3..F2011 Britain becomes Roman Claudius

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Claudius invades Britain

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3..F2011 Britain becomes Roman Claudius

  1. 1. Britain Becomes Roman Britain<br />Caesar to Claudius<br />You must know, till the injurious Romans did extort this tribute from us, we were free.<br /> Cymbeline Cymbeline Act III, Scene 1<br />
  2. 2. Roman Britain Before Claudius?<br />Did Rome appoint Commius and another king?<br />Changes in coins.<br />Gold coins more uniform<br />Inscribed with names; new image style<br />Lack of mixed early and later coins in hoards<br />
  3. 3. Roman Britain Before Claudius?<br />Obsides – hostages?<br />Creation of Kings in Roman territories (Judea)<br />Burials<br />Construction at Fishbourne, Gosbecks, Silchester<br />
  4. 4. Kingdoms<br />
  5. 5. Burial: Roman Influence<br />Welwyn, 50-20 BCE<br />
  6. 6. Aylsford 75-25 BCE<br />
  7. 7. Celtic Burial with Imported Amphorae, Welwyn<br />
  8. 8. From a British Grave c. 1 AD<br />
  9. 9. Pottery Imports from Gaul<br />c. 15 BCE – 30 CE<br />
  10. 10. Inscriptions on Coins<br />
  11. 11. Catuvellauni<br />
  12. 12. Cunobelin(us)<br />
  13. 13. Foreign Policy Augustus (27 BCE- 14 CE)<br />Trade<br />Hostages(?) educated in Rome<br />Threats (26/7 BCE)<br />Diplomacy<br />Is there too little of Roman blood spilled upon land and sea? [And this,] not that the Romans might burn the proud towers of envious Carthage, or that the Britons, hitherto unassailed, might go down the sacred way bound in chains: but that, agreeably to the wishes of the Parthians, this city may fall by its own might. <br />Horace, c. 29 BCE<br />
  14. 14. Augustus Res gestae<br />To me were sent supplications by kings: … of the Britons, Dumnobellaunus and Tincommius <br />
  15. 15. Cunobelin Coins<br />Augustus<br />Cunobelin<br />
  16. 16. Homage to the Emperor<br />Lexden Tumulus<br />
  17. 17. Roman Foreign Policy Tiberius (14 – 37 CE)<br />Augustus’ counsel: “the empire should be confined to its present limits” <br />Britons tolerate import/export taxes<br />
  18. 18. Homage to Tiberius<br />
  19. 19. Roman Foreign Policy -Caligula<br />Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus<br />Spectacle and emulation<br />Surrender of Adminius<br />‘Conquest of Ocean’<br />
  20. 20. Atrebates<br />
  21. 21. Coinage<br />Tincommius<br />Cunobelin<br />
  22. 22. Early Fishbourne<br />
  23. 23. Roman-style Military HardwareFishbourne, pre 43 CE?<br />
  24. 24. Internal Conflict<br />25 Verica, ruler at Calleva replaced by Eppilius <br />
  25. 25. Internal Conflict<br />35 Eppilius dies, Verica regains territory<br />40 Caraticus defeats Verica<br />
  26. 26. Reasons for Invasion<br /><ul><li>Solicitation by Britons
  27. 27. Desire by Claudius to demonstrate military success
  28. 28. Risk of revolt by legions in Germany to “restore” the Republic
  29. 29. Economic Motives – Depletion of Spanish silver mines</li></li></ul><li>Verica<br />
  30. 30. Planning<br /><ul><li>Intelligence
  31. 31. British Collaborators
  32. 32. Experience of Caesar
  33. 33. Season
  34. 34. Selection of troops
  35. 35. Amphibious experience
  36. 36. Transport
  37. 37. Coordination of landing</li></li></ul><li>Invasion Forces<br /><ul><li>AulusPlautius
  38. 38. II Augusta (Vespasian)
  39. 39. IX Hispania
  40. 40. XIV Gemina
