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PPT ON NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Renewable energy resources)

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Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy expenditure.
Natural resources that can be replaced and reused by nature are termed renewable. Natural resources that cannot be replaced are termed nonrenewable.
Renewable resources are replaced through natural processes at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are used, and depletion is usually not a worry.
Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible and are extracted faster than the rate at which they formed. E.g. Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas).

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PPT ON NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES (Renewable energy resources)

  1. 1. NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGYNON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCESRESOURCES PRESENTED BY :- ANKIT SAXENA & ANAND PRAKASH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPT.
  2. 2. WELCOME TO FUTURE
  3. 3. Introduction Energy generated by using wind, tides, solar, geothermal heat, and biomass including farm and animal waste is known as non-conventional energy. All these sources are renewable or inexhaustible and do not cause environmental pollution. More over they do not require heavy expenditure.
  4. 4. Non renewable vs. Renewable  Natural resources that can be replaced and reused by nature are termed renewable. Natural resources that cannot be replaced are termed nonrenewable.  Renewable resources are replaced through natural processes at a rate that is equal to or greater than the rate at which they are used, and depletion is usually not a worry.  Nonrenewable resources are exhaustible and are extracted faster than the rate at which they formed. E.g. Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas).
  5. 5. How much longer can we depend on Fossil fuels?  Because they are fossil fuels they do have a life expectancy.  Burning fossil fuels has increased atmospheric pollution.  The carbon stored in fossil fuels is released as carbon dioxide when they are burnt – this leads to the green house effect and global warming.
  6. 6. Sector wise Consumption of Electricity (Utilities), Natural Gas, Petroleum products during 2011-12 Reference: Energy Statistics 2013
  7. 7. Source wise and state wise estimated potential of renewable power in INDIA as on 31.03.2012
  8. 8. Solar Energy
  9. 9. Radiant Energy
  10. 10. Heating Water Space Heating Generating Electrical Energy Major uses of Solar Energy
  11. 11. Solar Technologies  Day lighting  Passive Solar Heating Concentrating Solar Thermal Photovoltaic's (PV)
  12. 12. Passive Solar These homes in Montana and California with a passive solar design heats the home in the winter.
  13. 13. How a Solar Power Plant Works
  14. 14. Power Tower
  15. 15. Photovoltaic Components PV Cells Modules Arrays
  16. 16. Clean Sustainable (can be used for longer duration) Free of cost Provide Electricity to Remote Places Advantages of Solar Energy
  17. 17. Disadvantages of Solar Energy  Inefficient – maximum efficiency up to 30%.  Costly equipment.  Part Time.  High maintenance cost.
  18. 18. Photovoltaic Array Fields
  19. 19. Sandia National Laboratories, US
  20. 20. The Tides • Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels due to combined effect of the Moon , the Sun and rotation of the Earth. HIGH TIDE LOW TIDE
  21. 21. Tidal EnergyTidal Energy
  22. 22. Tidal EnergyTidal Energy • Millions of gallons of water flow onto shore during tidal flowsMillions of gallons of water flow onto shore during tidal flows and away from shore during ebb (move away from the land)and away from shore during ebb (move away from the land) tide periods.tide periods. • The larger the tidal influence, the greater the displacement ofThe larger the tidal influence, the greater the displacement of water and therefore the more potential energy that can bewater and therefore the more potential energy that can be harvested during power generation.harvested during power generation.
  23. 23. • Tidal energy is one of many forms of hydropower generation. • Tidal power has many advantages as compared to other forms of renewable energy. – It is predictable – Global Climate Change should only increase its generating capacity due to higher ocean levels. – It is completely carbon neutral like wind or hydro energy.
  24. 24. Tidal Stream GeneratorsTidal Stream Generators
  25. 25. Tidal Stream GeneratorsTidal Stream Generators • The world’s only operational commercial- scale tidal turbine, SeaGen, was installed in Strangford Narrows in Northern Ireland in 2008. • The prototype SeaGen turbine produces 1.2MW with currents of 2.4m/s or more. The capacity factor exceeds 60%. • The facility is an accredited UK power station, and can contribute up to 6,000MWh annually to the UK grid, the equivalent of approximately 1500 homes.
  26. 26. Tidal Stream Generator SpecificsTidal Stream Generator Specifics
  27. 27. Advantages of using Tidal PowerAdvantages of using Tidal Power • Predictable source of “green" energy during lifetime ofPredictable source of “green" energy during lifetime of barragebarrage • It produces no greenhouse gases or other waste; it needsIt produces no greenhouse gases or other waste; it needs no fuel.no fuel. • Not expensive to maintain.Not expensive to maintain. • Tidal energy has an efficiency of 80% in converting theTidal energy has an efficiency of 80% in converting the potential energy of the water into electricitypotential energy of the water into electricity • Vertical-axis tidal generators may be joined together inVertical-axis tidal generators may be joined together in series to create a ‘tidal fence’ capable of generatingseries to create a ‘tidal fence’ capable of generating electricity on a scale comparable to the largest existingelectricity on a scale comparable to the largest existing fossil fuel based, hydroelectric and nuclear energyfossil fuel based, hydroelectric and nuclear energy generation facilitiesgeneration facilities
  28. 28. Disadvantages of using Tidal PowerDisadvantages of using Tidal Power • A barrage across an estuary is very expensive toA barrage across an estuary is very expensive to build, and affects a very wide area – the environmentbuild, and affects a very wide area – the environment is changed for many miles upstream and downstreamis changed for many miles upstream and downstream • It provides power for around 10 hours each day,It provides power for around 10 hours each day, when the tide is actually moving in or out, which is notwhen the tide is actually moving in or out, which is not very muchvery much • Existing ecosystems would be heavily altered, withExisting ecosystems would be heavily altered, with new species moving in and perhaps dominating oldnew species moving in and perhaps dominating old speciesspecies • Tidal power schemes have a high capital costTidal power schemes have a high capital cost
