Prepared & Presented By-
BIRADAR SACHIN N.
What is mean by Energy ?
• Energy is a property of objects,
transferable among them via
fundamental interactions, which
can be converted in form but not
created or destroyed.
• The joule is the SI unit of energy.
Types of energy
1.Renewable Energy 2.Non-ren. Energy
• Renewable Energy:
• RE is energy which is generated from natural
sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides & can be
generated again & again as and when required.
• They are available is plenty and by far most the
cleanest sources of energy available on this
• For ex: Energy that we receive from the sun can
be used to generate electricity. similarly energy
from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides
can be used this from energy to anoter form
• Non-renewable energy:
• Non-renewable energy is energy which is taken
from the sources that are available on the earth in
limited quantity and will vanish 56-60 years now.
• Non-renewable sources are not environmental
friendly can have serious affect on our health.
• They are called non-renewable because they can be
re-generated within short span of time.
• Ex. are coal, oil, fossil fuel.
HISTORY OF RE
• Prior to the development of coal in the mid of 19th
century nearly all energy was renewable.
•By 1873, concerns of running out of coal promoted
experimented using solar energy.
•In the 1970’s enviromentalist promoted the
development of RE for replacement of oil and
decreasing dependence on oil leading to the first
electricity generating wind turbine.
• These are sources of energy that naturally
• Tidal/Wave Energy
Hydropower energy is ultimately derived from the sun, which
drives the water cycle. In the water cycle, rivers are recharged in a
continuous cycle. Because of the force of gravity, water flows from
high points to low points. There is kinetic energy embodied in the
flow of water.
Hydroelectric power (often called hydropower) is
considered a renewable energy source. A renewable
energy source is one that is not depleted (used up) in the
production of energy. Through hydropower, the energy
in falling water is converted into electricity without
“using up” the water.
• Not long after the discovery of electricity, it was realized that a turbine’s mechanical
energy could be used to activate a generator and produce electricity. The first hydroelectric
power plant was constructed in 1882 in Appleton, Wisconsin. It produced 12.5 kilowatts of
electricity which was used to light two paper mills and one home.
• The largest project under construction is the Three Gorges at the Yangtze river in China.
Proposed potential is 18.2 GW and the proposed power output is 85 TWh per year.
How Hydropower Works!
• Water from the reservoir
flows due to gravity to
drive the turbine.
• Turbine is connected to a
• Power generated is
transmitted over power
How a Hydroelectric Power System Works - Part 1
Flowing water is directed at a
turbine (remember turbines
are just advanced
waterwheels). The flowing
water causes the turbine to
rotate, converting the water’s
kinetic energy into
How a Hydroelectric Power System Works – Part 2
The mechanical energy produced by the turbine is converted
into electric energy using a turbine generator. Inside the
generator, the shaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of
copper wire. It is a fact of nature that moving a magnet near a
conductor causes an electric current.
Top ten countries (in terms of
COUNTRY INSTALLED CAPACITY
Major Hydropower generating units
NAME STATA CAPACITY (MW)
BHAKRA PUNJAB 1100
NAGARJUNA ANDHRA PRADESH 960
KOYNA MAHARASHTRA 920
DEHAR HIMACHAL PRADESH 990
SHARAVATHY KARNATAKA 891
KALINADI KARNATAKA 810
SRISAILAM ANDHRA PRADESH 770
SELECTION OF SITE FOR HP
•Avaliability of water
•Large catchment area
•Avaliability of land
• No fuel is required.
• The plant is highly reliable and cheapest in
operation and maintenance.
• Dams are designed to last many decades and
so can contribute to the generation of
electricity for many years.
• When in use, electricity produced by dam
systems do not produce green house gases.
They do not pollute the atmosphere.
• It required large area.
• Dams are extremely expensive to build and
must be built to a very high standard.
• The flooding of large areas of land means that
the natural environment is destroyed.
• The output of such plant is never constant, it
dependence on rate of flow water.
Energy from Wind
• Wind energy comes from wind turning
turbines to generate electricity.
• It can only be used in regions that have
a lot of wind.
• It is the fastest growing source of
alternative energy today.
• Currently, about 2% of electricity in
U.S. is from wind. But, it is over 20% in
• The direction that wind travels in
• angel of the turbine’s rotors are
– important limitations and considerations
• Wind at a site is being slowed down by each turbine
– limit to the amount of individual units a site can
Advantages of wind power
The wind blows day and night, which allows windmills to
produce electricity throughout the day. (Faster during the day)
• Energy output from a wind turbine will vary as the wind varies,
although the most rapid variations will to some extent be
compensated for by the inertia of the wind turbine rotor.
• Wind energy is a domestic, renewable source of energy that
generates no pollution and has little environmental impact. Up
to 95 percent of land used for wind farms can also be used for
other profitable activities including ranching, farming and
• The decreasing cost of wind power and the growing interest in
renewable energy sources should ensure that wind power will
become a viable energy source in the United States and
Wind Turbines and the Landscape
- Large turbines don’t turn as fast attract less attention
- City dwellers “dwell” on the attention attracted by windmills
Sound from Wind Turbines
- Increasing tip speed less sound
- The closest neighbor is usually 300 m experiences almost no
Birds often collide with high voltage overhead lines, masts, poles,
and windows of buildings. They are also killed by cars in traffic.
However, birds are seldom bothered by wind turbines.
The only known site with bird collision problems is located in the
Altamont Pass in California.
Danish Ministry of the Environment study revealed that power lines
are a much greater danger to birds than the wind turbines.
Some birds even nest on cages on Wind Towers.
Major Uses of Solar Energy
oDrying Agricultural Products
oGenerating Electrical Power
oConcentrating Solar Power (CSP)
Generating Electrical Power
• Trough systems
• Power towers
Heat exchanger plus
• Small-scale (buildings)
• Large-scale (utilities)