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Week 6 class 1 - ell - ruth


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Week 6 class 1 - ell - ruth

  2. 2. Chicken crosses the road, makes news Why did the chicken cross the road? We don’t know, but now he’s in police custody. Drivers at Kingston and Galloway Rds. found their commute delayed Tuesday when a large bird wandered into traffic around 8 a.m. Police reported on Twitter that there was a “turkey or large chicken on loose, causing a traffic disturbance.” Moments after egging on commuters, officers made an arrest for fowl play. “The chicken has made it to the other side of the road,” tweeted @TPSOperations. “Now in custody! Traffic in the area back to its regular flow!”
  3. 3. ACTIVITY What Do You Think? TASK: Take a few minutes to estimate the following statistics for the Hamilton region. Jot down your answers. • % of non-official language as mother tongue • % of immigrants in Hamilton's total population • Top 10 countries of origin (all of Canada)
  4. 4. ACTIVITY What Do You Think? TASK: Take a few minutes to estimate the following statistics for the Hamilton region. Jot down your answers. • % of non-official language as mother tongue 21% • % of immigrants in Hamilton's total population 23% • Top 10 countries of origin (all of Canada) Philippines (13%), China & India (10%), USA, Pakistan, Iran, Korea, Columbia, Mexico
  5. 5. ACTIVITY You're an English Language Learner TASK: In groups, designate yourselves as A, B, C (there can be more than one of each letter based on group size). In groups, you will discuss the topic below, adhering to the following rules: • A: You have no grammatical concept of plural. You may not use any plurals when you speak. • B: You cannot formulate the sounds /f/ or /v/ in any of your words. You would substitute a /p/ for the /f/ and a /b/ for the /v/. • C: You place your adjectives after your nouns. The Topic: You are going to be entering a cricket tournament in the next month. Discuss your game plan for winning.
  6. 6. ACTIVITY You're an English Language Learner TASK: Let's debrief. With a partner, discuss the following. Be prepared to share out with the class. How did the conversation go? If you had to speak this way for the whole day, how would you feel? How important is it to feel safe in your surroundings? What is the role of background knowledge?
  7. 7. ACTIVITY Fact or Myth? TASK: In the next slides, determine if the following statement is fact or myth. Once you decide, hold up either a fact or a myth card.
  8. 8. ACTIVITY Fact or Myth? Fact or Myth: Adults are better at learning a second language than are young children. This is a fact. Adolescents and adults are better at second-language learning than children. Though the opposite might sometimes appear to be the case, this is often because children's communication typically takes place in social settings and therefore requires a somewhat less highly developed skill level. Adults, on the other hand, engage in situations that involve more complex communication demands (e.g., filling out a tax form or interviewing for a job). Another factor that makes it appear that young children are better at second language acquisition is that they generally hear and pronounce the sounds in the new language better than adults.
  9. 9. ACTIVITY Fact or Myth? Fact or Myth: Immersion is the best way to learn a second language. This is a myth. ELLs who are immersed in classrooms where only English is spoken may find the experience (and their learning) incomprehensible. By allowing students to use their native language in the classroom, teachers can also enhance their ability to learn English.
  10. 10. ACTIVITY Fact or Myth? Fact or Myth: A student’s first language interferes with his or her ability to learn a second language. This is a myth. A student's first language might support his or her understanding of a second. For example, a student who is first allowed to read a book in his native language can reread it without having to focus on basic comprehension and can instead pay attention to other aspects such as vocabulary and sentence structure.
  11. 11. ACTIVITY Fact or Myth? Fact or Myth: It takes between five to seven years to become proficient enough in a second language to succeed in an English-only classroom. This is a fact. Second language learners need at least five years under the best learning conditions to succeed in English-only classrooms with minimal or no support. After only one or two years of learning a second language, a student can typically communicate in social settings but will not have sufficient knowledge of the language to be successful in an academic environment.
  12. 12. Terminology
  13. 13. TERMS What do ESL, ELL, & ELD Mean? English Language Learners (ELL) are the students whose first language is a language other than English, or is a variety of English that is significantly different from the variety used for instruction in Ontario schools. These students may be Canadian- born or newcomers from other countries. English as a Second Language (ESL) refers to the program received by ELL students who are literate in their first language. English Literacy Development (ELD) refers to the program received by ELL students who are (a) not literate in their first language, (b) have educational gaps, or (c) speak non-standard Ontario English.
  14. 14. We are all ESL teachers. ESL is not a separate curriculum subject.
