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Week 2 The Early Settlers


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Week 2 The Early Settlers

  1. 1. Week 2: The Ancient Britain
  2. 3. THE EARLY SETTLERS <ul><li>THE BEAKER FOLK </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000 BC people from Northern Europe came to Britain. They were known as Beaker Folk. </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze ornaments were their important achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>There had been a trade, exchange of goods </li></ul><ul><li>They had religion already. Stonehenge in Wiltshire was the evidence. </li></ul>
  3. 4. STONEHENGE in WILTSHIRE on SALISBURY PLAIN built in three phases between 1800 and 1400 BC
  4. 5. <ul><li>Stonehenge, the circular arrangement of large stones near Salisbury, England, was probably built in three stages between about 3000 and 1000 bc. The function of the monument remains unknown: once believed to be a temple for Druids or Romans, Stonehenge is now often thought to have been either a temple for sun worshipers or a type of astronomical clock or calendar. As the only natural building stones within 21 km (13 mi), Stonehenge has been decimated through the centuries by builders and by normal climatic forces. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Still about Beaker Folk <ul><li>Beaker Folk believed that the dead should be buried individually—each in crouching position, and clasping his or her drinking pot (presumable to take light refreshments on the other side of the life). </li></ul><ul><li>Their graves were marked with circles of standing stones in lonely places. </li></ul><ul><li>They also used the graves as the place of worship, but it remains mystery. </li></ul>
  6. 7. CELTIC BRITAIN <ul><li>Compared to countries bordering the Mediterranean and in Asia Minor, the development of Britain was slow. </li></ul><ul><li>The first pyramid was built one thousand years before the construction of Stonehenge. </li></ul><ul><li>By 2500 BC Babylonian merchants could not only write: they actually made maps of their estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Whether Beaker Folk fought amongst themselves is not known. However, the Celts who arrived 1500 years later were very warlike. </li></ul>
  7. 8. About the CELTS <ul><li>They came from France </li></ul><ul><li>They were tall men: strong and muscular with fair complexions. </li></ul><ul><li>They were high spirited, excitable, and when they were not fighting, they enjoyed feasting. </li></ul><ul><li>They spoke Celt language </li></ul><ul><li>The trace of it can still be found in Cornwall, Ireland and Wales, and in the north-west of Scotland. </li></ul>
  8. 9. CORNWALL: a county in southwestern England
  9. 10. Still about the Celts <ul><li>The Celtic priests taught new ideas about immortality and the Universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Their craftsmen introduced a new metal—iron. </li></ul><ul><li>The most warlike of the Celtic tribes was the Belgae who came from the Low Countries which Belgium is a part). They were always the spear head of Celts, penetrating into Scotland, Wales and Cornwall. </li></ul><ul><li>They married local girls. </li></ul><ul><li>If anyone resisted, fighting broke out. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Still about the Celts <ul><li>They were experienced fighters. </li></ul><ul><li>They were led by warrior chiefs, armed with iron swords and daggers. </li></ul><ul><li>A Celtic chief had a chariot. It was buried with him when he died. </li></ul><ul><li>Wherever they went they conquered. </li></ul><ul><li>They built fortress. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Early Village Life <ul><li>Until the arrival of Celts there was still not permanent homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Homes were still very primitive. </li></ul><ul><li>As the seasons changed, they moved on, searching for better grazing land. </li></ul><ul><li>No boundaries between one field and the others. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Celts had… <ul><li>introduced new method of ploughing. </li></ul><ul><li>made the farmlands permanent. </li></ul><ul><li>made houses. Sheep and cattle were given shelter within the outer. </li></ul><ul><li>introduced iron wrought. Every village had a smith. </li></ul><ul><li>introduced new way of treating the dead, i.e. by cremating them. </li></ul>
  13. 14. THE ROMAN CONQUEST <ul><li>The Romans had conquered much of the Mediterranean by 60 BC under Julius Caesar. </li></ul><ul><li>They invaded Britain twice. The first failed. Britain was conquered by Romans in 54 BC. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans spread in all directions of Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 84 AD they marched into the Highlands of Scotland but they had to fight with the local people armed with long sword and circular shields. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Stiil about Romans in Britain <ul><li>A Roman emperor named Hadrian built a great wall named “Hadrian’s Wall” (70 miles long). It stretched from the North Sea to the Solway Firth. </li></ul><ul><li>Romans got many attacks from local tribes, such as from Belgae, Picts, Gauls and Saxons. