Types of bilingual acquisition


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Types of bilingual acquisition

  1. 1. B ILINGUALISMEduardo Hernández Rangel12/09/2009
  2. 2. 12-9-2009BILINGUALISMDue to the needs of communication among groups that do not have a commonlanguage (lingua franca), they started to mix their native language in order tounderstand each other. They created a new language called pidgin and creolelanguages. Even though pidgin and creole languages have sounds like a baby-talk and amusing, they are real languages, because they are used for seriouspurposes and in some cases have a distinctive linguistic structure (Holmes,2001). In my opinion, communities where different languages are used and amix of languages between pidgins, creoles or lingua franca are usually talked.Those people are considered bilingual even when they do not talk officiallanguages.Pidgin and creole languages have been historically regarded as marginallanguages. Persons who spoke pidgin and creole languages were treated withdisdain, even contempt (Wardhaugh, 1998). These kinds of languages wereconsidered unimportant because they lack certain grammatical structures, suchas articles, copulas and inflections; despite this, they are effective for thepurposes of communication. Pidgins are languages that arise when speakers ofdifferent languages come into contact and have a pressing need tocommunicate. When a pidgin languages becomes the language of the tribes;started to learn by the children and then when this happen the pidgin languageschange to creole language. In my opinion, when a creole language is frequentlyused in multilingual communities, by different people, it becomes the linguafranca between the groups that use it and when the groups adopt the creolelanguage, it becomes the formal language of the community and it is possiblethat it was considered as lingua franca if more than one ethnic group use thatcreole language.According to Wardhaugh in 1998, he define lingua franca as “People who speakdifferent languages who are forced into contact with each other find some wayof communicating”. On the other hand when a group of people do not have acommon language, they create a new language in order to communicatebetween each other. These languages are called pidgins and creole language. 1
  3. 3. 12-9-2009I believe that probably many people around the world speak more than onelanguage or at least have the possibility to speak one. Although, each oneusually know more than one dialect and for some factors no one talks exactlythe same way at all times. Even more, those people who speak more than onelanguage are bilingual and they also have different dialects or way to speak ineach of one language they know.Children bilingualism or infant bilingualism can be reached in two different ways,simultaneous and sequential. Simultaneous bilingualism consists in exposingthe children in both languages. For example, one parent speaks one languageand the other speaks a different language, the children may learn boothlanguage at the same time (Baker, 2001). On the other hand, sequentialbilingualism refers to acquire the language after the children already learnt themother tongue. In this case, nursery and kindergarten education help children toacquire the second language without formal instruction. Moreover children canbecome bilingual with a natural way independently whether is simultaneous orsequential, but in both cases is more effective that an adults. Romaine show assix types of bilingualism and show us some strategies that can be considered inorder to became bilingual.According to Romaine, there are six ways of acquiring bilingualism.Type 1. One person - one languageParents: Each parent has a different native language and each one has adegree of competence in the language of the other.Community: The language of one parent is the dominant language of thecommunity.Strategy: Each parent speaks their own native language to the child form thebirth.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My proposal 2
  4. 4. 12-9-2009 language language language languageRonjar (1913) German French French GermanLeopold English German German English(1939-1949)Taeschner German Italian Italian German(1983)Due to each parent dominates the language of the other in some degree and inthe community talk the language of one parent. I consider that the language thatthey should speak to the child is the opposite that is speaking in the community.This is because the child can learn both languages in order to become bilingual.It is the same case that happen in USA with the Mexican people, they talkSpanish in their home, and the English will be acquire in the communitybecause they go to school and the child has to learn English too.Type 2. Non-dominant home languageParents: Parents have different native languages.Community: The language of one parent is the dominant language of thecommunity.Strategy: Both parents speak the non-dominant language to the child and thechild is fully exposed to the dominant language only when outside home.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My proposal language language language languageFantini (1985) Spanish English English SpanishThis type is exactly the same case that in type 1. But in this case it is lessprobably that the child does not acquire accurately the language of his or herparents due to the support of the community.Type 3. Non-dominant home language without community support 3
