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Unit 4. reconquista 2016

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Unit 4. reconquista 2016

  1. 1. UNIT 4: THE IBERIAN PENINSULA IN THE MIDDLE AGE
  2. 2. Reconquest review STAGES OF THE RECONQUEST What: When: Where: Why
  3. 3. Reconquest review CAUSES OF THE MUSLIM INVASION What: When: Where: Why? Reason 1 Why? Reson 2 Why? Reason 3 More reasons…
  4. 4. Reconquest review STAGES: POLITICS CULTURE ECONOMY SOCIETY AL ANDALUS What: Muslim kingdoms in Ib.Peninsula. When:8-11th cent. Why: conquest and Muslim hegemony
  5. 5. Reconquest review POLITICS SOCIETY CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS What: expansion When: 11-13th Where: Iber.Pen. & Mediterranean Why: More military and political power CASTILLA: ARAGON: EXPANSION RECONQUEST ARAGON: CASTILLA ECONOMY
  6. 6. CASTILLA How is the crisis? ARAGON How is the crisis? Pol society Economy Pol soc Economy CRISIS What: Crisis When: 14th-15th c. Where: All Europe, including Ib.Pen. Why: Black Death, fall Of population…
  7. 7. THE RECONQUEST • Three stages: 1. VIII- XI century: Muslim hegemony. – Emirate, Caliphate and taifa kingdoms. – Little Christian kingdoms: Asturias, Navarra, Marca 2. XII-XIII century: Christian expansion - Rise of Castilla and Aragon as main powers. 3. XIV-XV century: Late middle age. - Crisis and recovery. - Muslim kingdom of Granada. - Fall of Granada (1492)
  8. 8. The Muslim expansion
  9. 9. THE MUSLIM HEGEMONY VIII-XI centuries. NAVARRAREINO ASTUR-LEONES MARCA HISPÁNICA
  10. 10. The mosquee in Córdoba (VIII-X). Almanzor’s extension. Double arch Horseshoe arch
  11. 11. THE CALIPHATE Cordoba reached its peak of strenght in the X century. It became the biggest city In Europe and its main Trade center. Medina Azahara (IX-X century)
  12. 12. This is the court of caliph Abdarramán III, what can you describe here?
  13. 13. This is the court of caliph Abdarramán III, what can you describe here? An embassy of Jewish people is visiting the caliph Scribes and poets scientists musiciens The caliph Is giving an audience Viziers Advisers
  14. 14. During the X century The caliphate reached Its peak of military power Almanzor captures Santiago’s Bells and brings them to Cordoba
  15. 15. • SOCIETY: It was typically Muslim. However, the conquest created a complex society where minorities like Christians and Jews played an important role.
  16. 16. The economy Al Andalus became a great trading centre, working as intermediate between Europe And Africa and Middle East. It was an easy task since all Islam enjoyed the same currency: the golden DINHAR.
  17. 17. COVADONGA, THE BEGINNING OF RECONQUEST: MYTH AND HISTORY THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS
  18. 18. RECONQUEST (CHRISTIAN SIDE) • EARLY MIDDLE AGE: Little kingdoms in the North, Asturias, Navarra and the marca hispánica. They were quite poor compared with the Caliphate. MIDDLE AGE (XI-XIII) Creation of the crown of Castilla- León and Aragón LATE MIDDLE AGE (XIV-XV) Crisis and recovery. End of the Reconquest.
  19. 19. KINGDOM OF ASTURIAS-LEÓN
  20. 20. In the North west, a Christian kingdom Emerged: the Kingdom of Asturias-León (VIII-X century) Santa María del Naranco (Oviedo, IX century) Palace of the kings.
  21. 21. With Alfonso III (end of IX century) the kingdom won enough Strengh To dominate The Duero valley
  22. 22. In the east, little counties were founded by frank influence Later they won their independence.
  23. 23. THE EXPANSION OF THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS XI – XIII centuries. SECOND STAGE