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally the Roman legions were withdrawn from Britain in 406. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Hadrian's Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Around ad 122, Roman Emperor Hadrian ordered the construction of a wall in northern Britain, then part of the Roman Empire, to keep out the unconquered Caledonians of Scotland. Built out of stone and turf and measuring about 117 km (73 miles) in length, the wall linked a series of forts and watchtowers. The Romans rebuilt Hadrian’s Wall several times throughout the next two centuries and used it as a fortification until about 400. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Life in Roman Britain <ul><li>Rome was a city. Wherever her citizens went, they built towns. </li></ul><ul><li>For thousands of years the Britons had been banded together in tribes, each with its own king. The Romans changed the system completely. They introduced one ruler for the whole Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans constructed fine roads. </li></ul><ul><li>They erected magnificent houses complete with plumbing. </li></ul><ul><li>They also taught new methods of agriculture. </li></ul><ul><li>But, they also demanded high taxes. </li></ul><ul><li>But 300 years under the Romans, Britain was in peace. </li></ul>
  17. 18. After the Romans left Britain <ul><li>After the Roman soldiers were withdrawn from Britain, it then became a weak country. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans had taught Britons good lessons, but they refused to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>The system of central government collapsed; small local kingdoms, each with its own ruler, were established. </li></ul><ul><li>A few cities, such as St Albans, maintained the Roman way of life. But the majority—Bath for instance became deserted. Their streets were empty; their buildings falling into ruins. </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland had not been invaded by the Romans. Her people were still living in the last of the Iron Ages. </li></ul>
  18. 19. THE ANGLO-SAXON INVASIONS <ul><li>Invaders arrived in Britain. First in small parties; then much larger numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>First the Angles (from Elbe and Rhine districts) and then the Saxons (from north west Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>The Angles occupied Norfolk and Suffolk; the Saxons occupied Essex, Middlesex, Sussex and eastern parts of Wessex. </li></ul>
  19. 21. About Angles and Saxons <ul><li>They moved on, clearing the forests, making farms. </li></ul><ul><li>They were tough, brutal men who knew no mercy. </li></ul><ul><li>No place was safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Their arrival was a catastrophe to Britons. </li></ul>
  20. 22. The Legendary King Arthur <ul><li>King Arthur </li></ul><ul><li>Legend and lore surround the life of Arthur, a medieval king of the Britons. According to legend, Arthur was raised unaware of his royal ancestry and became king by pulling a sword from a stone. He is depicted here in a painting by Eleanor Brickdale. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Anglo-Saxons <ul><li>It took 100 years for them to complete their occupation in Britain. Britain was then divided into seven kingdoms. Among them were Anglia, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, and Wessex. </li></ul><ul><li>The Anglo-Saxon kings did not maintain large standing armies, but small, well-equipped, bands of warriors for emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>In wartime they were backed up by peasants. They fought with fanaticism. </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle <ul><li>Considered the primary source for English history between the 10th and 12th centuries, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle also contains earlier examples of prose. This page depicts Charlemagne, king of the Franks in the late 8th century, killing the heathen Saxons. </li></ul>
  23. 25. WARRIORS FROM THE NORTH (THE VIKINGS) <ul><li>They came from the cold, harsh lands of the north, like creatures of prey. </li></ul><ul><li>To prosper they had to travel because their country had little to offer. </li></ul><ul><li>They were the Norsemen, the most magnificent seamen the world has ever known. </li></ul><ul><li>They crossed the Atlantic; explored the Arctic fringe into Russia; made voyages to the Mediterranean; and paid many visits to the British Isles. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever the Norsemen came, their attacks followed the same pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>After they came ashore, they rode inland, looting, burning, killing. After rich with booty, they returned to their ships and sailed away. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Routes of the Vikings The Vikings were both a warrior and farming society from the region now known as Scandinavia. They were also seafaring explorers who sailed beyond their homelands not only to raid, but also to build settlements in other parts of the world. The Danish Vikings went south toward Germany, France, England, Spain, and into regions on the northwestern Mediterranean coast. Swedish Vikings went to eastern Europe, while the Norwegians sailed to Greenland and North America.
