a clay model sent
  from Rome by Michelangelo.

As has often been remarked, it
  resembles a lava flow that the
  walls seem intent on containing.
  Here the volutes assume a
  character totally at odds with the
  static quality of the consoles from
  which they derive, having been
  invested with great power, bulging
  forward in the center only to
  recede in the lateral swirls and
  assume conventional form to
  either side of the balustrade. The
The Laurentian
     library, Florence, 1524
The Laurentian Library is one of
  Michelangelo's most important
  architectural achievements.

The admirable distribution of the
  windows, the construction of the
  ceiling, and the fine entrance of
  the Vestibule can never be
  sufficiently extolled. Boldness and
  grace are equally conspicuous in
  the work as a whole, and in every
  part; in the cornices, corbels, the
  niches for statues, the
  commodious staircase, and its
  fanciful division-in all the
  building, as a word, which is so
  unlike the common fashion of
  treatment, that every one stands
  amazed at the sight thereof.

                – Giorgio Vasari.
The reading room of the     Laurentian Library
  Laurentian Library.     wooden reading desks.
Michelangelo's Pietà, a depiction of the
body of Jesus on the lap of his
mother Maryafter the Crucifixion, was
carved in 1499, when the sculptor was 24
years old.




                                           The Statue of
                                           David, completed by
                                           Michelangelo in 1504, is one of
                                           the most renowned works of
                                           the Renaissance.
St. Peter’s Basilica by Michelangelo, Donato
        Bramante, Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno.
Michelangelo’s dome for St Peter’s basilica has a hemispherical form. Della
Porta, who constructed the dome after Michelangelo’s death, employed a taller
profile in order to decrease the lateral thrust and use the lantern cupola to force the
weight of the dome towards the drum.
Papal Basilica of Saint Peter
has the largest interior of any Christian church in the
                         world
The Renaissance in France
French Renaissance architecture is the style of
architecture which was imported to France from Italy during
the early 16th century and developed in the light of local
architectural traditions.
During the early years of the 16th century the French were
involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not
just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but
also stylistic ideas. In the Loire Valley a wave of building was
carried and many Renaissance chateaux appeared at this
time, the earliest example being the Château d'Amboise.
The Renaissance in France – the Chateaux




The cultural center of France in the early 16th c was not Paris, but the valley of the
Loire, where the king and his nobles maintained elaborate chateaux or castles for
leisure, entertaining and attending to the pleasures of the hunt. Blois in particular
illustrates the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance style. Blois in
particular illustrates the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance through
the successive stages of its construction.
The Chateaux de Chambord
                             By Domenico de Cortona.




 In contrast to this town-based chateau, the Chateaux de Chambord (1519-47) was built in
   the countryside in the style of a fortified castle within a bailey or outer wall, thus neatly
overlaying Renaissance symmetry and detailing on a fundamentally medieval building type.
The Louvre Palace was altered
 frequently throughout the Middle
Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V
    converted the building into a
  residence and in 1546, Francis I
  renovated the site in the French
         Renaissance style.




  The Louvre, Paris (begun
           1546)
      By Pierre Lescot
The Place des Vosges, Paris, 1605
Originally known as the Place
 Royale, the Place des
 Vosges was built by Henri
 IV from 1605 to 1612. A
 true square (140 m x 140
 m), it embodied the first
 European program of royal
 city planning and is the
 oldest planned square
 in Paris.

What was new about the
 Place Royale in 1612 was
 that the housefronts were
 all built to the same
 design, probably by
 Baptiste du Cerceau, of red
 brick with strips of stone
 quoins over vaulted
 arcades that stand on
 square pillars. The steeply-
The Renaissance in England
Renaissance architecture arrived in England during the
reign of Elizabeth I, having first spread through the Low
    countries where among other features it acquired
 versions of the Dutch gable, and Flemish strapwork in
  geometric designs adorning the walls. The new style
   tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses
                such as Longleat House.
Elizabethan Country Houses
             Wollaton Hall by Robert Smythson, 1580




Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire, Robert Smythson (1580-88). Wollaton was
built between 1580 and 1588 for Sir Francis Willoughby and is believed to
be designed by the Elizabethan architect, Robert Smythson, who was the
Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire by Robert Smythson
                              1590-97




Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, Robeert Smythson (1590-97) Hardwick Hall, in
Derbyshire, is one of the most significant Elizabethan country houses in England. In
common with its architect Robert Smythson's other works at both Longleat House
and Wollaton Hall, Hardwick Hall is one of the earliest examples of the English
interpretation of the Renaissance style of architecture, which came into fashion when
it was no longer thought necessary to fortify one's home.
Inigo Jones 1573 – 1652
Inigo Jones is
   regarded as the
   first significant
   British architect of
   the modern
   period, and the
   first to bring
   Italianate
   Renaissance
   architecture to
   England. He left
   his mark on
   London by single
   buildings, such as
   the Banqueting
   House, Whitehall
   and in area
   design for Covent        Above: Queen's House, Greenwich, 1616 was built for
   Garden square            James I’s wife, Anne of Denmark. It was finished in 1635
   which became a           and was the first strictly classical building in
   model for future         England, employing ideas found in the architecture of
   developments in
                            Palladio and ancient Rome. This is Inigo Jones's earliest
   the West End. St.
   Paul’s, Covent           surviving work.
Banqueting
                                                      House, Whitehall, Londo
                                                      n (1619-22) The
                                                      Banqueting
                                                      House, Whitehall, Londo
                                                      n, is the grandest and
                                                      best known survivor of
                                                      the architectural genre
                                                      of banqueting
                                                      house, and the only
                                                      remaining component of
                                                      the Palace of Whitehall.
                                                      The building is
                                                      important in the history
                                                      of English architecture
                                                      as the first building to be
                                                      completed in the neo-
                                                      classical style which
In Tudor and Early Stuart English architecture a      was to transform
banqueting house is a separate building reached       English architecture.
     through pleasure gardens from the main
 residence, whose use is purely for entertaining.
                                                    Begun in 1619, and
                                                      designed by Inigo Jones
                                                      in a style influenced by
FIN
The Vitruvius
Man
For if a man be placed flat on his
back, with his hands and feet
extended, and a pair of
compasses centered at the
navel, the fingers and toes of his
two hands and feet will touch the
circumference of a circle
described therefrom. And, just as
the human body yields a circular
outline, so too a square form may
be found from it. For if we
measure the soles of the feet to
the top of the head, and then
apply that measure to the
outstretched arms, the breadth
will be found to be the same as
the height, as in the case of
plane surfaces which are
perfectly square.
The Tiempetto
Donato Bramante
  (1444-1514)
Villa Rotonda
Andrea Palladio (1508-1580)
Architecture, music and geometry
•Pythagoras – discovered musical
consonances
•Renaissance architects derived
whole number ratios, such as 1:1.
1:2, 2:3 and 3:4. They believed that
the innate harmony of these ratios
would be impressed upon anyone
experiencing spaces determined by
them. Humanists were convinced that
God’s cosmic order could be
expressed on earth through such
mathematical proportions, which were
inevitably related to the mensuration
of the human body.


In this context, the circular church
represented the most perfect
form, absolute, immutable.
Echoing celestial harmony.
(History of Architecture 2) October 2012 renaissance architecture
(History of Architecture 2) October 2012 renaissance architecture
Giovanni bataggio
Pavia cathedral (1490)

                         Santa maria della croce
Frequently
  painted or
  decorated




Ceilings       the sistine chapel ceiling

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(History of Architecture 2) October 2012 renaissance architecture

