2. Caesar


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Caesar invades Britain twice. Rationale. Success?

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2. Caesar

  1. 1. Caesar’s ‘Conquest’ Roman Perception of BritainRomanization Begins<br />
  2. 2. Answer<br />Maiden Castle – 47 acres<br />400 yds.<br />
  3. 3. Roman ‘Knowledge’ of Britain<br />Reports of sailors – mainly Greek<br />Extrapolation from Gauls<br />Our Knowledge of early Roman Britain<br /><ul><li>Caesar
  4. 4. Tacitus (56-117), son-in-law of Agricola
  5. 5. CassioDio (~155-230)</li></li></ul><li>Mediterranean Reports<br />C.600 IERNE (Ireland) and ALBION (Britain) described in Massilia (Marseille)<br />325 BCE Pytheas,a Phoenician claims he had sailed around Britain <br />135-150 BCE Posidonius, or Poseidonios - of Syria writes about Druids<br />56 BCE DiodorusSiculus combines accounts<br />Orca<br />Cantium<br />Belerium<br />
  6. 6. Posidonius’ Map (150-130 B.C.)<br />1638 rendering based loosley on his descriptions<br />Earth circumference ~18-24,000 miles<br />
  7. 7. Tribes<br />
  8. 8. Religion and some manifestations<br />Causeways 1500-300 BCE<br />Deposits in waterways<br />Shrines 400 BCE-43 CE<br />Often connected with later Romano-British temples<br />Druids<br />
  9. 9. Fiskerton, Causeway Excavation457-300 BCE<br />
  10. 10. Fiskerton log boat<br />
  11. 11. Trackway, Corlea<br />
  12. 12. Iron Age Road?<br />
  13. 13. Development of a ShrinePhases – Hayling Island<br />Phase I: Two enclosures and pit ~50 BCE<br />Association with Belgae and Commius?<br />Phase II Temple: Circular structure surrounds pit ~0-25 CE<br />Roman Temple ~60 CE<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Human Sacrifice<br />
  16. 16. Human Sacrifice<br />Cauldron found In Denmark<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Lindow Man<br /><ul><li> Residence: LindowBog, Cheshirec. 50 [2 BCE – 119 CE] -1984
  19. 19. Current residence: British Museum</li></li></ul><li>Lindow man: forensics<br />Male; Age, 25; Height, 5’7”; Weight, 135<br />Bearded; hair and beard cut recently; nails well manicured <br />Last meal: Unleavened bread with a drink containing mistletoe pollen<br />
  20. 20. Lindow man: death<br />Probable cause of death: 2 blows to the head with a heavy object; also strangulation by a thin cord; throat cut<br />Motive: Religious sacrifice?<br />
  21. 21. Druids<br />Repository of traditional knowledge<br /> Gods<br /> Tribal Law <br />Administration of justice.<br />Supervision of sacrifices. <br />Used lunar calendar. <br />
  22. 22. Goddess?<br />
  23. 23. Epona<br /><ul><li>Goddess of horses; fertility
  24. 24. Found throughout Romano-Celtic area</li></li></ul><li>Celt and Roman Worldviews<br />Nature<br />Human sacrifice<br />Individualistic<br />Abstract<br />Higher status for women<br />Oral tradition<br />Engineering<br />Execution(abolished human sacrifice in 97 BCE)<br />Organized<br />Realistic<br />Low status for women<br />Written tradition<br />
  25. 25. Trade<br />
  26. 26. Trade –Roman Influence<br />
  27. 27. SE England<br />
  28. 28. Oppida<br />Administrative centers<br />Fortified<br />Industrial<br />Trading centers<br />Mints<br />
  29. 29. Impending Clash<br /> Rivalry between tribes<br /> Relationship with Gauls<br /> Roman expansion into Gaul<br /> An ambitious warrior - Caesar<br />
  30. 30. Evolution of the Roman Army <br /><ul><li>Property owning farmers
  31. 31. Reform of Marius (107 BCE)- all citizens
  32. 32. Cavalry of allies
  33. 33. Government of provinces given to high officials whose offices arose from wealth not ability. Officers of senatorial or equestrian rank.