  25. 27. The Vikings <ul><li>Viking Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Typical Viking settlements were centered around the longhouse, a large barnlike building in which the family lived. Other buildings included storehouses, where grain and food supplies were kept, and workshops, where weapons and farming tools were made. Because the Vikings were skilled seafarers, many of their settlements were near water, and they used their well-constructed boats for fishing, for trade, and to raid other settlements and villages. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Viking ships, because of their shallow draft, were able to successfully navigate rivers and streams that many other vessels could not. This allowed the Vikings to raid settlements far upriver from the sea, settlements that frequently were not prepared for an attack from the water.
  27. 29. <ul><li>Viking Ship </li></ul><ul><li>This Viking ship, on display at the Viking Museum in Oslo, Norway, is an example of lapstrake construction. In Viking ships of the 9th century and later, external planks were overlapped and lashed to the ship’s frame, producing a strong, flexible hull. </li></ul>
  28. 30. TIMELINE OF INVASIONS 2500-1500 BC: Britain was inhabited by BEAKER FOLK 1500 BC: THE CELTS arrived in Britain 55 BC: THE ROMANS invaded Britain 367 AD: THE PICTS invaded Britain 406 AD: THE ROMANS were withdrawn from Britain 446 AD: THE ANGLO SAXON began to invade Britain 793 AD: THE VIKINGS arrived in Britain, landed in Lindisfarne 851 AD: THE DANES arrived in Kent 893 AD: KING ALFRED, King of West Saxons unified Britain
  29. 31. King Alfred (Alfred the Great) <ul><li>Alfred (the Great) (849-899), king of the West Saxons (871-899), and one of the outstanding figures of English history. Born in Wantage in southern England, Alfred was the youngest of five sons of King Ethelwulf. On the death of his brother Ethelred Alfred became king, coming to the throne during a Danish invasion. Although he succeeded in making peace with the Danes, they resumed their marauding expeditions five years later, and by early 878 they were successful almost everywhere. About Easter of 878, however, Alfred established himself at Athelney and began assembling an army. In the middle of that year he defeated the Danes and captured their stronghold, probably at present-day Edington. During the following 14 years Alfred was able to devote himself to the internal affairs of his kingdom. By 886 he had captured the city of London, and soon afterward he was recognized as the king of all England. </li></ul><ul><li>In 893 the Danes invaded England again, and the following four years were marked by warfare; eventually, the Danes were forced to withdraw from Alfred's domain. The only ruler to resist Danish invasions successfully, Alfred made his kingdom the rallying point for all Saxons, thus laying the foundation for the unification of England </li></ul>
  30. 32. About the Danes <ul><li>Knowledge of Danish antiquity is derived largely from archaeological research. Some historians believe that Danes inhabiting the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula migrated to the Jutland Peninsula and the adjacent islands in the Baltic Sea in the 5th and 6th centuries. Evidence of major public structures—including a canal, a long bridge, and the ramparts across the neck of Jutland now called the Danevirke—in the 8th century attests to the presence of a fairly strong central authority in Jutland on the eve of the Viking age. Within a century of their first raid on the British Isles in the 780s, the Danes were masters of the part of England that became known as the Danelaw. Under King Harold Bluetooth in the 10th century, political consolidation increased, and the Christianization of the Danes was begun. Harold’s son, Sweyn I, conquered all of England in 1013 and 1014. Sweyn’s son, Canute II, who ruled England (1016-1035) and Denmark (1018-1035), completed the Christianization of Denmark. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. </li></ul>