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Energy Scenario in India
The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 250.256 GW as of end July
2014. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year 2013 with 4.8%
global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia, Captive power plants have an
additional 39.375 GW capacity. Non Renewable Power Plants constitute 87.55% of the installed
capacity, and Renewable Power Plants constitute the remaining 12.45% of total installed
Capacity. India generated around 967 TWh (967,150.32 GWh) of electricity during the 2013–
14 fiscal. The total annual of generation from all types of sources was 1102.9 Tera Watt
hour(TWh) in 2013. In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 59% of India's installed
electricity capacity, compared to South Africa's 92%; China's 77%; and Australia's 76%. After
coal, renewable hydropower accounts for 17%, renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for
about 9%.The international energy agency estimates India will add between 600 GW to 1,200
GW of additional new power generation capacity before 2050. This added new capacity is
equivalent to the 740 GW of total power generation capacity of European Union in 2005. The
technologies and fuel sources India adopts, as it adds this electricity generation capacity, may
make significant impact to global resource usage and environmental issues. India's electricity
sector is amongst the world's most active players in renewable energy utilization especially wind
energy. As of December 2013, India had an installed capacity of about 29.5 GW of renewal
technologies-based electricity, exceeding the total installed electricity capacity in Austria by all
technologies.
1.THERMAL POWER
 Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat. Possible fuels
include coal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash /
waste.
 Coal and lignite accounted for about 67% of India's installed capacity.
• India's electricity sector consumes about 80% of the coal produced in the country. A large
part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal. On average, the Indian power
plants using India's coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to generate a kWh, whereas
United States thermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh.
 Thermal power plants can deploy a wide range of technologies. Some of the major
technologies include:
• Steam cycle facilities (most commonly used for large utilities);
• Gas turbines (commonly used for moderate sized peaking facilities);
• Cogeneration and combined cycle facility (the combination of gas turbines or internal
combustion engines with heat recovery systems); and
• Internal combustion engines (commonly used for small remote sites or stand-by power
generation).
Vindhyachal is the largestthermal power plant in
india with capacity of 3260 MW
The installed capacity of Thermal Power in India, as of June 30, 2011, was 115649.48 MW
which is 65.34% of total installed capacity.
• Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 96,743.38 MW which comes to
54.66% of total installed base.
• Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17,706.35 MW which is 10.00%
of total installed capacity.
• Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.67% of
total installed capacity.
• The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country.
• INDIA LACKS THE GOOD CALORIFIC VALUE COALAND IMPORTS 30%
demand from INDONESIA.
2.NUCLEAR POWER
• India had 4.8 GW of installed electricity generation capacity using nuclear fuels
• India's Nuclear plants generated 32455 million units or 3.75% of total electricity
produced in India.
• India's nuclear power plant development began in 1964 by commissioning of two boiling
water reactors at Tarapur.
capacity
• India's share of nuclear power plant generation capacity is just 1.2% of worldwide
nuclear power production capacity, making it the 15th largest nuclear power producer.
• Nuclear power provided 3% of the country's total electricity generation in 2011.
• India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032.
• 2032. India's largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur,
Maharashtra in partnership with Areva, France.
BHABHA ATOMIC CENTRE
3.HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER
• India is one of the pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants. The
power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamudra were established in 1898 and 1902
respectively and are among the first in Asia.
• India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be
about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed
capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. used form of
renewable energy.
• India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms
of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario.
NAGARJUNA DAM IN KARNATKA OVER
KRISHNA RIVER
LARGEST MASONARY DAM IN THE WORLD
4.Solar energy
 India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/square meter/day across
the country, with western and southern regions having higher solar incidence.
 India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. India receives the highest global solar
radiation on a horizontal surface.
 Government of India launched its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.
 The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi
Rajasthan.
 Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India.
 exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal projects,
thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar
evaporation.
Solar panels at gujarat
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION
 INDIA is a energy deficient state, with almost 400 million people without electricity
which equals the combined population of u. s .a and germany.
• The density of distribution is not equal and is unequal .Thus, to overcome this problem
an interconnected grid system is used so that on the basis of demand ,supply could be
managed and easily delivered to areas far away from generating units.