  • 2. Outline  Time and Place  Map of Italy during the Renaissance  Socio-Historical Background - The lessons of Greece and Rome - New technologies and inventions - A new way of thinking  Renaissance Architects and their Works  The Renaissance in France and England
  • 3. Time and Place The Renaissance (Italian: Rinascimento, from ri- "again" and nascere "be born") was a cultural movement that spanned roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Florence in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.  App 1400 – 1700AD  Italy - In the middle ages, was composed of different city-states and fiefdoms eg Florence, Venice, Milan, Mantua. Florence – is considered as the birthplace of the Renaissance In Florence, the wealthy wool merchants and bankers sought prestige and status through their patronage of arts and letters, and architects and artists displayed their
  • 4. What was the Renaissance? The intellectual transformation that happened during the Renaissance has resulted with this period being viewed as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era.
  • 5. The Renaissance in As a cultural movement, it Italy encompassed a resurgence of learning based on: •classical sources •the development of linear perspective in painting •gradual but widespread educational reform. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man―.
  • 6. Access to the Classical Texts and the Teaching of Humanities  The key to a new vision of human life and therefore of architecture came from the scholars’ access to the classical texts.  International trading exchanges had helped to disseminate ideas, and a group of teachers of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, history and philosophy) who acquired the name of Humanists, played a crucial part in their propagation.  These texts, including eventually The Duke of Urbino. The Duke about architecture were spread collected one of the finest libraries in through developments in printing. Italy, employing it is said, thirty or forty scribes for fourteen years to (Gutenberg invented the movable copy the great classical and modern type in 1450) texts.
  • 7. Humanism and the Renaissance  Humanism was a new world view. It celebrated rationality and mankind’s ability to make and act upon empirical observations of the physical world.  Humanist scholars and artists recovered classical Greek and Roman texts and aspired to create a modern world rivalling that of the ancients. One of the most important was Vitruvius’ text on architecture which had been re discovered in Switzerland.  Rather than train professionals in jargon and strict practice, humanists sought to create a citizenry (including, sometimes, women) able to speak and write with eloquence and clarity. Thus, they would be capable of better engaging the civic life of their communities and persuading others to virtuous and prudent actions.  This was to be accomplished through the study of the studia humanitatis, today known as the humanities: grammar, rhetoric, history, poetry and moral philosophy.
  • 8. Vitruvius’ Ten Books of Architecture In 1487 the ancient text of Vitruvius was one of the first books printed. The impact of printing was tremendous. The architectural theorists of the revived antique style – Alberti, Serlio, Francesco de Giorgio, Palladio, Vignola, Guilio Romano – all wrote treatises that owed something to Vitruvius. These men were no longer master masons, however brilliant, they were scholars. Architecture was no longer the continuation of a practical tradition, handed on through mason’s lodges; it was a literary idea. The architect was not just
  • 9. De Architectura ("On Architecture") Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC) was a Roman writer, architect and engineer, active in the 1st century BC. He is best known as the author of the multi-volume work De Architectura ("On Architecture"). Vitruvius is famous for asserting in his book De architectura that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of firmitas, utilitas, venustas – that is, it must be solid, useful, beautiful. These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad.
  • 10. The Vitruvian Man  Rather than using the complex, geometric transformations of medieval master masons, Renaissance architects favoured simple forms such as the square and the circle.  They made drawings of the human figure inscribed within the basic outline of the circle and the square, thereby demonstrating that the human proportions reflected divine ratios. Left: The Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci an illustration of the human body inscribed in the circle and the square derived from a passage
  • 11. Brunelleschi’s Discovery of Perspective Filippo Brunelleschi (1377- 1446) A Florentine goldsmith, Brunelleschi moved to Rome and visited the ancient ruins. Brunelleschi codified the principles of geometrically accurate linear perspective, making possible the exact representation of a 3-dimensional object on a 2-dimensional surface. In making careful drawings of such repetitive elements as the arches of aqueducts, he realized that parallel horizontal lines converge at a point on the horizon and that elements of like size diminish proportionally in the distance. This discovery had a profound effect of art, architecture and civic design during
  • 12. Among the cultures of the ancient world, only the Greeks and the Romans had spacial depth in art figured out. That is to say, they understood how to create an image with convincing depth and a painted or sculpted illusion of 3 dimensional space. Brunelleschi observed that with a fixed single point of view, parallel lines appear to converge at a single point in the distance. Brunelleschi applied a single vanishing point to a canvas, and discovered a method for calculating depth. Trinity,” Masaccio (1427-28) Right: “The
  • 13. Other Developments  Gunpowder changed the nature of warfare and therefore relations among nations.  The invention of the compass and the development of new techniques in shipbuilding made it possible to expand the limits of the known world into China, the East Indies, India and America.  Banking, no longer frowned upon by the Church, began to play a central role in society.  The hereditary nobles of feudal times were ousted by a new class of merchant princes – the Medici, the Strozzi, the Rucellai, the Pitti – whose commercial empires spread throughout Europe.  Merchant princes and the artists to whom they extended financial patronage became the new universal men of the Renaissance.
  • 14. The Periods of the Renaissance  Early Renaissance ca. 1400-1500 Brunelleschi, Alberti  High Renaissance ca. 1500-1525 Bramante  Late Renaissance ca. 1525-1600 Palladio
