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Seminar on renewable energy sources


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seminar on renewable energy sources for degree &diploma

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Seminar on renewable energy sources

  1. 1. SEMINAR ON “RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES” Prepared & Presented By- BIRADAR SACHIN N. 7058375085 EE Dept. UCOER,Pune.
  2. 2. What is mean by Energy ? • Energy is a property of objects, transferable among them via fundamental interactions, which can be converted in form but not created or destroyed. • The joule is the SI unit of energy.
  3. 3. Types of energy Energy 1.Renewable Energy 2.Non-ren. Energy ex.-soil,trees,water,solar. ex.-gold,coal,diesel,
  4. 4. • Renewable Energy: • RE is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides & can be generated again & again as and when required. • They are available is plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. • For ex: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. similarly energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this from energy to anoter form
  5. 5. • Non-renewable energy: • Non-renewable energy is energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish 56-60 years now. • Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly can have serious affect on our health. • They are called non-renewable because they can be re-generated within short span of time. • Ex. are coal, oil, fossil fuel.
  6. 6. Energy Use
  7. 7. HISTORY OF RE • Prior to the development of coal in the mid of 19th century nearly all energy was renewable. •By 1873, concerns of running out of coal promoted experimented using solar energy. •In the 1970’s enviromentalist promoted the development of RE for replacement of oil and decreasing dependence on oil leading to the first electricity generating wind turbine.
  8. 8. Renewable Resources • These are sources of energy that naturally regenerate themselves. • Hydroelectricity • Wind • Solar • Biofuels • Tidal/Wave Energy
  9. 9. Hydro Power
  10. 10. Hydropower energy is ultimately derived from the sun, which drives the water cycle. In the water cycle, rivers are recharged in a continuous cycle. Because of the force of gravity, water flows from high points to low points. There is kinetic energy embodied in the flow of water.
  11. 11. Hydroelectric power (often called hydropower) is considered a renewable energy source. A renewable energy source is one that is not depleted (used up) in the production of energy. Through hydropower, the energy in falling water is converted into electricity without “using up” the water.
  12. 12. • Not long after the discovery of electricity, it was realized that a turbine’s mechanical energy could be used to activate a generator and produce electricity. The first hydroelectric power plant was constructed in 1882 in Appleton, Wisconsin. It produced 12.5 kilowatts of electricity which was used to light two paper mills and one home. • The largest project under construction is the Three Gorges at the Yangtze river in China. Proposed potential is 18.2 GW and the proposed power output is 85 TWh per year.
  13. 13. How Hydropower Works! • Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. • Turbine is connected to a generator. • Power generated is transmitted over power lines.
  14. 14. How a Hydroelectric Power System Works - Part 1 Flowing water is directed at a turbine (remember turbines are just advanced waterwheels). The flowing water causes the turbine to rotate, converting the water’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy.
  15. 15. How a Hydroelectric Power System Works – Part 2 The mechanical energy produced by the turbine is converted into electric energy using a turbine generator. Inside the generator, the shaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of copper wire. It is a fact of nature that moving a magnet near a conductor causes an electric current.
  16. 16. Top ten countries (in terms of capacity) COUNTRY INSTALLED CAPACITY (GW) TAJIKISTAN 4000 CANADA 66954 USA 79511 BRAZIL 57517 CHINA 65000 RUSSIA 44000 NORWAY 27528 JAPAN 27229 INDIA 22083 FRANCE 77500
  18. 18. SELECTION OF SITE FOR HP •Avaliability of water •Water storage •Large catchment area •Water pollution •Avaliability of land
  19. 19. Advantage’s • No fuel is required. • The plant is highly reliable and cheapest in operation and maintenance. • Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years. • When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere.
  20. 20. Disadvanage’s • It required large area. • Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. • The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. • The output of such plant is never constant, it dependence on rate of flow water.
  21. 21. Energy from Wind • Wind energy comes from wind turning turbines to generate electricity. • It can only be used in regions that have a lot of wind. • It is the fastest growing source of alternative energy today. • Currently, about 2% of electricity in U.S. is from wind. But, it is over 20% in Denmark!
  22. 22. Figure
  23. 23. Site Limitations • The direction that wind travels in • angel of the turbine’s rotors are – important limitations and considerations • Wind at a site is being slowed down by each turbine – limit to the amount of individual units a site can support • Birds
  24. 24. Advantages of wind power The wind blows day and night, which allows windmills to produce electricity throughout the day. (Faster during the day) • Energy output from a wind turbine will vary as the wind varies, although the most rapid variations will to some extent be compensated for by the inertia of the wind turbine rotor. • Wind energy is a domestic, renewable source of energy that generates no pollution and has little environmental impact. Up to 95 percent of land used for wind farms can also be used for other profitable activities including ranching, farming and forestry. • The decreasing cost of wind power and the growing interest in renewable energy sources should ensure that wind power will become a viable energy source in the United States and worldwide.
  25. 25.  Wind Turbines and the Landscape - Large turbines don’t turn as fast  attract less attention - City dwellers “dwell” on the attention attracted by windmills  Sound from Wind Turbines - Increasing tip speed  less sound - The closest neighbor is usually 300 m  experiences almost no noise  Birds often collide with high voltage overhead lines, masts, poles, and windows of buildings. They are also killed by cars in traffic. However, birds are seldom bothered by wind turbines.  The only known site with bird collision problems is located in the Altamont Pass in California.  Danish Ministry of the Environment study revealed that power lines are a much greater danger to birds than the wind turbines.  Some birds even nest on cages on Wind Towers.
  26. 26. Solar Energy
  27. 27. Major Uses of Solar Energy oDaylight oDrying Agricultural Products oSpace Heating oWater Heating oGenerating Electrical Power oConcentrating Solar Power (CSP) oPhotovoltaics
  28. 28. Generating Electrical Power  Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) • Trough systems • Power towers  Heat exchanger plus steam turbine  Photovoltaics • Small-scale (buildings) kW production • Large-scale (utilities) MW production  Photoelectric effect
  29. 29. PV Cell
  30. 30. PV Array Components  PV Cells  Modules  Arrays
  31. 31. PV System Components
  32. 32. Advantages of Solar Energy • Clean • Sustainable • Free • Provide electricity to remote places
  33. 33. Disadvantages of Solar Energy  Less efficient and costly equipment  Part Time  Reliability Depends On Location  Environmental Impact of PV Cell Production
  34. 34. Thank you….!
  35. 35. Any Queries ???