5. F2011 Scotland and the New Frontier


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The Romans complete the conquest of Wales, overcome the Brigante rebellion and move into Scotland only to retreat when trouble arises in Germany.

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  • Ware
Nene Valley Ware (scope note | all objects)
Place (findspot)
Found/Acquired Colchester (all objects)
(Europe,United Kingdom,England,Essex,Colchester)
Romano-British (scope note | all objects)Description
Pottery Nene-Valley jar. Decorated with a raised, schematized depiction of a chariot race. The event is for quadrigae, four-horse chariots, and four competitors are shown in the middle of the race. Each is helmeted, dressed in a long sleeved jerkin and trousers, and holds whips and reins.

Height: 150 millimetres
  • There followed a disaster, whether due to chance or to the malice of the sovereign is uncertain — for each version has its sponsors10 — but graver and more terrible than any other which has p273befallen this city by the ravages of fire. It took its rise in the part of the Circus touching the Palatine and Caelian Hills; where, among the shops packed with inflammable goods, the conflagration broke out, gathered strength in the same moment, and, impelled by the wind, swept the full length of the Circus: for there were neither mansions screened by boundary walls, nor temples surrounded by stone enclosures, nor obstructions of any description, to bar its progressThe necessities of life were brought up from Ostia and the neighbouring municipalities, and the price of grain was lowered to three sesterces. Yet his measures, popular as their character might be, failed of their effect; for the report had spread that, at the very moment when Rome was aflame, he had mounted his private stage,15 and typifying the ills of the present by the calamities of the past, had sung the destruction of Troy.But neither human help, nor imperial munificence, nor all the modes of placating Heaven, could stifle scandal or dispel the belief that the fire had taken place by order.
  • Therefore, to scotch the rumour, Nero substituted as culprits, and punished with the utmost refinements of cruelty, a class of men, loathed for their vices,27 whom the crowd styled Christians.28 Christus, the founder of the name, had undergone the death penalty in the reign of Tiberius, by sentence of the procurator Pontius Pilatus,29 and the pernicious superstition was checked for a moment, only to break out once more, not merely in Judaea, the home of the disease, but in the capital itself, where all things horrible or shameful in the world collect and find a vogue. First, then, the confessed members of the sect were arrested; next, on their disclosures, vast p285numbers30 were convicted, not so much on the count of arson as for hatred of the human race.31 And derision accompanied their end: they were covered with wild beasts' skins and torn to death by dogs; or they were fastened on crosses, and, when daylight failed were burned to serve as lamps by night. Nero had offered his Gardens for the spectacle, and gave an exhibition in his Circus, mixing with the crowd in the habit of a charioteer, or mounted on his car. Hence, in spite of a guilt which had earned the most exemplary punishment, there arose a sentiment of pity, due to the impression that they were being sacrificed not for the welfare of the state but to the ferocity of a single man.
  • Experts originally thought the racetrack held about 8,000 spectators. But that figure has now been upped to 15,000.The east-west orientated circus is approximately 450m in length and 70m wide witha central ‘spina’ barrier and was used for chariot racing. Elements identified to dateinclude the seating caveawithin internal and external (buttressed wall), twoentrances through the southern cavea, a lowered racetrack dirt surface (theremoved topsoil was presumably used to construct cavea banks on which seatingwas constructed), a segment of the semi-circular end of the circus, a fragment of thestarting gate structures and a monument base on the line of the spina. The Romanburial grounds tend to flank the circus and the routeway within J1.Vitruvius provides guidelines for the relativelocation of each particular deity:Mercury should be in the forum, or like Isis and Serapis, in the emporium: Apollo andFather Bacchus near the theatre: Hercules at the circus in communities, which have nogymnasia nor amphitheatres; Mars outside the city but at the training ground, and soVenus, but at the harbor.71Vitruvius continues in his distinction in city plans about the proper location of several God’stemples outside the city walls:It is more-over shown by the Etruscan diviners in treatises on their science that the fanesof Venus, Vulcan, and Mars should be situated outside the walls, in order that the youngmen and married women may not become habituated in the city to the temptationsincident to the worship of Venus, and that buildings may be free from the terror of firesThe cones appear to have been coated with opus signinumpainted pink. An uprightiron water-collar set in the arena close to the north side of the barrier indicated that pressurisedwater had been brought to the barrier. Its presence suggests that the latter had been a relativelysophisticated structure containing water features such as basins and lap-counters in the form ofspouting dolphins. Two large pits lay within the footprint of the end of the barrier. These seem tohave been aligned
  • The Fallow Deer was spread across central Europe by the Romans. Until recently it was thought that the Normans introduced them to Great Britain and to Ireland for hunting in the royal forests. However recent finds at Fishbourne Roman Palace show that Fallow Deer were introduced into southern England in the 1st century AD. It is not known whether these escaped to form a feral colony, or whether they died out and were reintroduced by the Normans.
