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1 F2012 After the Romans; The Saxon Advent


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The changes that occur immediately before and after the break with Rome in 410. Genetic evidence and the Saxon Advent into England.

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1 F2012 After the Romans; The Saxon Advent

  1. 1. Roman Britain to Norman England Fall 2012Migration Period; Early Middle Ages
  2. 2. Today’s Topics• Roman Britain – Fall? Dark for whom? – Fate of Roman culture – State of British (native) culture• The Saxon Advent – Models – DNA evidence
  3. 3. 1 Schematic Timeline 4 5 1 0 1 00 5 4 1 0 0 60 5 0 3 0 0 0 6 Celtic kingdoms England Roman Saxon Sub-Roman Britain Kingdoms Danelaw Wales, ScotlandQuestion: What are the natures of the transitions?
  4. 4. 410: Ties with Rome BrokenThe alarmists saw the news and bemoaned Romanthe end of the nation’s Anglo-Saxon culture,while the enthusiasts saw it and cheered the Romanend of Anglo-Saxon culture. Wilmington News-Journal May 19, 2007
  5. 5. Two Contemporary Views of Events• Byzantine writers British obliged to throw off Roman rule because of decline in Roman power to protect them• Gildas – Romans abandon Britain – Tyrants strip Britain of armies for continental adventures
  6. 6. Political Events Preceding 410• Empire and Britain face frequent incursions – Troops withdrawn from Britain to deal with these incursions• Usurpers from Britain• Withholding of taxes
  7. 7. Economic Events Preceding 410• Decline in money supply – Inflation, Hoarding, Counterfeiting and clipping – Money supply dependent on troop presence• Failure to maintain buildings• Reduction in variety and, finally, disappearance of manufactured pottery
  8. 8. Political events after 410• 410 Defense of Britain left to civitates – Hadrian’s Wall maintained• Reassertion of elite Celts who occupied hill- towns and forts in outlying areas.• End of Pax Romana• Migrations to Ireland, Brittany, Gaul
  9. 9. Our sources• Continental writers to ~470• St. Patrick (Romano-Celtic viewpoint)• Gildas ~(500-570) (Romano-British viewpoint)• Bede 730 (Anglo-Saxon viewpoint)• Chronicles – Welsh, Irish, Anglo-Saxon retrospective constructions• Archaeology
  10. 10. Britain in 407
  11. 11. Continuity• Maintenance of many urban areas• Some political contacts – Requests for aid• Continued Christianity – Worship connected with martyred saints• Continued contacts on Church level• Continued trade with Mediterranean
  12. 12. Post Roman Towns
  13. 13. Post Roman Forts – Pre-Roman Forts• Hill forts better located for defensive purposes.• Roman forts useful as quarries• Prestige associated with continued association with Roman forts
  14. 14. Post Roman Forts 615 >640 400Tintagel
  15. 15. Hill FortsCadbury Castle
  16. 16. HallsReconstruction at Cadbury Castle
  17. 17. Fate of a Roman City - Wroxeter• Public buildings in use to ~500• Defense includes mercenaries?• Part of Kingdom of Powys• Baths not maintained – Replaced by large wood mansion (Bishop’s palace?)
  18. 18. Roman Stone Construction Not Maintained City abandoned ~650
  19. 19. Cunorix475-500, Wroxeter
  20. 20. Nature of Post Roman States• Maintain some trappings from Roman system?• Led by tyrants?• Failure to maintain public works
  21. 21. Trade
  22. 22. Tintagel Project• Mid 5th-6th Century• Amphorae• Byzantine coins• Glassware characteristic of Spain• Red slipware from Turkey• Celtic name in Latin context
  23. 23. Aerial View
  24. 24. Ground View
  25. 25. Artognou Stone
  26. 26. Inscription PATER / COLI AVI FICIT / ARTOGNOV Artognou, father of a descendant of Coll, has had (this) made
  27. 27. Continued Mediterranean Trade
  28. 28. Trade – Wales – Continental Glass
  29. 29. Legacies of Rome in Britain• Cities • Reading• Civitas • Religion• Fortifications • Roads
  30. 30. The Saxon Advent
  31. 31. The Saxon Advent
  32. 32. Scenarios• Invasion and ethnic cleansing• Invasion and apartheid• Migration over a prolonged period: Pre- Roman, Roman, Sub-Roman
  33. 33. The SaxonsOne scenario• Arrive as federates• Mass migration of Germanic peoples – Existing population killed, displaced or intermarry – Christian Romans (British) displaced by pagans
  34. 34. Another Scenario• Small-scale military activity – Cultural and linguistic changes in existing population – Changes in taste under new cultural influence – Some interbreeding; invaders predominantly male
  35. 35. The invitation and its consequences449 Hengest and Horsa, invited by Wurtgern, king of theBritons to assist him455 Hengest and Horsa rebel agaist Wurtgern, Horsa killed457 Hengest and his son, Esc, defeat other Britons in Kent465, 473 Further victories by Horsa and EscFurther advent by their ‘cousins’
  36. 36. Genetic Studies• Aim is to determine whether current populations can be related to putative homelands (1) Y Chromosome Evidence for Anglo-Saxon Mass Migration Michael E. Weale*,1, Deborah A. Weiss ,1, Rolf F. Jager* , Neil Bradman* and Mark G. Thomas* Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:1008-1021 (2002) (2) A Y Chromosome Census of the British Isles Cristian Capelli1, 8, Nicola Redhead1, Julia K. Abernethy1, Fiona Gratrix1, James F. Wilson1, Torolf Moen3, Tor Hervig4, Martin Richards5, Michael P. H. Stumpf1, 9, Peter A. Underhill6, Paul Bradshaw7, Alom Shaha7, Mark G. Thomas1, 2, Neal Bradman1, 2 and David B. Goldstein1 CURRENT BIOLOGY 13: (11) 979-984 MAY 27 2003
  37. 37. Sampling(2)
  38. 38. Genetic Variations (Y)
  39. 39. Genetic Mixing (Y)
  40. 40. Authors’ Conclusions1. Central England - Little genetic differentiation2. North Welsh - Highly significant differences between two towns, both from each other and from the five Central English towns3. No significant differences between Friesland and any of the Central English towns4. “…an Anglo-Saxon immigration event affecting 50%–100% of the Central English male gene pool at that time is required… “
  41. 41. Calculated admixtures Norway 0.8 Germany 0.6PopulationAdmixture 0.4 0.2 0 England Scotland Isles Wales
  42. 42. Portion of“indigenous” DNA
  43. 43. Authors’ Conclusions1. “Limited continental input in southern England, which appears to be predominantly indigenous”2. “…the part of mainland Britain that has the most Continental input is Central England…”3. Contributions of Danish and North German can not be distinguished.4. “…the transition between England and Wales is somewhat gradual…”
  44. 44. Isotope Studies• Evidence for mobility – Sr • Dentine • Enamel • Bone – Pb (distorted by lead from objects)Inconclusive
  45. 45. Coming• Cultural changes• Religious persistence and renewal