  • 15. Renaissance Architecture  Renaissance architecture tends to feature planar classicism (i.e. ―flat classicism‖). In other words, the walls of a Renaissance building (both exterior and interior) are embellished with classical motifs (e.g. columns, pediments, blind arches) of minor physical depth, such that they intrude minimally on the two-dimensional appearance of the walls. Put another way, the walls of a Renaissance building serve as flat canvases for a classical veneer. This contrasts sharply with Baroque architecture, in which walls are deeply curved and sculpted (―sculpted classicism‖).  Planar classicism also tends to divide a wall into neat sections, with such elements as columns, pilasters, and stringcourses. (A stringcourse is a thin, horizontal strip of material that runs along the exterior of a building, often to mark the division between stories.) A Baroque wall, on the other hand, is treated as a continuous, undulating whole.  The foremost Renaissance building types were the church, palazzo (urban mansion), and villa (country mansion). While various great names are associated with Renaissance church and palazzo design, the most famous villa architect by far
  • 16. Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion, geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture, of which many examples remained.
  • 17. Characteristics  Inspired by Roman buildings, orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.  Plans - square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module  Facades - symmetrical around their vertical axis, domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice  Columns and pilasters - the Roman orders of columns are used: Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and Composite  Arches – semi circular  Vaults – do not have ribs  Domes - the dome is used frequently, both as a very large structural feature that is visible from the exterior
  • 18. Inspired by Roman buildings, orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the use of semicircular arches hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings. Interior courtyard of the Palazzo Palazzo Massimo Alle Colonn Farnese, Rome, by Antonio da Sangallo Rome, 1532-36 the Younger and Michelangelo, 1517–89.
  • 19. Plans - square, symmetrical appearance in which proportions are usually based on a module Plan of Chateau de Chamborg, France 1519-1527 The Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore or the Florence Cathedral
  • 20. Facades - symmetrical around their vertical axis, domestic buildings are often surmounted by a cornice. Below: Palladian Villas
  • 21. Characteristics of Elements  Ceilings - roofs are fitted with flat or coffered ceilings, frequently painted or decorated  Doors - usually have square lintels, set within an arch or surmounted by a triangular or segmental pediment, in the Mannerist period the ―Palladian‖ arch was employed  Walls - external walls are generally of highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses, the corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins, basements and ground floors were often rusticated  Details -courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory, mouldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture, sculptured figures may be set in niches or placed on plinths.
  • 22. Above: Sant'Agostino, Rome Giacomo di Pietrasanta, 1483 Ceilings - roofs are fitted with Doors - usually have square lintels, set within flat or coffered an arch or surmounted by a triangular or ceilings, frequently painted segmental pediment, in the Mannerist period the ―Palladian‖ arch was employed
  • 23. Left: Palazzo Medici- Riccardi, Michelozzo di Bartolomeo. Top: Quoining on the corners of Palazzo Aragona Gonzaga, Rome. Walls - external walls are generally of highly finished ashlar masonry, laid in straight courses, the corners of buildings are often emphasised by rusticated quoins, basements and ground floors were often rusticated
  • 24. Rustication A popular decorative treatment of the Renaissance palazzo was rustication, in which a masonry wall is textured rather than smooth. This can entail leaving grooves in the joints between smooth blocks, using roughly dressed blocks, or using blocks that have been deliberately textured. The rustication of a Renaissance palazzo is often differentiated between stories.
  • 25. Details -courses, mouldings and all decorative details are carved with great precision. Studying and mastering the details of the ancient Romans was one of the important aspects of Renaissance theory, mouldings stand out around doors and windows rather than being recessed, as in Gothic Architecture, sculptured figures may be set in niches
  • 26. Giorgio Vasari and the Vite Giorgio Vasari 30 July 1511 – 27 June 1574) was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Renaissance artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. As the first Italian art historian, he initiated the genre of an encyclopedia of artistic biographies that continues today. Vasari coined the term "Renaissance" (rinascita) in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air from the time of Alberti. Vasari's Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori (Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects) — dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici— was first published in 1550.
  • 27. The Architects of the Renaissance Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 –1446) Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (1396-1472) Leon Battista Alberti( 1404-1472) Donato Bramante (1444 –1514) Andrea Palladio (1508 –1580) Giacomo da Vignola (1507 –1573) Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475 – 1564)
  • 28. Filippo Brunelleschi Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446) was one of the foremost architects and engineers of the Italian Renaissance. He is perhaps most famous for his discovery of perspective and for engineering the dome of the Florence Cathedral, but his accomplishments also include other architectural works, sculpture, mathematics, engineering and even ship design. His principal surviving works are to be found in Florence, Italy.
  • 29. The Florence Cathedral dome (1436) by Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi drew upon his knowledge of ancient Roman construction as well as lingering Gothic traditions to produce an innovative synthesis. •Employed the Gothic pointed arch cross section instead of a semi circular one •To reduce dead load, he created a double shell as was done in the Pantheon •Employed 24 vertical ribs and 5 horizontal rings of sandstone, as observed in the ruins of Roman construction •The cupola on top was a temple of masonry acting as a weight on top of
  • 30. The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444 by Filippo Brunelleschi The Foundling Hospital is often considered as the first building of the Renaissance.