  • British legions concerned about lack of action and hence lack of booty. Force governor trebellus to fleeBolano does not give up auxiliaries by citing local needs
  • Hushing; water is collected in a reservoir or tank and rapidly released to wash away overburden. Method described by Pliny in Spain,
  • Two iron pick heads were found in the Llanymynech workings. They were probably used in the copper workings. The Montgomeryshire Collections (Volume III 1870) state '... these two very singular iron picks, which are certainly of Roman manufacture, and are altogether different in form from miners' picks of the present time, which are pointed at both ends. The larger of these is nearly fourteen inches long, the shorter a little over nine inches; but originally it had been longer, as a considerable portion of the pointed end has been broken away. The handles themselves, from the weight of the iron, were probably very short, and used with one hand only. ...' The stub of a handle remains in the larger pick head.
  • Left possibly used in hammer mill to crush stone. Circular mill for finer crushing.
  • Lead ingotRoman Britain, AD 76
From Hints Common, StaffordshireLead was widely used in the Roman world, both as a constituent of bronze and pewter and in its own right, In particular, its density and malleability were especially well-suited to the manufacture of weights and waterproofing materials, including pipes, water tanks and roof flashing.Lead was obtained as a by-product of silver mining from the ore galena. Until the second century AD, this meant that lead production was often under the control of the Emperor. The inscription on this ingot reads IMP.VESP.VII.T.IMP.V.COS, which translates '[Cast] while the Emperor Vespasian was consul for the seventh time, and Titus, imperator, consul for the fifth time.' These titles date the ingot to AD 76. The letters DECEANG on the side of the ingot show that the lead was quarried in the territory of the Deceangli, the tribe living in the north-eastern corner of Wales. The ingot was found in 1771 on the line of the Roman road known as Watling Street. It may have fallen from a wagon on its way to the south-east.
  • he remains of a 2000-year-old Roman port have been discovered in south Wales by archaeologists from the University.Uncovered outside the Roman fortress in Caerleon by a team of staff and students from the School of History, Archaeology and Religion, the port is only the second known from Roman Britain 
  • A famous speech before an assembly of rebellious Gauls, put in the mouth of Cerialis, who begins with the immortal phrase ‘neque ego umquamfacundiamexercui’ (‘unaccustomed as I am to public speaking’; Tacitus, Histories, iv.73) , has been called the finest justification of Roman imperialism ever written. There is of course no guarantee that it represents anything that Cerialis himself actually said. He is also given some credit for his tactful handling of the embarrassing attempt by Vespasian's younger son, Domitian, then only nineteen, to assume command of the campaign. But in general the impression conveyed is that Cerialis succeeded rather by good luck than by good generalship. On one occasion he narrowly escaped capture by the enemy, who seized the flagship of the Rhine flotilla during the night in the belief that the Roman commander was on board. However, Cerialis ‘was sharing a bed on land with an Ubian woman, named Claudia Sacrata’ (as Tacitus drily reports in Histories, v.22) . The final outcome of the campaign is not recorded; the last surviving page of Tacitus's account has Cerialis negotiating on an island with the rebel leader Julius Civilis in the second half of AD 70. Cerialis's settlement evidently guaranteed the maintenance of certain privileges for the Batavians, whose fighting qualities continued to be highly prized by Rome, in return for them laying down their arms.Cerialis then convoked an assembly of the Treveri and Lingones, and thus addressed them: "I have never cultivated eloquence; it is by my sword that I have asserted the excellence of the Roman people. Since, however, words have very great weight with you, since you estimate good and evil, not according to their real value, but according to the representations of seditious men, I have resolved to say a few words, which, as the war is at an end, it may be useful for you to have heard rather than for me to have spoken. Roman generals and Emperors entered your territory, as they did the rest of Gaul, with no ambitious purposes, but at the solicitation of your ancestors, who were wearied to the last extremity by intestine strife, while the Germans, whom they had summoned to their help, had imposed their yoke alike on friend and foe. How many battles we have fought against the Cimbri and Teutones, at the cost of what hardships to our armies, and with what result we have waged our German wars, is perfectly well known. It was not to defend Italy that we occupied the borders of the Rhine, but to insure that no second Ariovistus should seize the empire of Gaul. Do you fancy yourselves to be dearer in the eyes of Civilis and the Batavi and the Transrhenane tribes, than your fathers and grandfathers were to their ancestors? There have ever been the same causes at work to make the Germans cross over into Gaul, lust, avarice, and the longing for a new home, prompting them to leave their own marshes and deserts, and to possess themselves of this most fertile soil and of you its inhabitants. Liberty, indeed, and the like specious names are their pretexts; but never did any man seek to enslave his fellows and secure dominion for himself without using the very same words.On a dark and cloudy night, when the fleet was moored, some attacked the tents and others dragged away the ships. 