THERE ARE 5 GRIDS IN INDIA:-
• 1. Northern Grid
• 2. Southern Grid ( not connected withother grids)
• 3. WesternGrid
• 4 . EasternGrid
• 5. North- EasternGrid
Growth of Electricity Consumption in India[25]
Consum
ption
as on
Tot
al
(in
GW
h)
% of Total Per-
Capita
Consum
ption
(in kWh)
Dome
stic
Comme
rcial
Indust
rial
Tract
ion
Agricul
ture
Mi
sc
31-Dec-
1947
4,182 10.11% 4.26% 70.78% 6.62% 2.99%
5.24
%
16.3
31-Dec-
1950
5,610 9.36% 5.51% 72.32% 5.49% 2.89%
4.44
%
18.2
31-Mar-
1956
10,150 9.20% 5.38% 74.03% 3.99% 3.11%
4.29
%
30.9
31-Mar-
1961
16,804 8.88% 5.05% 74.67% 2.70% 4.96%
3.75
%
45.9
31-Mar-
1966
30,455 7.73% 5.42% 74.19% 3.47% 6.21%
2.97
%
73.9
31-Mar-
1974
55,557 8.36% 5.38% 68.02% 2.76% 11.36%
4.13
%
126.2
31-Mar-
1979
84,005 9.02% 5.15% 64.81% 2.60% 14.32%
4.10
%
171.6
Growth of Electricity Consumption in India[25]
Consum
ption
as on
Tot
al
(in
GW
h)
% of Total Per-
Capita
Consum
ption
(in kWh)
Dome
stic
Comme
rcial
Indust
rial
Tract
ion
Agricul
ture
Mi
sc
31-Mar-
1985
124,56
9
12.45% 5.57% 59.02% 2.31% 16.83%
3.83
%
228.7
31-Mar-
1990
195,09
8
15.16% 4.89% 51.45% 2.09% 22.58%
3.83
%
329.2
31-Mar-
1997
315,29
4
17.53% 5.56% 44.17% 2.09% 26.65%
4.01
%
464.6
31-Mar-
2002
374,67
0
21.27% 6.44% 42.57% 2.16% 21.80%
5.75
%
671.9
31-Mar-
2007
525,67
2
21.12% 7.65% 45.89% 2.05% 18.84%
4.45
%
559.2
31-Dec-
2011
710,67
3
21.56% 8.96% 45.23% 1.88% 18.16%
4.21
%
813.3Provisi
ADVANTAGES
• Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies (incandescent or
fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the area lighted by the fixture.
• Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the end of the
rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based on use of 8 hours per day).
• Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear and consistent over
time.
• Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting.
• Light comes on instantly when turned on.
• No flicker when dimmed.
• No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is turned off, with
the exception of external controls, whose power should not exceed0.5 watts in the
off state.
conclusion
It is clear that a low energy path is the best way towards a sustainable future. But given
efficient and productive uses of primary energy, this need not mean a shortage of
essential energy services. Within the next 50 years, nations have the opportunity to
produce the same levels of energy services with as little as half the primary supply
currently consumed. This requires profound structural changes in socio-economic and
institutional arrangements and is an important challenge to global society. Energy is not
so much a single product as a mix of products and services, a mix upon which the welfare of
individuals, the sustainable development of nations, and the life-supporting capabilities of the
global ecosystem depend. In the past, this mix has been allowed to flow together haphazardly,
the proportions dictated by short-term pressures on and short-term goals of governments,
institutions, and companies. Energy is too important for its development to continue in such a
random manner. A safe, environmentally sound, and economically viable energy pathway that
will sustain human progress into the distant future is clearly imperative. It is also possible. But it
will require new dimensions of political will and institutional cooperation to achieve it.