  41. 41. XX Valeria</li></ul>(Geta)<br /><ul><li>20,000 auxiliaries</li></li></ul><li>Opposing Forces<br />
  42. 42. Opposing Forces<br />Caratacus<br />Emerges as leader of anti-Roman forces<br />
  43. 43. Kelvedon (Essex) horseman (25 BCE-25CE?)<br />
  44. 44. Kent vs. Sussex<br />See Handout for some arguments. <br />
  45. 45. Invasion Route<br />
  46. 46. Kent<br />
  47. 47. Richborough<br />
  48. 48. Fishbourne<br />Later site of “Palace”<br />Two military buildings<br />Granary with raised floor<br />Supply depot with cart turn around area<br />Possible camp at Chichester<br />
  49. 49. Artefacts - Fishbourne<br />
  50. 50. Invasion Route-Medway<br />
  51. 51. Invasion Route-Thames<br />
  52. 52. Phase II - Claudius<br />
  53. 53. Claudius-16 Days<br />Brings members of Senate<br />Arrives with elephants.<br />Reviews troops at Thames<br />Receives allies<br />Marches on Camulodunum<br />
  54. 54. Invasion Route<br />
  55. 55. Celebrating Victory<br />Victory Relief at Aphrodisias<br />
  56. 56. Claudius-Triumphal Arch<br />
  57. 57. Claudius-Triumphal Arch<br />
  58. 58. Text? -Triumphal Arch<br />The Roman Senate and People to Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, son of Drusus, Pontifex Maximus, Tribunician power eleven times, Consul five times, Imperator 22 times, Censor, Father of the Fatherland, because he received the surrender of eleven kings of the Britons defeated without any loss, and first brought barbarian peoples across the Ocean into the dominion of the Roman people. <br />
  59. 59. Another eulogy<br />Britain – what sort of a place it is and what sort of inhabitants it produces – will soon be described more precisely and on the basis of greater exploration.<br />…the greatest of emperors is opening it up after it has been closed so long, the conqueror of people not only unconquered but unknown to the boot!<br />PomponiusMela<br />
  60. 60. Caratacus<br />Defeated in the East but regroups in the West<br />Druids<br />Use threat to their religion as a means of unifying people<br />
  61. 61. Aftermath<br />Rome in control of Thames valley and Kent<br />Client kingdoms of Regni in Sussex and Iceni in Suffolk<br />Face continued opposition from Caratacus, based in Wales<br />
  62. 62. Aftermath-Client Kingdoms<br />
  63. 63. Frontier<br />
  64. 64. Map With Legionary Forts<br />Wroxeter Legio XIV<br />Gloucester Legio XX<br />Exeter Legio II<br />
  65. 65. What 1st Century Divorce Case Threatened Roman Britain?<br />
  66. 66. CartimanduaWilliam Whitaker, 1990<br /><ul><li> Quisling?
  67. 67. Cruel, treacherous, immoral?
  68. 68. Counterpart to Claudius’ consort Messalina
  69. 69. Loyal?</li></li></ul><li>Out of the Fire Into the Frying Pan<br />Caratacus escapes<br />Allies with Ordovicians in Wales<br />Defeated<br />Seeks aid from Roman client, Cartimandua<br />Is turned over to Romans (51 CE)<br />Brought to Rome<br />
  70. 70. Caratacus before Claudius<br />
  71. 71. Roman Legions Client Kingdoms<br />
  72. 72. Roman Britain~47 CE<br />
  73. 73. Tribes <br />Tribes of Wales<br />
  74. 74. Coming<br />What 1st Century Briton joined 20th Century notables: Boy George, Princess Diana and Margaret Thatcher, in the list of “100 Greatest Britons”?<br />
  75. 75. The Next Steps<br />Wales will succumb <br />Meanwhile back at the ranchthe natives are restless<br />

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