  34. 34. 91-89 BCE Italian property owners gain citizenship</li></li></ul><li>Roman Legion<br />One legion = Six to ten cohorts<br />First cohort ~800 men; others ~480 men<br />Legatus (senatorial rank)<br />One cohort = Five to eight centuries<br />80 men<br />Senior centurion<br />One century = 8 contubernium (tent units)<br />Centurion/ optio<br />
  35. 35. Invasion – 55 BCE<br />Legio VII Claudia<br />Legio X Equestris<br />
  36. 36. AMPHIBIOUS WARFARE<br />From<br />CAESAR’S INVASION OF BRITAIN<br />NS 293, U of ILLINOIS, NROTC<br />Capt M. T. Carson, MOI<br />Captain M. A. Boccolucci, U of San Diego<br />Major Pfiester, Marquette University<br />Major Darin Clay U of Wisconsin<br />Captain Howell, University of Kansas<br />
  37. 37. Significant Points<br />In the first invasion, the Romans must fight ashore, actually fighting it out in the surf.<br />The campaigns, taken together, give a good example of how Caesar learned from his mistakes the first time out. i.e. specialized landing craft, larger force. <br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  38. 38. Caesar, Veniti and Britain<br />Threat to trade<br />Veniti attack Roman fleet<br />High, sturdy sailing vessels<br />Roman fleet<br />Oared vessels<br />Use hooks to cut rigging<br />
  39. 39. Model of Roman Trireme<br />
  40. 40. Background <br /><ul><li>Cassivellaunus
  41. 41. Ruler in the S.E. of Britain
  42. 42. Subdued his eastern neighbors -- the “Trinovantes”
  43. 43. Executed their King
  44. 44. Banished his son and heir --- “Mandubraces” --- to the continent
  45. 45. Mandubracesgoes to Caesar’s Camp begging for help
  46. 46. Caesar sends “Commius” --- to stir up trouble</li></li></ul><li>Policy Considerations<br />Caesar part of the Roman triumvirate, attacks Britain to enhance his reputation<br />Caesar’s area is Gaul, has trouble with the Gallic tribes, some leaders are using Britain as a refuge, some mercenaries are coming from there<br />Invades to punish Britons for helping Gauls. Invades to gain territory and fame<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  47. 47. Political Aspects<br />Excitement of crossing the ‘Ocean’<br />Keeps Caesar before the eyes of Rome<br />Letter to the Senate<br />Commentaries<br />
  48. 48. Intelligence Shortcomings<br />Campaigns preceded by poor intelligence<br />Possible Sources<br />Merchants – not forthcoming; warn Britons<br />Volusenus fails to find Richborough<br />Envoy, Commius, had influence with Atrebati but not tribes in the area of invasion<br />Campaigns work as intelligence gathering – not as conquest<br />Rose Mary Sheldon (2002): “Caesar, Intelligence, and Ancient Britain,” International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 15:1, 77-100<br />
  49. 49. First Landing August 55 B.C.<br />Embarks two Veteran Legions [VII, X] and some cavalry.<br />Launches following a “reconnaissance in force” <br />Could not land since force was too small and had been observed<br />Caesar sails from Boulogne to the Dover area. Sees British are there in force, so sails north for better beach<br />He is tracked by British in chariots<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  50. 50. Route<br />
  51. 51. First Landing (Cont)<br />Finds a better beach by Deal<br />Must fight ashore<br />Romans reluctant to leave ships<br />Hand to hand fighting in the surf<br />Transport ships cruise parallel to the shore delivering supporting fire<br />Romans finally secure a foot hold on dry land<br />After three weeks, Caesar re-embarks and leaves, accomplishing little<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  52. 52. Landing<br />
  53. 53. Heroes<br />The Eagle standard bearer<br />Caesius Scaeva – one man stand<br />
  54. 54. The Fighting<br />“Dismayed by these circumstances and altogether untrained in this mode of battle, our men did not all exert the same vigor and eagerness which they had been wont to exert in engagements on dry ground.” <br />Caesar ordered …”the enemy to be beaten off and driven away, with slings, arrows, and engines: which plan was of great service to our men “<br />“All the Britains, indeed, dye themselves with woad, which occasions a bluish color, and thereby have a more terrible appearance in fight. <br />
  55. 55. British and Roman Helmets<br />
  56. 56. Artillery<br />
  57. 57. Aftermath – First Invasion<br />Envoys from enemy promise hostages<br />Commius returns, reporting ill treatment<br />Only two kingdoms provide hostages<br />
  58. 58. Preparations: 2nd Invasion<br />After building special flat-bottom, low freeboard, minimum draft landing craft, Caesar attacks again<br />5 legions (including veteran VII, X), plus 2,000 cavalry, for a total of about 22,000 troops<br />A total of 800 ships to include 28 warships<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  59. 59. Opposing forces<br />2,000 war chariots<br />Horses suitable for chariots but not cavalry<br />Briefly united tribes<br />Some knowledge of Roman tactics<br />“Indirect warfare”<br />
  60. 60. Second Invasion, July 54 B.C.<br />Lands at the same beach<br />Lands unopposed; (Britons seeing the size of the force decide not to oppose)<br />Caesar immediately marches inland 12 miles, catching Britons off guard.<br />7th Legion attacks, hit with flank attack, but the veterans withstand, improvise and take position<br />Britons united under Cassivellaunus<br />Storm damages Roman fleet. Not separate Naval commander hurts repair effort. Lose 10 days.<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  61. 61. Route<br />
  62. 62. Bigbury<br />