  • 31. The Foundling Hospital, 1421-1444 by Filippo Brunelleschi • Featured a continuous arcade • At the hospital the arcading is three dimensional, creating a loggia with domed vaults in each bay. • Use of Corinthian columns across its main facade and around an internal courtyard. • The design was based in Roman architecture.
  • 32. Other Brunelleschi projects Pazzi Chapel, 1460 The facade was inspired by the Roman triumphal arch. San Lorenzo, Florence, (1430-33) This church is seen as one of the milestones of Renaissance architecture, with pietra serena or dark stone articulation.
  • 33. The Basilica of Santa Maria del Santo Spirito ("St. Mary of the Holy Spirit"), 1481 San Spirito, begun 1445. The plan played on the configurations of the square. The current church was constructed over the pre-existing ruins of an Augustinian priory from the 13th century, destroyed by a fire.
  • 34. Michelozzo di Bartolomeo (1396-1472) Italian architect and sculptor.
  • 35. Michelozzo Bartolomeo (1396-1472) and the Palazzo Medici Cosimo de Medici of Florence The Palazzo Medici is a Renaissance palace located in Florence. • Bartolomeo was a student of Brunelleschi. • The Palazzo was influenced by the Foundling Hospital. • Used the arcaded courtyard of the hospital.
  • 36. The Palazzo Medici, Florence 1444 •Rustication- stone blocks with deeply recessed chamfered joints •Had three tiers of graduated textures, beginning with rock-faced stone at the street level and concluding with smooth ashlar at the third level below a 10-ft high cornice with modillions, egg and dart moldings and a dentil course. •It was the first such cornice since ancient times. •The building reflected Renaissance ideals of symmetry, the use of classical elements and careful use of mathematical proportions.
  • 37. Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) Alberti was an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, ph ilosopher, cryptographer and general Renaissance humanist polymath.
  • 38. Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) •Was a classical theorist who saw architecture as a way to address societal order. •Alberti defined the Renaissance architect as a universalist, an intellectual, a man of genius and a consort to those in positions of power and authority. He himself was a Renaissance man. •He worked in Rome after his studies in Florence where he had many opportunities to see the monuments of antiquities as well as meet the artists who were visiting them. •Alberti studied the writings of the classical world like Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch and Pliny the Elder. •He wrote Della Pittura (On Painting) where it included Brunelleschi’s theories of perspective and De Re Aedificatoria (On Building), the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance. •The book was influenced by Vitruvius’ The Ten Books of Architecture.
  • 39. Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472) The Palazzo Rucellai (1446-1451) was the first building to use the classical orders on a Renaissance domestic building.
  • 40. San Maria Novella was the first completed design for a church facade in the Renaissance. Alberti linked the lower aisle roof to the pedimented higher nave with flanking scrolls. Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
  • 41. Basilica of Sant'Andrea, (1472-94) The Basilica of Sant'Andrea is in Mantua, L ombardy, Italy. It is one of the major works of 15th century Renaissance architecture in Northern Italy. Commissioned by Ludovico II Gonzaga, the church was begun in 1462 according to designs by Leon Battista Alberti on a site occupied by a Benedictine monastery, of which the bell tower (1414) remains. The building, however, was finished only 328 years later. The facade of S. Andrea, Mantua, (1472-94) is
  • 42. Interior, S. Andrea, Mantua The assemblage of classical elements on the interior presents the first Renaissance vision rivalling the monumentality of the interior spaces of such ancient Roman ruins as the basilicas or baths.
  • 43. Donato Bramante (1444 –1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of the design executed by Michelangelo. His Tempietto (San Pietro in Montorio) marked the beginning of the High Renaissance in Rome (1502) when Alexander VI appointed him to build a sanctuary that allegedly marked the spot where Peter was crucified.
  • 44. San Maria presso San Satiro (1482-92), For the church of San Maria presso San Satiro (1482-92), a street prevented Bramante from adding a conventional choir. He created a low relief that when viewed on axis, has the convincing appearance of a barrel vaulted choir. Using the illusionistic potential of linear perspective , he created what must be the ultimate use of this device in 15th c architecture.
  • 45. The Tempietto, Rome (begun 1502) •Built for King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain •The erection of a monument atop the spot where St Peter was believed to have been martyred. •Bramante designed his building to embody both the Platonic preference for ideal form and Christian reverence for tradition, in this case reverence for the circular martyrium of the early church. •The building is a 2-story cylinder capped by a hemispherical dome and surrounded by a one-story Doric colonnade with entablature and balustrade. •The metope panels of the frieze displays symbols connecting the current authority of the Pope to the
  • 46. Donato Bramante (1444-1514) St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, (1505) Bramante’s scheme represented a building on the scale of the Baths of Diocletian capped by a dome comparable to that of the Pantheon. Started in April 1506. By the time the church was completed in nearly 150 years later, almost every major architect of the 16th and 17th c had been engaged.
  • 47. Andrea Palladio (1508 –1580) Andrea Palladio was an architect active in the Republic of Venice. Palladio, influenced by Roman and Greek architecture, primarily by Vitruvius, is widely considered the most influential individual in the history of Western architecture. All of his buildings are located in what was the Venetian Republic, but his teachings, summarized in the architectural treatise, The Four Books of Architecture, gained him wide recognition.
  • 48. The Four Books of Architecture Andrea Palladio produced a body of work in architecture that arguably has been the most written about in all of Western architecture. He went on study trips to Rome and made accurate information on classical proportions, which he later used in his designs for buildings. The Four Books of Architecture: •Orders of architecture •Domestic architecture •Public buildings •Town planning •Temples Numerals on the plans give widths and lengths of rooms and heights. It was the most coherent system of proportions in the Renaissance.