  15. 15. students receive different levels of support, depending on their language needs Levels of English Language Acquisition
  16. 16. English Language Learners English Recent Immigrant Born in Canada Little or no knowledge of English Some knowledge of English skills Sequential bilinguals: strong first language and learning English as a second language Simultaneous bilinguals: learning two languages at once
  17. 17. Past Schooling Experiences Inconsistent or sporadic education No formal education Regularly attended one school with a consistent curriculum
  18. 18. ACADEMIC VOCABULARY • Academic English is fundamentally different from social language (Young & Hadaway, 2006). – more precise and specific – more words with Greek and Latin origins – often more complex structurally and more abstract
  19. 19. Examples of Academic Vocabulary in Typical Nonfiction Texts • Appendix • Bibliography • Caption • Column • Glossary • Graph • Index • Preface • quotation
  20. 20. Dual Word Meanings • Activity: Math words with everyday meanings
  21. 21. Frequently Asked Questions
  22. 22. How can I tell if I have ELLs in my classroom?
  23. 23. • Conduct a Home Language survey with the whole class • Look in the OSR (Ontario Student Record). Look for birth certificate, immigration documents, and an English Second Language assessment • Access your school’s Trillium Report “Students Whose Mother Tongue is Not English” • Talk to the LRT • Check the student’s Literacy Portfolio for English language assessments • If you are unsure, seek guidance from an English Second Language Support teacher • NOTE: Many ELLs are Canadian born
  24. 24. How much time does it take to learn English?
  25. 25. • As ELL student skills develop, their academic demands increase. ELL students are constantly trying to catch up with a “moving target”. • Basic oral communication is developed over 1~2 years. • It takes at least 5~7 years for ELL students to be working effectively at grade level, using academic language. • In cases where students have not had opportunities to develop age- appropriate literacy in their first language, it can take up to 10 years to be working effectively at grade level.
  26. 26. I have a beginning level ELL in my classroom. Now what?
  27. 27. Set the student up with a buddy. The IDEAL buddy… • Shares a common first language with the new ELL • Is always caught up on class and homework • Is a positive role model • Is empathetic • Has a supportive group of friends that will not alienate the new ELL or the buddy
  28. 28. • Sensitize your mainstream students • Bilingual volunteers • Contact an ESL support teacher for an assessment and suggestions for program delivery • Choose appropriate accommodations
  29. 29. First language maintenance and development is important.
  30. 30. Research shows that students with a strong first language are more likely to acquire English quickly.
  31. 31. Parents should be encouraged to use, maintain and develop the first language with their children to discuss books, review school work, write to family members, etc. Schools should encourage the use of the first language, as it will validate students’ backgrounds, as well as assist in students’ academic achievement.
  32. 32. Why is it so important to be aware of a student's first language?
  33. 33. • Urdu: why student is holding a book backwards, or not using articles such as a/an or the • Low German: not typically a literate language- immediate disadvantage due to lack of connection with oral language and literacy • Chinese: why a student doesn’t understand when we say ‘sound it out’ (not phonological) • Punjabi: why a student is writing in between the spaces on the paper (Punjabi script hangs from the line) • Chinese: difficulty organizing a piece of persuasive writing (culturally it may be considered or opinionated to begin by stating a point of view) Knowing a student's first language can give us a lot of background information. For example...
  34. 34. Strategies & Supports
  35. 35. Build Background Knowledge • Asking students to brainstorm about what they already know about a topic. • Making explicit connections between previously learned concepts and new ones • Using graphic organizers and other visuals to show the connections between students' prior experiences and new learning knowledge. • Developing learning activities that are relevant to students' cultural experiences • Asking students to think about and write down what they know about a new topic and then share their ideas with a partner • Teaching new vocabulary words by making connections to students' background knowledge
  36. 36. Differentiate Instruction Present information or allow students to access information • Provide a range of choices to access the content (e.g., books, audio, video in home language and in English) • Make instruction more concrete by using pictures, charts, demonstrations, graphic organizers, or timelines • Use visual references about concepts • Provide texts at different reading levels (newsela is a great resource)
  37. 37. Differentiate Instruction Encourage students to make sense of the information • Provide a range of choices for students to practise what they are learning • Use flexible grouping • Use hands-on activities • Set up classrooms with learning centers (e.g., make available audiotapes and CDs to assist students with their reading) • Provide materials in different languages.
  38. 38. Differentiate Instruction Encourage students to make sense of the information • Offer a range of choices to express understanding including multimodal methods using technology (i.e., create a slide presentation, create a performance or role play, explain ideas using Shadow Puppet or another similar app) • Permit the option to work independently or in a group to complete an assignment
  39. 39. • Allow ELLs to use instructional supports such as translated word lists. As students' language proficiency increases, the level of support is reduced. • Allow ELLs to work in pairs or in small groups • Encourage students to discuss what they are learning. As often as possible, these conversations should be student led and interactive • Focus on and provide feedback on the content of ELLs' responses in English, rather than on their pronunciation and grammar. It is normal--and not a sign of confusion--for them to draw from their first language. Practising Skills & Concepts
  40. 40. Assessing Content Knowledge • Create test questions that incorporate aspects of the student's background knowledge when applicable. • Make sure the student understands how to respond to various test formats (e.g., short answer, multiple choice, true/false) • Preview the test with the student to ensure they understand the terminology in the instructions, test questions, and key vocabulary. • Permit students to use a bilingual dictionary • Allow students to take the test with a teacher who speaks the same first language who can offer translation supports or can explain words the student does not understand • Allow extra time to complete the test • Utilize other options for assessing content knowledge, rather than a traditional test, exam, or quiz.