  63. 63. The Land Campaign<br />Cassivellaunus divides force to attack base camp and to get main body to pursue<br />Cassivellaunus sees Caesar’s extreme sensitivity to the security of base camp<br />Realizes even with chariots, cannot win pitched fight<br />Caesar pursues, conducts masterful forced crossing of Thames, sends cavalry around flanks, brings up supporting fires and conducts frontal assault<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  64. 64. The Land Campaign (Cont)<br />Romans unable to force the Britons into a pitched battle<br />Roman base camp attacked, attack is beaten off, but commander sends word to Caesar that he expects to be attacked again<br />Caesar leaves main body, rushes back, surveys situation and decides to abandon campaign<br />Caesar withdraws after receiving few hostages, and a promise of tribute<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  65. 65. Strategic Considerations<br />Virtually no strategic thought, at least for the first invasion. Land and take over. Little planning.<br />Was the first invasion a reconnaissance in force, or a true attempt to invade<br />For second invasion, Caesar comes to play, 5 legions a substantial force<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  66. 66. Operational Considerations<br />First invasion hindered by lack of plan<br />Few supplies, few troops, no landing craft<br />Intelligence: recon force too small; no beach survey<br />Deal chosen because looked good upon arrival<br />No attempt at surprise<br />Second invasion; planned.<br />Larger fleet, larger force<br />Landing craft, faster debarkation, close to beach.<br />Uses same beach, brings supplies.<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  67. 67. Tactical Considerations<br />First landing, no landing plan, fight in the surf<br />Good fire support in the first landing, brought the heavy stuff along on the cargo vessels.<br />Once fight is joined and Romans are organized, their superior training and fighting skills are apparent and they prevail.<br />The Britons chariots a factor until Romans learn how to counter<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  68. 68. Tactical Considerations (Cont)<br />Shortage of cavalry adequate recon and force screening difficult for Romans<br />Cassivellaunus conducts a textbook guerrilla fight<br />Avoids decisive engagement<br />Harasses foraging parties<br />Strikes at the beachhead with a sufficient force to cause alarm<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  69. 69. Technical Consideratons<br />First time, no landing craft, rectified the second time out.<br />Returned with the gunships, not as critical the second invasion.<br />Good use of heavy artillery in crossing the Thames.<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  70. 70. Conclusions<br />Security of beachhead and LOC to Gaul, primary concerns for Caesar.<br />Britons conduct guerrilla campaign, Cassivellaunus able to recognize that he cannot conventionally defeat Romans. Wins without winning a battle.<br />Caesar commands both land and sea. Caused problems in 54 after the storm<br />Good naval gunfire support, earliest known example<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  71. 71. Testudo<br />
  72. 72. Conclusions (Cont)<br />Somehow, Caesar’s reputation is not damaged.<br />Flexibility of Cassivellaunus - exploited Roman sensitivity to base camp<br />Crossing of Thames excellent example of supporting arms.<br />As veteran troops gain familiarity with new weapons(chariots in this case), they adapt tactics to cope or overcome the new system. The new weapon then loses most of its impact.<br />Capt. Carson, UIUC<br />
  73. 73. Conclusions (Cont)<br />Romans aware of the pitfalls of invasion<br />Opportunity for Roman and Romanized merchants<br />British leaders adopt aspects of Roman culture<br />British policy reflects events in Rome<br />“…a Celtic-Gallic midget called Asterix (fix meant "king" in Celtic… for about 20 years has been beating up on Romans all over the place-to the delight of citizens who have never quite forgotten, or forgiven, Caesar”<br />Dora Jane Hamblin. Smithsonian, May 1993 <br />
  74. 74. An Opposing View<br />Purpose was only Caesar’s greed<br />Loss of troops and ships<br />Leaving Gaul might have threatened Italy<br />Failure to find wealth (silver, gold, pearls?)<br />Britain’s only asset – barbarous slaves who can neither write poetry or music<br />
  75. 75. After Caesar leaves<br />Conflict in Gaul<br />Troops disbanded to winter quarters however<br />Approach of fall<br />Enough supplies to overwinter<br />Uprisings in 53 and 52 in Gaul prevent return<br />
  76. 76. Evaluations<br />Success<br />55 reconnaissance in force; 54 police action<br />Trading patterns established<br />Loyal allies cultivated<br />90 years of peace<br />
  77. 77. Evaluation<br />Failure<br />No occupation for enforcement<br />Did not successfully counteract chariot guerilla warfare<br />Did not gain access to mineral resources<br />Did not learn about agriculture, industry<br />
  78. 78. Effects On Britain<br />Subject to tribute<br />Roman ‘technical assistance’ leads to improved coinage. <br />Those who aided Rome benefit economically<br />Those who opposed Rome wait their chances.<br />
  79. 79. “British” Reaction<br /> A kind of conquest Caesar made here; but made not here his brag Of 'came, and saw, and overcame.' With shame- The first that ever touch'd him- he was carried From off our coast, twice beaten; and his shipping- Poor ignorant baubles!- on our terrible seas, Like egg-shells mov'd upon their surges, crack'd As easily 'gainst our rocks <br /> Queen, Cymbeline Act III, Scene 1<br />