  • 49. Villa Rotonda, Vicenza (1566-70) was his most famous residential design. It is square in plan with a central 2 story rotonda. The central domed space radiates out to the 4 porticoes and to the elegantly proportioned rooms in the corner. It is a powerful yet simple scheme, one that would be copied many times.
  • 50. The design is for a completely symmetrical building having a square plan with four facades, each of which has a projecting portico. The whole is contained within an imaginary circle which touches each corner of the building and centres of the porticos. The name La Rotonda refers to the central circular hall with its dome. To describe the villa, as a whole, as a 'rotonda' is technically incorrect, as the building is not circular but rather the intersection of a square with a cross. Each portico has steps leading up, and opens via a small cabinet or corridor to the circular domed central hall. This and all other rooms were proportioned with mathematical precision
  • 51. Villa Barbaro, Maser (1557-58) was the first example of a temple front used extensively on a domestic building. Villa Barbaro, also known as the Villa di Maser, is a large villa at Maser in the Veneto region of northern Italy. It was designed and built by the Italian architect Andrea Palladio.
  • 52. San Giorgio Maggiore, 1566-1610 San Giorgio Maggiore is a 16th century Benedictine church on the island of the same name in Venice, designed by Andrea Palladio and built between 1566 and 1610. The church is a basilica in the classical renaissance style and its brilliant white marble gleams above the blue water of the lagoon opposite the Piazzetta and forms the focal point of the view from every part of the Riva degli Schiavoni.
  • 53. Palladio offered a new solution to the Renaissance problem of placing a classical facade in front of a basilican cross section. He combined two temple fronts: a tall one consisting of four Corinthian columns on pedestals that support a pediment at the end of the nave, superimposed over a wide one, with smaller Corinthian pilasters, that matches the sloping aisle roofs.
  • 54. Giacomo da Vignola (1507 –1573) was one of the great Italian architects of 16th century Mannerism. His two great masterpieces are the Villa Farnese at Caprarola and the Jesuits' Church of the Gesù in Rome.
  • 55. The Villa Farnese, also known as Villa Caprarola, Northern Lazio, Italy . This villa should not be confused with the Palazzo Farnese and the Villa Farnesina, both in Rome. The villa is one of the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. Ornament is used sparingly to achieve proportion and harmony. Thus while the villa dominates the surroundings, its severe design also complements the site. This particular style, known today as Mannerism, was a reaction to the ornate earlier High Renaissance designs of twenty years earlier.
  • 56. "Canon of the five orders of architecture―, 1562 His two published books helped formulate the canon of classical architectural style. The earliest, "Canon of the five orders of architecture" (first published in 1562, probably in Rome), presented Vignola's practical system for constructing columns in the five classical orders (Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthia n and Composite) utilizing proportions which Vignola derived from his own measurements of classical Roman monuments. The clarity and ease of use of Vignola's treatise caused it to become in succeeding centuries the most published
  • 57. The Church of the Gesù, Rome, 1568 The Church of the Gesù is the mother church of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order also known as the Jesuits. Officially named Church of the Most Holy Name of Jesus, its facade is "the first truly baroque façade", i ntroducing the baroque style into architecture. The church served as model for innumerable Jesuit chu rches all over the world, especially in the Americas. The Church of the Gesù is located in the Piazza
  • 58. Michelangelo Buonarotti (1475 – 1564) Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni commonly known as Michelangelo was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development ofWestern art. Despite making few forays beyond the arts, his versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with fellow Italian Leonardo da Vinci.
  • 59. The Palazzo Farnese The Palazzo Farnese facade has a cornice and central window with coat of arms at the piano nobile level. Unlike the Florentine interpretation of the type, this palazzo has rustication only in the form of quoins and at the entry has classically inspired window surrounds.
  • 60. The Medici Chapels are two structures at the Basilica of San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, and built as extensions to Brunelleschi's 15th century church, with the purpose of celebrating the Medici family, patrons of the church and Grand Dukes of Tuscany. The Sagrestia Nuova, ("New Sacristy"), was designed by Michelangelo.
  • 61. Tomb of Lorenzo di Piero de'Medici with Dusk and Dawn Tomb of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici with Night and Day
  • 62. The Laurentian library, Florence, 1524 Laurentian Library vestibule and stairs by Michelangelo (c. 1524- 34). The library is located on top of an existing monastery building in San Lorenzo, Florence. The staircase is a piece of dynamic sculpture that appears to pour forth from the upper level like lava and compress the limited floor space of the vestibule. The impacted columns astride this doorway create in architecture the same kind of tension expressed in the reclining figures at Michelangelo’s Medici Chapel.
  • 63. The stairway connecting the high, narrow space of the vestibule to the long, low room of the library proper is among the most remarkable inventions of mannerist architecture. It was built under the direction of Bartolomeo Ammannati in 1559--more than thirty years after work on the vestibule had begun--in accordance with a clay model sent from Rome by Michelangelo. As has often been remarked, it resembles a lava flow that the walls seem intent on containing. Here the volutes assume a character totally at odds with the static quality of the consoles from which they derive, having been invested with great power, bulging forward in the center only to recede in the lateral swirls and assume conventional form to either side of the balustrade. The
  • 64. The Laurentian library, Florence, 1524 The Laurentian Library is one of Michelangelo's most important architectural achievements. The admirable distribution of the windows, the construction of the ceiling, and the fine entrance of the Vestibule can never be sufficiently extolled. Boldness and grace are equally conspicuous in the work as a whole, and in every part; in the cornices, corbels, the niches for statues, the commodious staircase, and its fanciful division-in all the building, as a word, which is so unlike the common fashion of treatment, that every one stands amazed at the sight thereof. – Giorgio Vasari.