'The general, half-asleep and almost naked, was only saved by a mistake of the enemy.' They dragged away the flag-ship, thinking that he was on board- 'instead of which he had been spending the night elsewhere, for the purpose of debauching Claudia Sacrata, an Ubian woman, as most people believed. The watch excused their misconduct by blaming the general, alleging that they had been ordered to keep silence so as not to disturb his rest; hence, as the signal and watchwords had been intermitted for that reason, they had fallen asleep (v 22.1-3).24 No significant action is recorded after this. Negotiations for peace were beginning, and the Histories as we now have them peter out in mid-sentence, with Cerialis and the rebel leader parleying on a bridge.
  • The site of the Roman fort at Carlisle lies partly buried beneath the superstructure of Carlisle Castle Keep. The south-eastern corner-angle and substantial attached lengths of the eastern and southern ramparts, fortunately, have survived intact but buried, in the area between the Castle and the A595 Castle Way Road. These accessible defenses have been subjected to rigorous investigation using the most up-to-date methodologies which has enabled modern archaeologists to piece together a detailed picture of the sequence of forts which were built upon the site, all apparently on the same alignment and of similar size. The actual dimensions of the fort cannot be verified without demolishing the Castle, but restrictions in the local topography would seem to indicate the Roman fort platform covered an area of around 8 acres (c. 3.2 ha).Pre-Flavian Legionary EncampmentIt is now known for certain that the Roman site at Carlisle is pre-Agricolan, as dendrochronological dating of timbers used in the southern rampart of the fort proved that they were cut during the Autumn/Winter of AD 72-3. It now appears almost certain that this fort was built and occupied by a vexillation of Legio IX Hispanaduring the closing campaigns of Quintus PetiliusCerialis against the Brigantian dissident Venutius, 'to make contact with the sea after an advance from York' (FrereBritannia p.100). Three large temporary marching camps at PlumptonHead,Crackenthorpe and Rey Cross, have all been attributed to the campaigns of this governor and dated sometime around AD72/73. In further support of this, tiles and pottery sherds bearing the stamp of the Ninth Legion have been discovered at Scalesceugh about 5 miles (8km) south of Carlisle, which makes it very likely that a vexillation from this legion was involved in some way with the Flavian presence at Carlisle. The legion was permanently withdrawn from Britain around AD120.The Flavian FortExcavations conducted by Miss Dorothy Charlesworth in the 1950's identified the site of a Flavian military enclosure just to the south of the present castle, the medieval structure itself being raised over the north-eastern quadrant of the Roman fortifications. The southern gateway of the fort has been excavated recently by the Carlisle Archaeological Unit, which revealed the timber structure of the gatehouse and its adjoining rampart, the timbers being in a remarkable state of preservation. The fort was defended by a timber rampart and covered about eight acres (3ha). It was obviously located here to guard the strategic crossing over the River Eden. Coinage evidence suggest that the fort underwent some sort of re-occupation c.AD78-79 during the Agricolan period, and dendrochronology again suggests that the internal buildings were rebuilt and their timbers replaced during the Autumn/Winter of AD 83-84; this fort was purposefully demolished around AD103. It had long been thought that the fourth campaign of governor Gnaeus Julius Agricola towards the Tay very likely used Carlisle as the rearward base of the Twentieth Legion during their operations in the south-west of Scotland, but it is certain that this fort remained an important rearward base during the subsequent withdrawal from the Highlands in the AD90's.The Stanegate FortAnother timber fort having the same dimensions and general layout was built on the same site sometime around AD103-5, which retained a garrison until well-into the Hadrianic period. The size of the garrison was only gradually reduced, until the site was finally levelled and abandoned during the Antonine period. A passage from one of the Vindolanda writing tablets records that a centurioregionarius, a title associated with the TrajanicStanegate, was stationed at Luguvalium in AD103. Even without archaeological evidence, this epigraphy proves that the Stanegate extended at least to Carlisle, which probably represented the western terminus of the original Trajanic frontier system.The Hadrianic Fortifications in the AreaThe Carlisle site was obviously eclipsed in importance during the Hadrianic period by the establishment of the large auxiliary cavalry fort at Stanwix which was built astride Hadrian's Wall only ½-mile to the north-east. To the east of Carlisle for many miles the Wall was built in a narrow guage (i.e. 7'6") upon a broad foundation (10' wide), while to the west the narrow wall was continued upon a narrow foundation (around 8' broad).