Assignment .1
Topic:-Energy scenarios
Submitted To:-
Shiwani saini
Submitted by :-
Ravijesh Kumar
Roll.no-120104034
Branch-(EEE) B.Tech
3rd Year

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Energy Scenario in India

  • 1. Energy Scenario in India The electricity sector in India had an installed capacity of 250.256 GW as of end July 2014. India became the world's third largest producer of electricity in the year 2013 with 4.8% global share in electricity generation surpassing Japan and Russia, Captive power plants have an additional 39.375 GW capacity. Non Renewable Power Plants constitute 87.55% of the installed capacity, and Renewable Power Plants constitute the remaining 12.45% of total installed Capacity. India generated around 967 TWh (967,150.32 GWh) of electricity during the 2013– 14 fiscal. The total annual of generation from all types of sources was 1102.9 Tera Watt hour(TWh) in 2013. In terms of fuel, coal-fired plants account for 59% of India's installed electricity capacity, compared to South Africa's 92%; China's 77%; and Australia's 76%. After coal, renewable hydropower accounts for 17%, renewable energy for 12% and natural gas for about 9%.The international energy agency estimates India will add between 600 GW to 1,200 GW of additional new power generation capacity before 2050. This added new capacity is equivalent to the 740 GW of total power generation capacity of European Union in 2005. The technologies and fuel sources India adopts, as it adds this electricity generation capacity, may make significant impact to global resource usage and environmental issues. India's electricity sector is amongst the world's most active players in renewable energy utilization especially wind energy. As of December 2013, India had an installed capacity of about 29.5 GW of renewal technologies-based electricity, exceeding the total installed electricity capacity in Austria by all technologies. 1.THERMAL POWER  Thermal power plants convert energy rich fuel into electricity and heat. Possible fuels include coal, natural gas, petroleum products, agricultural waste and domestic trash / waste.  Coal and lignite accounted for about 67% of India's installed capacity. • India's electricity sector consumes about 80% of the coal produced in the country. A large part of Indian coal reserve is similar to Gondwana coal. On average, the Indian power plants using India's coal supply consume about 0.7 kg of coal to generate a kWh, whereas United States thermal power plants consume about 0.45 kg of coal per kWh.  Thermal power plants can deploy a wide range of technologies. Some of the major technologies include: • Steam cycle facilities (most commonly used for large utilities);
  • 2. • Gas turbines (commonly used for moderate sized peaking facilities); • Cogeneration and combined cycle facility (the combination of gas turbines or internal combustion engines with heat recovery systems); and • Internal combustion engines (commonly used for small remote sites or stand-by power generation). Vindhyachal is the largestthermal power plant in india with capacity of 3260 MW The installed capacity of Thermal Power in India, as of June 30, 2011, was 115649.48 MW which is 65.34% of total installed capacity.
  • 3. • Current installed base of Coal Based Thermal Power is 96,743.38 MW which comes to 54.66% of total installed base. • Current installed base of Gas Based Thermal Power is 17,706.35 MW which is 10.00% of total installed capacity. • Current installed base of Oil Based Thermal Power is 1,199.75 MW which is 0.67% of total installed capacity. • The state of Maharashtra is the largest producer of thermal power in the country. • INDIA LACKS THE GOOD CALORIFIC VALUE COALAND IMPORTS 30% demand from INDONESIA. 2.NUCLEAR POWER • India had 4.8 GW of installed electricity generation capacity using nuclear fuels • India's Nuclear plants generated 32455 million units or 3.75% of total electricity produced in India. • India's nuclear power plant development began in 1964 by commissioning of two boiling water reactors at Tarapur. capacity • India's share of nuclear power plant generation capacity is just 1.2% of worldwide nuclear power production capacity, making it the 15th largest nuclear power producer. • Nuclear power provided 3% of the country's total electricity generation in 2011. • India aims to supply 9% of it electricity needs with nuclear power by 2032. • 2032. India's largest nuclear power plant project under implementation is at Jaitapur, Maharashtra in partnership with Areva, France. BHABHA ATOMIC CENTRE
  • 4. 3.HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER • India is one of the pioneering countries in establishing hydro-electric power plants. The power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamudra were established in 1898 and 1902 respectively and are among the first in Asia. • India is endowed with economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84,000 MW at 60% load factor. In addition, 6,780 MW in terms of installed capacity from Small, Mini, and Micro Hydel schemes have been assessed. used form of renewable energy. • India is blessed with immense amount of hydro-electric potential and ranks 5th in terms of exploitable hydro-potential on global scenario. NAGARJUNA DAM IN KARNATKA OVER KRISHNA RIVER
  • 5. LARGEST MASONARY DAM IN THE WORLD 4.Solar energy  India is bestowed with solar irradiation ranging from 4 to 7 kWh/square meter/day across the country, with western and southern regions having higher solar incidence.  India is endowed with rich solar energy resource. India receives the highest global solar radiation on a horizontal surface.  Government of India launched its Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission.  The first Indian solar thermal power project (2X50MW) is in progress in Phalodi Rajasthan.  Land acquisition is a challenge to solar farm projects in India.  exploring means to deploy solar capacity above their extensive irrigation canal projects, thereby harvesting solar energy while reducing the loss of irrigation water by solar evaporation.