  41. 41. Modifications & Adaptations
  42. 42. Modifying the Curriculum for ELLs ESL Special Education The focus is on language acquisition and literacy. The focus is on language remediation and skill building. Language of instruction is not their first language; need time to acquire it Language of instruction is generally their first language. Require vocabulary; may already know the concept Require much reinforcement and repetition to develop concepts. May come with high language skills in their first language Growth in areas of weakness may be slow. The barrier to learning is English. Having a second language is a benefit! A learning difficulty is the barrier. adjust the language to the appropriate level
  43. 43. Simple Adaptations: ESL Eliminate Substitute/Simplify Limit scope or depth Use this "rule of thumb" for adaptations, assessment, teacher-led instruction, independent tasks.
  44. 44. • Questions • Pages in a text • Chapters in a novel • Choices on a multiple choice test • Short answers questions on a test • Canadian culture references that are key to understanding Eliminate
  45. 45. Substitute/Simplify • Substitute short answer questions for graphic organizers, diagrams, or cloze activities • Substitute text based ‘Read and Answer Questions’ activities for key-term vocabulary building • Create a personal dictionary to use for all subjects • Substitute English written responses with responses written in the student’s first language • Assess the student’s oral response instead • Speak more slowly: use longer pauses between sentences and ideas; use a natural pace rather than a slow, exaggerated one. • Use multimodal techniques: use objects, pictures, labeled diagrams, and videos; infuse demonstration throughout lessons; use gestures, body language movement, and role playing.
  46. 46. • Your expectations for comprehension; focus instead on vocabulary development. • Extraneous information. Direct the student to the page/paragraph where the answer can be found. • Time spent on translation. Avoid translating entire texts from English to the first language, and choose to only translate the question and perhaps a few key terms. • Use of jargon, slang, idiomatic speech, and figurative language Limit scope or depth
  47. 47. ACTIVITY Applying the ESL Rule TASK: Consider how the ESL rule, strategies and supports, and other information presented in class will inform your teaching in the J/I context? (You can choose the grade level of your future block). Discuss your ideas with a partner. Be prepared to share out with the class.
  48. 48. • Supporting English Language Learners (1-8) • Steps to English Proficiency • English Language Learners ESL and ELD Programs and Services (K-12) • Many Roots Many Voices • Supporting English Language Learners with Limited Prior Schooling (3-12) Ontario ESL Resources RESOURCE S
  49. 49. • • • • • Simple English Wikipedia • iPads; Google- change language in settings/preferences • Starting Points: Working with Young English Language Learners. • New Instructional Model helps English Learners Succeed Digital ESL Resources RESOURCE S
  50. 50. • Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) • In Hamilton, SWISH Local ESL Resources RESOURCE S • proactively contacts newcomer parents and students to assist them with their settlement needs • refers the families to more specialized community resources as needed • provides group information sessions for newcomer youth and parents, often in partnership with school staff • provides orientation about the settlement needs of newcomers for school staff • coordinates the Newcomer Orientation Week (NOW) and Welcome and Information for Newcomers (WIN) programs, which take place in the last weeks of the summer in most schools
  51. 51. TASK: This activity will be done in pairs. Using an audio or video recording tool of your choice, capture your response to the following question(s). This way you can reflect on it later when preparing for interviews. ACTIVITY Interview Question What should teachers know about students who are learning to speak English? What are some general instructional practices that are beneficial to English Language Learners? What should you consider when assessing ELLs?
  52. 52. Burnette, J. (1999, November). Critical behaviors and strategies for teaching culturally diverse students. ERIC/ OSEP Digest E584. ED435147. Retrieved on April 8, 2011, from Calderon, M. (2007). Teaching reading to English language learners, grades 6–12: A framework for improving achievement in the content areas. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. The Center for Public Education. (2006). Preparing English language learners for academic success. Retrieved on April 20, 2011, from…mic-success.html Cox, C., & Boyd-Batstone, P. S. (2009). Engaging English learners: Exploring literature, developing literacy, and differentiating instruction. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. The IRIS Center. (2011). Teaching English language learners: Effective instructional practices. Retrieved from Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J. J., & Baca, L. M. (Eds.). (2008). Why do English language learners struggle with reading?: Distinguishing language acquisition from learning disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems (NCCRESt). (2008). Academy 2: Culturally responsive literacy instruction – What does it look like in the classroom. Module 5: Culturally responsive literacy. Facilitator’s Manual. References