  29. 29. Environmental Impacts of Tidal StreamEnvironmental Impacts of Tidal Stream GenerationGeneration
  30. 30. Environmental EffectsEnvironmental Effects • A tidal power scheme is a long-term source of electricity. AA tidal power scheme is a long-term source of electricity. A proposal for the Severn Barrage, if built, has been projected toproposal for the Severn Barrage, if built, has been projected to save 18 million tones of coal per year of operation. Thissave 18 million tones of coal per year of operation. This decreases the output of greenhouse gases into thedecreases the output of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.atmosphere. • If fossil fuel resource is likely to decline during the 21st century,If fossil fuel resource is likely to decline during the 21st century, as predicted by Hubbert peak theory, tidal power is one of theas predicted by Hubbert peak theory, tidal power is one of the alternative source of energy that will need to be developed toalternative source of energy that will need to be developed to satisfy the human demand for energy.satisfy the human demand for energy.
  31. 31. Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy is heat inside the earth.
  32. 32. What is Geo thermal? Geothermal comes from the Greek words Ge (earth) and thermos (hot). Thus, geothermal energy means heat inside the earth.
  33. 33. At the center is a core of molten iron. Around that is an outer core of iron and rock so hot that rock is in molted state. The liquid rock is called magma. The next layer is a mixture of rock and magma called the mantle. The shell of the earth – with the oceans and mountains - is called the crust. The Earth Is Made of Layers
  34. 34. Heat Inside the Earth • The inside of the earth is very hot. • We can use this heat to warm our houses and produce electricity.
  35. 35. • Today, power plants use steam from geothermal wells to make electricity. • The steam is used to spin turbines. • The turbines spin magnets in coils of copper wire to make electricity. How Do We Use Geo thermal Energy?
  36. 36. • The most active geothermal resources are usually found where earthquakes occur volcanoes, hot springs, geysers, volcanoes are concentrated. Where Can We Find Geo thermal Energy?
  37. 37. Geo thermal Energy is Clean & Cheap. No fuel is burned, so there is no air pollution. The steam is turned into water and put back into the earth. Geothermal energy is cheap – new power plants can make electricity for about the same as coal power plants.
  38. 38. Geo thermal power plant in USA
  39. 39. Photo of Geo thermal power plant
  40. 40. Hydroelectric Energy
  41. 41. Layout Of Hydel power plant
  42. 42. Location Of hydro power plants  Generally located near rivers  Dams  Streams  High pressure water sources
  43. 43. Chief Joseph Dam in Washington • Produces 2069 MW; Grand Coulee is 6465 MW! • The other kind of dam is the storage dam with a high reservoir
  44. 44. Chief Joseph Dam “Fish Ladder” • Fish ladder to allow fish to bypass the dam and turbines • Federal fish counters identify and tally them
  45. 45. Electrical Switch Yard at a Dam • Bonneville Dam upstream from Portland • Energy from the turbines is collected on bus bars for transmission  After a transformer raises the voltage (and decreases the current), the high lines connect to the red-and-white tower’s insulators to be connected into the grid
  46. 46. Utah Dam Electrical Transformers High power has three phases, thus three single- phase transformer s are used for each generator’s output
  47. 47. Working Of Water Wheels • The water strikes the wheel about mid-way up so the inertia and the weight of the water push the wheel around Water Flow
  48. 48. Micro Hydropower Plant
  49. 49. Hydroelectric Power Plants in India Koyana dam, Maharashtra Ujjani dam, Maharashtra
  50. 50. Continued … Gaj Nathpa Jakri
  51. 51. Continued … Rangit Sardar Sarovar
  52. 52. Wind Energy
  53. 53. Winds are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth. The terms "wind energy" or "wind power" describe the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity
  54. 54. Common Wind Turbine Construction Rotor • Blades are connected to a hub, which is connected to a shaft • Rotational speed will depend on blade geometry, number of blades, and wind speed (40 to 400 revolutions per minute typical speed range) • Gear box needed to increase speed to 1200-1800 RPM for generator
  55. 55. Contd….
  56. 56. Sizes and Applications Small (≤10 kW) • Homes • Farms • Remote Application Intermediate (10-250 kW) • Village Power • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power Large (660 kW - 2+MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Community Wind
  57. 57. Location of wind farms o Mountains or hilly areas o It can be build even on sea sides or oceans
  58. 58. 3D View of 1.5 mw turbine
  59. 59. ADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER 1. No by-product is produced 2. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only a small plot of land. 3. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity power grid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply. 4. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means a vast range of people and businesses can use them.
  60. 60. DISADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER: 1. Not uniform 2. Wind turbines are noisy. (About 70 mph). 3. Capacity of wind turbines is less. 4. Less efficiency (About 30%)
  61. 61. Government created the Department of Non-conventional Energy Sources (DNES) in 1982. In 1992 a full fledged Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources was established under the overall charge of the Prime Minister. The range of its activities cover 1. Promotion of renewable energy technologies, 2. Create an environment conducive to promote renewable energy technologies, 3.Create an environment conducive for their commercialization, 4.Renewable energy resource assessment, 5.Research and development, 6.Demonstration, 7.Production of biogas units, solar thermal devices, solar photovoltaics, cookstoves, wind energy and small hydropower units. Renewable energy scenario in India
  62. 62. Questions?
  63. 63. THANK YOU

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