  • The forts of Drumquhassle, Menteith/Malling, Bochastle, Doune, Dalginross and Fendoch in the southwest are collectively referred to as the Glenblocker forts in the older literature. This is due to their location at the exit of some of the glens or directly opposite them. The relationship between the Glenblocker forts and the Gask Ridge has in the past been seen to represent a staged withdrawal.[6] More recent research suggests that the three elements are actually part of the same frontier system, stretching roughly from Loch Lomond to Montrose. The Glenblocker forts in this scenario control access to major valleys in the frontier area, which actually loop back into the frontier area, rather than link to the Iron Age settlement concentration further north). Their role as an effective block to invasion is doubtful, as their situation would have allowed supervision, but their manpower is not strong enough to deter anything but small scale cattle raids.The First Flavian Period (ad85-c.90)Once an invading Roman army had secured an area and moved on, the general would often leave behind a small garrison, usually of auxiliaries, housed in semi-permanent structures built of turf and timber, in order to police the recently-subdued natives and also to secure the retreat of the army should it become necessary. Occasionally these would be augmented by the construction of a larger legionary camp or fortress to provide strategic reinforcements, perhaps also by a system of signal-stations or watch-towers to provide communication between these permanent fortifications. There is ample evidence that Agricola instigated the construction of many such fortifications in the wake of his army, also that he planned to complete the conquest of Scotland aided by the construction of several large forts situated at the mouths of the glens leading into the Central Highland Massif. These "Glen" forts would be used as "springboards" to launch his army into the heart of the Highlands, and would be provided with support from the rear by the building of a new legionary fortress at Inchtuthill on the Tay. Although it is possible that these permanent installations were initially laid-out during the tenure of Agricola it is very likely that the forts were actually completed by his successor to the post, Sallustius Lucullus, a governor who was also to fall foul of Domitian, but, unlike Agricola, was recalled to Rome and put to death, no doubt in some grisly manner, as was the modus operandi of this deranged and megalomaniacal emperor.Inchtuthill and the Glen FortsIt is likely that work started on the Inchtuthill fortress no earlier than AD85, the year after Agricola left Britain. This legionary base was abandoned uncompleted perhaps in the winter of 85/86, certainly by the summer of 86 when the removal from Britain of Legio II Adiutrix for use in Domitian's Dacian wars forced the Twentieth Legion to be withdrawn from Scotland to maintain the garrison at Chester, recently vacated by the Second.At the same time as the Inchtuthill legionary base was being built, a number of forts were also constructed at the mouth of each glen leading into the Caledonian highlands, to the south-east of Inchtuthill at: Barochan on the Clyde, Drumquhassle at the SE corner of Loch Lomond, Malling at Menteith, Bochastle at Callander, Dalginross at Comrie and Fendoch at the mouth of the Sma' Glen, also to the north-east at: Ardoch, Strageath, Bertha, Cargill, Cardean and Stracathro. There may also have been another fort situated in the anomalously large gap between the latter two forts.Ardoch may have been garrisoned by an auxiliary unit and a legionary cohort, and excavations at Fendoch and Cardean have demonstrated that both forts were evacuated after only a short occupation period. A number of bronze asses of AD86 have been uncovered at a number of military sites in Scotland; Inchtuthill, Camelon, Strageath, Stracathro, Crawford, Newstead, Cramond, Castledykes and Barochan. The finding of these coins, all in almost unworn condition, proves that all of these sites were garrisoned in that year or shortly afterwards. It is almost certain, given the stong garrisons in the glen forts that the Romans intended these camps to act as a springboard into the Caledonian highlands along the lines of the Glens. These plans were halted by the advent of war in Dacia."The abandonment of Inchtuthill was almost certainly accompanied by the withdrawal of the garrisons of the glen forts." (Breeze, p.61)