  24. 24. FROM THE CID CAMPEADOR To LAS NAVAS DE TOLOSA. Between the second half of XI century to The end of XIII century, the Christians Reconquered most of the iberian peninsula And became the hegemonic powers in This territory. The Cid Campeador was a mercenary., fighting sometimes In the Muslim side.
  25. 25. The Christian Resettlement: Different stages.(private lords take land)
  26. 26. Castle of Peñafiel Society was very similar to Feudal Europe: * Priviledged (nobility and church) * Not priviledged (peasants) Trade and money was in ha of minorities like the jews.
  27. 27. THE SOCIETY: The war against the Muslim Created a spirit of crusade. Religion and warfare had a Strong impact on the population.
  28. 28. However, during a long time, three cultures lived Together and tolerate Themselves: Jews, Muslims And Christians.
  29. 29. POLITICS: The iberian monarchies concentrated generally speaking, more power Than other European Monarchies. CORTES: Assemblies where the main towns of the kingdom were represented
  30. 30. THE MODERN CORTES, elected democratically by all the Citizens.
  31. 31. The growth of the castilllian Economy was based in the Exportation of raw materials, Especially wool, very appreciate In North Europe for clothes making. THE ECONOMY Flock of “Merina” Sheeps
  32. 32. The trade in Castilla was developed in big cities like Seville or northern ports. Cataluña had even a strong impact in the mediterranean sea, with the city of Barcelona. THE ECONOMY: TRADE ROUTES
  33. 33. THE FINAL STAGE OF RECONQUEST CRISIS AND FINAL CAMPAIGN (GUERRA DE GRANADA)
  34. 34. THE CRISIS IN THE XIV CENTURY And BLACK DEATH
  35. 35. SOCIAL RIOTS: MURDER OF JEWS IN BARCELONA, 1391 SOCIAL UNREST: The economic crisis Led to peasant riots and created an atmosphere Hostile to tolerance in towns
  36. 36. CIVIL WARS: KING AUTHORITY WEAKENS AND NOBILITY RISES AS POLITICAL AGENT Recreation of the death Of Pedro I in hands of His brother Enrique (1369)
  37. 37. ISABEL DE CASTILLA Queen in 1476 FERNANDO II DE ARAGÓN King in 1479 Married since 1469, and ruling together in both kingdoms THE BEGINNING OF A SPANISH MONARCHY
  38. 38. THE IBERIAN PENINSULA IN THE 15TH CENTURY THE GRANADA WAR 1476 1512 1492
  39. 39. The fall of Granada (1492) THE END OF RECONQUSTA: The Granada war (1482-1492) And the end of the muslim Kingdom in Spain. Boabdil, Last king of Granada, gives the keys of the city The Catholic monarchs
  40. 40. The beginning of modern age: 1492 The catholic monarchs planted the seeds of what should be Spain later
  41. 41. Consequences Evidences WHAT WERE THE CONSEQUENCES OF AN UNITED KINGDOM? Military strenght Monarchs More powerful Social stabilty Economic development Cultural development New weapons: Victories: Bigger armies, new conquest Burocracy. Power over nobility End of civil wars No more social riots . More trade to Europe New currency More production Deeper contact with other cultures (arabs, jews)
  42. 42. Consequences Evidences WHAT WERE THE CONSEQUENCES OF AN UNITED KINGDOM? Military strenght Monarchs More powerful Social stabilty Economic development Cultural development New weapons: gun powder. Victories: Granada Napoles Bigger armies, new conquest Burocracy and equal rules. Power over nobility(Cáceres) End of civil wars (Beltraneja) No more social riots . More trade to Europe (wool) New currency (ducado) More production (agriculture) Deeper contact with other cultures (jews were expelled, intolerance) AS A CONCLUSION, WAS IT POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE FOR OUR HISTORY? T T T F T

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