  • 65. The reading room of the Laurentian Library Laurentian Library. wooden reading desks.
  • 66. Michelangelo's Pietà, a depiction of the body of Jesus on the lap of his mother Maryafter the Crucifixion, was carved in 1499, when the sculptor was 24 years old. The Statue of David, completed by Michelangelo in 1504, is one of the most renowned works of the Renaissance.
  • 67. St. Peter’s Basilica by Michelangelo, Donato Bramante, Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno. Michelangelo’s dome for St Peter’s basilica has a hemispherical form. Della Porta, who constructed the dome after Michelangelo’s death, employed a taller profile in order to decrease the lateral thrust and use the lantern cupola to force the weight of the dome towards the drum.
  • 68. Papal Basilica of Saint Peter has the largest interior of any Christian church in the world
  • 69. The Renaissance in France French Renaissance architecture is the style of architecture which was imported to France from Italy during the early 16th century and developed in the light of local architectural traditions. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but also stylistic ideas. In the Loire Valley a wave of building was carried and many Renaissance chateaux appeared at this time, the earliest example being the Château d'Amboise.
  • 70. The Renaissance in France – the Chateaux The cultural center of France in the early 16th c was not Paris, but the valley of the Loire, where the king and his nobles maintained elaborate chateaux or castles for leisure, entertaining and attending to the pleasures of the hunt. Blois in particular illustrates the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance style. Blois in particular illustrates the transition from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance through the successive stages of its construction.
  • 71. The Chateaux de Chambord By Domenico de Cortona. In contrast to this town-based chateau, the Chateaux de Chambord (1519-47) was built in the countryside in the style of a fortified castle within a bailey or outer wall, thus neatly overlaying Renaissance symmetry and detailing on a fundamentally medieval building type.
  • 72. The Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis I renovated the site in the French Renaissance style. The Louvre, Paris (begun 1546) By Pierre Lescot
  • 73. The Place des Vosges, Paris, 1605
  • 74. Originally known as the Place Royale, the Place des Vosges was built by Henri IV from 1605 to 1612. A true square (140 m x 140 m), it embodied the first European program of royal city planning and is the oldest planned square in Paris. What was new about the Place Royale in 1612 was that the housefronts were all built to the same design, probably by Baptiste du Cerceau, of red brick with strips of stone quoins over vaulted arcades that stand on square pillars. The steeply-
  • 75. The Renaissance in England Renaissance architecture arrived in England during the reign of Elizabeth I, having first spread through the Low countries where among other features it acquired versions of the Dutch gable, and Flemish strapwork in geometric designs adorning the walls. The new style tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House.
  • 76. Elizabethan Country Houses Wollaton Hall by Robert Smythson, 1580 Wollaton Hall, Nottinghamshire, Robert Smythson (1580-88). Wollaton was built between 1580 and 1588 for Sir Francis Willoughby and is believed to be designed by the Elizabethan architect, Robert Smythson, who was the
  • 77. Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire by Robert Smythson 1590-97 Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, Robeert Smythson (1590-97) Hardwick Hall, in Derbyshire, is one of the most significant Elizabethan country houses in England. In common with its architect Robert Smythson's other works at both Longleat House and Wollaton Hall, Hardwick Hall is one of the earliest examples of the English interpretation of the Renaissance style of architecture, which came into fashion when it was no longer thought necessary to fortify one's home.
  • 78. Inigo Jones 1573 – 1652 Inigo Jones is regarded as the first significant British architect of the modern period, and the first to bring Italianate Renaissance architecture to England. He left his mark on London by single buildings, such as the Banqueting House, Whitehall and in area design for Covent Above: Queen's House, Greenwich, 1616 was built for Garden square James I’s wife, Anne of Denmark. It was finished in 1635 which became a and was the first strictly classical building in model for future England, employing ideas found in the architecture of developments in Palladio and ancient Rome. This is Inigo Jones's earliest the West End. St. Paul’s, Covent surviving work.
  • 79. Banqueting House, Whitehall, Londo n (1619-22) The Banqueting House, Whitehall, Londo n, is the grandest and best known survivor of the architectural genre of banqueting house, and the only remaining component of the Palace of Whitehall. The building is important in the history of English architecture as the first building to be completed in the neo- classical style which In Tudor and Early Stuart English architecture a was to transform banqueting house is a separate building reached English architecture. through pleasure gardens from the main residence, whose use is purely for entertaining. Begun in 1619, and designed by Inigo Jones in a style influenced by
  • 80. FIN
  • 81. The Vitruvius Man For if a man be placed flat on his back, with his hands and feet extended, and a pair of compasses centered at the navel, the fingers and toes of his two hands and feet will touch the circumference of a circle described therefrom. And, just as the human body yields a circular outline, so too a square form may be found from it. For if we measure the soles of the feet to the top of the head, and then apply that measure to the outstretched arms, the breadth will be found to be the same as the height, as in the case of plane surfaces which are perfectly square.
  • 84. Architecture, music and geometry •Pythagoras – discovered musical consonances •Renaissance architects derived whole number ratios, such as 1:1. 1:2, 2:3 and 3:4. They believed that the innate harmony of these ratios would be impressed upon anyone experiencing spaces determined by them. Humanists were convinced that God’s cosmic order could be expressed on earth through such mathematical proportions, which were inevitably related to the mensuration of the human body. In this context, the circular church represented the most perfect form, absolute, immutable. Echoing celestial harmony.
  • 87. Giovanni bataggio Pavia cathedral (1490) Santa maria della croce
  • 88. Frequently painted or decorated Ceilings the sistine chapel ceiling