  • Inchtuthil hospitalAmong the timber buildings at Inchthuthil is a vast structure measuring 300 x 192 feet (91 x 59 m). Its central open courtyard is surrounded by double ranges of small rooms set on either side of a corridor. This building has been identified as the legion’s hospital, or valetudinarium. The rooms off the corridor have been identified as wards, each large enough to have accommodated four beds (or eight double bunks). There appear to be about sixty of them, which suggests that one had been allocated to each of the legion’s centuries. A long building in the central range of the auxiliary fort at Fendoch has also been identified as a hospital. As at Inchtuthil, its central corridor is flanked by wards.Above: occulist's stamp, found at Tranent.Right: fragment of amphora indicating cough mixture.Both © SCRAN/National Museums of ScotlandRecipies for herbal remedies and other medications can be found in Classical literature, as well as in the archaeological record. A lead stopper from Haltern in Germany carries the words Ex RadiceBritanica (‘derived from a type of British root’), a medicine used to cure scurvy. From Carpow comes an amphora fragment incised with a Greek inscription indicating that it once contained wine fortified with horehound, an aromatic herb used in cough mixtures. A Roman occulist’s stamp has been found at Tranent. It would have been used to seal containers of eye ointment, and reads (reversed) L VALLATINI APALOCROCODES AD DIATHESIS - ‘Lucius Vallatinus’ mild eye-salve.’ diathesis -disease
  • nails
  • Sailed around island after victory at Mons Graupius. Some postulate the battle as taking place near Cawdor.
  • 5. F2011 Scotland and the New Frontier

    1. 1. Aftermath of the Rebellion<br />New Frontiers<br />Scotland I<br />
    2. 2. Rebuilding Colchester<br />
    3. 3. Roman Foundations<br />
    4. 4. Glassware - Colchester<br />
    5. 5. Jar depicting circus sceneColchester area<br />
    6. 6. Circus Maximus<br />
    7. 7. Circus Nero<br />
    8. 8. Colchester Circus<br />
    9. 9. Rebuilding London<br />
    10. 10. c. 100 CE Basilica<br />
    11. 11. Questions<br />Withdraw from Britain?<br />Adopt defensive measures?<br />Ireland or Scotland?<br />
    12. 12. Sussex - A Gift to the King<br />
    13. 13. Import<br />
    14. 14. Fishbourne-Proto-Palace<br />
    15. 15. Roman Squabbles and British Legions<br />Otho incorporates XIV Gemina<br />New governor under Vitelliue, VettiusBolano<br />Resists committing auxiliaries to Vettius<br />Vespasian seeks support of XIV and II (where he had served earlier)<br />
    16. 16. 68-69 CE<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Mining in Roman Britain<br />Earliest ingot found dated to 49 CE at Charterhouse in the Mendip Hills region<br />
    19. 19. Roman Cornwall<br />
    20. 20. Dolaucothi gold mine, Tank used in ‘hushing’<br />
    21. 21. Mining Tools, Llanymynech, WalesCopper, lead, silver<br />Trivia: This mine was reopened in 1194 but was not productive.<br />Why was it reopened?<br />
    22. 22. Millstones, Dolaucothi Gold Mine<br />
    23. 23. Georgius Agricola, Stamp Mill 1556<br />
    24. 24. Exploiting the resources of Wales<br />[Cast] while the Emperor Vespasian was consul for the seventh time, and Titus, imperator, consul for the fifth time (76 CE)<br />[territory of the) Deceangeli<br />
    25. 25. Isca (Caerleon) reconstruction from east<br />
    26. 26. Cartimandua and the BrigantesYorkshire<br />69 Roman squabbles: New uprising by Venutius<br />Cartimandua evacuated by Romans and Venutius took the kingdom<br />71 Romans begin conquest of the north (Cerialis)<br />
    27. 27. PetilliusCerialis – How to Become Governor<br />Leader of IX routed by Boudica<br />Commander of special force against Vitellius – fails to prevent his forces from burning the capitol and mishandling Senators<br />Perhaps successful in negotiating with rebellious forces in Lower Germany - Escapes capture<br />Married to Vespasian's daughter<br />Governor 71 CE<br />