  • 6. Solar panels at gujarat TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION  INDIA is a energy deficient state, with almost 400 million people without electricity which equals the combined population of u. s .a and germany. • The density of distribution is not equal and is unequal .Thus, to overcome this problem an interconnected grid system is used so that on the basis of demand ,supply could be managed and easily delivered to areas far away from generating units. THERE ARE 5 GRIDS IN INDIA:- • 1. Northern Grid • 2. Southern Grid ( not connected withother grids)
  • 7. • 3. WesternGrid • 4 . EasternGrid • 5. North- EasternGrid
  • 8. Growth of Electricity Consumption in India[25] Consum ption as on Tot al (in GW h) % of Total Per- Capita Consum ption (in kWh) Dome stic Comme rcial Indust rial Tract ion Agricul ture Mi sc 31-Dec- 1947 4,182 10.11% 4.26% 70.78% 6.62% 2.99% 5.24 % 16.3 31-Dec- 1950 5,610 9.36% 5.51% 72.32% 5.49% 2.89% 4.44 % 18.2 31-Mar- 1956 10,150 9.20% 5.38% 74.03% 3.99% 3.11% 4.29 % 30.9 31-Mar- 1961 16,804 8.88% 5.05% 74.67% 2.70% 4.96% 3.75 % 45.9 31-Mar- 1966 30,455 7.73% 5.42% 74.19% 3.47% 6.21% 2.97 % 73.9 31-Mar- 1974 55,557 8.36% 5.38% 68.02% 2.76% 11.36% 4.13 % 126.2 31-Mar- 1979 84,005 9.02% 5.15% 64.81% 2.60% 14.32% 4.10 % 171.6
  • 9. Growth of Electricity Consumption in India[25] Consum ption as on Tot al (in GW h) % of Total Per- Capita Consum ption (in kWh) Dome stic Comme rcial Indust rial Tract ion Agricul ture Mi sc 31-Mar- 1985 124,56 9 12.45% 5.57% 59.02% 2.31% 16.83% 3.83 % 228.7 31-Mar- 1990 195,09 8 15.16% 4.89% 51.45% 2.09% 22.58% 3.83 % 329.2 31-Mar- 1997 315,29 4 17.53% 5.56% 44.17% 2.09% 26.65% 4.01 % 464.6 31-Mar- 2002 374,67 0 21.27% 6.44% 42.57% 2.16% 21.80% 5.75 % 671.9 31-Mar- 2007 525,67 2 21.12% 7.65% 45.89% 2.05% 18.84% 4.45 % 559.2 31-Dec- 2011 710,67 3 21.56% 8.96% 45.23% 1.88% 18.16% 4.21 % 813.3Provisi ADVANTAGES
  • 10. • Brightness is equal to or greater than existing lighting technologies (incandescent or fluorescent) and light is well distributed over the area lighted by the fixture. • Light output remains constant over time, only decreasing towards the end of the rated lifetime (at least 35,000 hours or 12 years based on use of 8 hours per day). • Excellent color quality. The shade of white light appears clear and consistent over time. • Efficiency is as good as or better than fluorescent lighting. • Light comes on instantly when turned on. • No flicker when dimmed. • No off-state power draw. The fixture does not use power when it is turned off, with the exception of external controls, whose power should not exceed0.5 watts in the off state. conclusion It is clear that a low energy path is the best way towards a sustainable future. But given efficient and productive uses of primary energy, this need not mean a shortage of essential energy services. Within the next 50 years, nations have the opportunity to produce the same levels of energy services with as little as half the primary supply currently consumed. This requires profound structural changes in socio-economic and institutional arrangements and is an important challenge to global society. Energy is not so much a single product as a mix of products and services, a mix upon which the welfare of individuals, the sustainable development of nations, and the life-supporting capabilities of the global ecosystem depend. In the past, this mix has been allowed to flow together haphazardly, the proportions dictated by short-term pressures on and short-term goals of governments, institutions, and companies. Energy is too important for its development to continue in such a random manner. A safe, environmentally sound, and economically viable energy pathway that will sustain human progress into the distant future is clearly imperative. It is also possible. But it will require new dimensions of political will and institutional cooperation to achieve it.
  • 11. Assignment .1 Topic:-Energy scenarios Submitted To:- Shiwani saini Submitted by :- Ravijesh Kumar Roll.no-120104034 Branch-(EEE) B.Tech 3rd Year