Editor's Notes

  1. Renaissance humanism was an activity of cultural and educational reform, engaged by scholars, writers, and civic leaders who are today known as humanists. It developed during the fourteenth and turn-of-the fifteenth centuries, and was a response to the challenge of Medieval scholastic education, which emphasized practical, pre-professional and scientific studies. Scholasticism focused on preparing men to be doctors, lawyers or professional theologians, and was taught from approved textbooks in logic, natural philosophy, medicine, law and theology. The main centres of humanism were Florence and Naples.
  2. Despite its history, the building is seen as one of the great examples of the new style. Its more notable features include:the attempt to create a proportional relationship between nave and aisle (aisle bays are square whereas nave bays are 2X1.the articulation of the structure in pietraserena (Italian: “dark stone”).the use of an integrated system of column, arches, entablatures.a clear relationship between column and pilaster, the latter meant to be read as a type of embedded pier.the use of proper proportions for the height of the columnsthe use of spherical segments in the vaults of the side aisles.
  3. Though later changes and expansions altered Alberti’s design, the church is still considered to be one of Alberti's most complete works.
  4. history.Vignola's second treatise, the posthumously-published Due regoledellaprospettivapratica ["Two rules of practical perspective"] (Bologna 1583), favours one-point perspective rather than two point methods such as the bifocal construction. Vignola presented— without theoretical obscurities— practical applications which could be understood by a prospective patron.
  5. The stairway connecting the high, narrow space of the vestibule to the long, low room of the library proper is among the most remarkable inventions of mannerist architecture. It was built under the direction of BartolomeoAmmannati in 1559--more than thirty years after work on the vestibule had begun--in accordance with a clay model sent from Rome by Michelangelo (who had described its design in a letter to Vasari as early as 1555). As has often been remarked, it resembles a lava flow that the walls seem intent on containing. Here the volutes assume a character totally at odds with the static quality of the consoles from which they derive, having been invested with great power, bulging forward in the center only to recede in the lateral swirls and assume conventional form to either side of the balustrade. The large volutes easing the transition from the central to the lateral stairs also stabilize the balustrade. The opposing forces given physical form here are undeniably biomorphic in character.