    28. 28. PetilliusCerialis<br />Governor 71-73<br />Involved with defeat of Venutius and incorporation of Brigantian territory<br />New bases in north<br />Did he invade Scotland?<br />
    29. 29. Carlisle Fort<br />Timbers date to 72/3<br />Reoccupied 78/9 based on coins<br />Rebuilt 83-84 based on dendrochronology<br />Demolished 103<br />Carlisle Castle<br />
    30. 30. Frontinus<br />Governor 73/74 -77<br />Pacification of Silures in S. Wales<br />Foundation of Caerwent<br />Probably no focus on Scotland<br />
    31. 31. New Bases<br />Eburacum (York) IX Hispania, forward post at Luguvalium (Carlisle<br />Lindum(Lincoln) IX replaced by II Adiutrix<br />Viroconium(Wroxter) or Deva (Chester) XIV Geminamoved to Germany, XX Victrix<br />Isca(Caerleon) II Augusta<br />
    32. 32. Status of Roman Britain ~77 CE<br />
    33. 33. Gnaeus Julius Agricola,<br />Governor 78-84<br />Established roads and bases in Scotland<br />Attempted conquest<br />
    34. 34. Agricola’s Campaigns<br />
    35. 35. Ireland<br />I have often heard him say that a single legion with a few auxiliaries could conquer and occupy Ireland, and that it would have a salutary effect on Britain for the Roman arms to be seen everywhere, and for freedom, so to speak, to be banished from its sight. <br />Tacitus Agricola 24.<br />
    36. 36. Moray Firth<br />Clyde<br />Forth<br />Solway<br />Tyne<br />“Scotland”<br />
    37. 37. Tribal Areas<br />Northwest<br />Brochs<br />Tyne-Solway to Moray<br />Hillforts<br />Selgovae<br />Hillforts, Palisades<br />Southwest<br />Crannogs<br />
    38. 38. Settlement Types<br />
    39. 39. Brochs<br />Uist, Western Isles<br />
    40. 40. Crannogs<br />
    41. 41. Roads<br />
    42. 42. Construction<br />
    43. 43. Construction - Layers<br />
    44. 44. A Road Near Manchester<br />
    45. 45. Other Roads<br />
    46. 46. Milestone (milliarium)<br />1 Roman mile = 1000 passi (double paces)<br />1 passi = 5 pedes (Roman feet) <br />1 pes = 11.65 inches<br />
    47. 47. Chester Area Buildup<br />
    48. 48. Wilderspool Industrial AreaCheshire ~ 22 miles SW of Chester<br />pottery glass iron bronze<br />
    49. 49. Novantae ~81 CE<br />Dalwinston/Dumfries <br />~80 CE<br />Glenlochar<br />81 Marching camps and large fort<br />90 rebuilt following retreat<br />Gatehouse of Fleet<br />81 Fortlet<br />
    50. 50. Bases in Scotland<br />
    51. 51. Gask Ridge Fortifications<br />
    52. 52. Military Installations<br />Legionary Forts<br />Forts 1-7 acres<br />Fortlets ~0.5 acres; No HQ<br />Watch tower - round<br />
    53. 53. Gask Ridge<br />Detailed map<br />South and central<br />
    54. 54. Gask Ridge signal tower - model<br />
    55. 55. Signaling<br />
    56. 56. Ardoch<br />
    57. 57. Ardoch<br />
    58. 58. InchtuthilLegionary fortress<br />
    59. 59.
    60. 60.
    61. 61. Inscriptions – MedicalApalocrocodes (Mild) (Salve from saffron – crocus)<br />
    62. 62. Nails<br />
    63. 63. Possible Roman Presence further North<br />
    64. 64. Mons Graupius-Site?<br />
    65. 65. Mons Graupius<br />The Romans<br />? Legionaries<br />8000 auxiliaries<br />3000 cavalry<br />Losses 360 among auxiliaries only<br />Caledonians<br />30,000<br />Losses 10,000<br />
    66. 66. Calgacus<br />Robbers of the world, having by their universal plunder exhausted the land, they rifle the deep. If the enemy be rich, they are rapacious; if he be poor, they lust for dominion; neither the east nor the west has been able to satisfy them. Alone among men they covet with equal eagerness poverty and riches. To robbery, slaughter, plunder, they give the lying name of empire; they make a solitude and call it peace.<br />
    67. 67. Trumpeters<br />
    68. 68. Trumpet<br />Deskford<br />
    69. 69. Battle-Mons Graupius<br />
    70. 70. Testudo<br />
    71. 71. Abandonment of Scotland-Inchtuthil<br />
    72. 72. Abandonment of Scotland<br />
    73. 73. Reasons for Abandonment<br />Withdrawal of troops to Germany<br />Lack of local administrators<br />Devastated area<br />
    74. 74. Stanegate Frontier<br />
    75. 75. Vindolanda<br />