  5. 5. 12-9-2009Parents: Parents share the same native language.Community: The dominant language is not of his parents.Strategy: The parents speak their own language to the child.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My proposal language language language languageHaugen Norwegian Norwegian English Norwegian(1953)Oksaar Estonian Estonian Swedish/German Estonian(1977)Ruke- Latvian Latvian Swedish LatvianDravina(1967)Pavlovitch Servian Servian French Servian(1920)I agree with the proposal because if they do not know other language; theyhave to talk in their native language because the child is going to acquire thelanguage of the community at the school, for example.Type 4. Double non-dominant home language without community supportParents: Parents do not share the same native language.Community: The dominant language is different from either of the parent’slanguages.Strategy: The parents speak their own language to the child.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My proposal language language language languageElwrt (1959) English German Italian English/German 4
  6. 6. 12-9-2009This case is more difficult. I agree with the proposal; however, I am not sure if itis the correct way. Due to that they do not have another choice. I consider thechild is not going to acquire good proficiency on the parent’s languagesbecause he or she can be confused and can mix both languages.Type 5. Non-native parentsParents: Parents share the same native language.Community: The dominant language is the same as that of the parents.Strategy: One of the parents always addresses the child in a language which isnot his/her native language.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My proposal language language language languageSaunders English English English German(1982) (German)I am not good speaker and that is one of the reasons why I am study the LEIprogram. I want to teach my soon of this way; however, if somebody wants totry this, the person has to have a very good English level; it is difficult to teach adifferent language that it is spoken in the community especially if just one of theparents try to teach to the child and it is not his o her native language.Type 6. Mixed languagesParents: Parents are bilinguals.Community: Sector of community may also be bilingual.Strategy: Parents code-switch and mix languages.The studies:Author Mother Father Community My language language language proposal 5
  7. 7. 12-9-2009 languageTabouret- French/German French/German French/German FrenchKeller(1962)Ellul (1978) Maltese/English Maltese/English Maltese/English MalteseSmith English English Chinese English(1935)Burling English English Garo English(1959)In this case my suggestion is that the parents choose one language for teachingthe child at home but this language should be the less speaking in thecommunity. This is due to the other language will be teach in the school or inthe church or any where the child goes. The child should identify with onelanguage as his or her mother tongue.Bilingualism is considered a necessity around the world. Families want to reachbilingualism for their kids or for their young people including adults. Adults andchildren can become bilingual taking in consideration these routes: learning twolanguages early at home, acquiring a second language in the street, learningthe other language in the neighborhood or taking formal language classes(Baker, 2001). Independently which route is taken or which strategy is used,both, children and adults can reach bilingualism later or early._________In conclusion, adults and children can become bilingual taking the best choice.Both routes permit reaching bilingualism but it is not an easy task, especially foradults. A combination of strategies or ways for acquiring the language is alwayshelpful. But be carefully, acquiring a second language it must be a constanteffort that never finish. It is necessary to maintain it, in order to do not lose it._____________________ 6
  8. 8. 12-9-2009_____________________________________Vernacular languages are used for thousands around the world. The termvernacular has some definitions: Languages that are not standardized andcodified; languages that they do not have official status, languages that arelearnt as first languages in an ethnic group, language that is spoken by a nondominant group, and languages that are used for everyday interaction. Thisessay explains these last two definitions.According to the UNESCO, vernacular languages are those which are usedwidely by a group socially or politically dominated by another group withdifferent language. For instance in USA English is the first language spoken bythe dominant group and Spanish is considerate and referred as Chicanovernacular language On the other hand, Spanish language in Central Americais not vernacular language because of is the official language and moreover isthe language spoken by the dominant group. However, Paraguay has Spanishlanguages as the official language, most people speak Guarani thereforeSpanish is considerate as the vernacular language in that country.Another consideration about vernacular languages is that are referred as thelanguages for everyday interaction in specific context or domain. Some pointout of, it is learnt in home as the firs variety and it is widely used as language ofsolidarity between people of the same ethnic group. For instance, “Hebrew wasa language for ritual and religion with no native speakers” (Holmes, 2001). Dueto Hebrew became the language of everyday communication, it wasconsiderate as a vernacular language. Taking into account this consideration,any language that has native speaker it must be considerate as vernacularlanguage, including those which are standardized.In conclusion, there is not a specific definition by the term vernacular and whenthis word was coined many consideration did not take into account. In most ofbooks vernacular language are defined as that language that are notstandardized, used in a ethnic group and has no official status. In my personalpoint of view the last definition is out of context due to that all languages aroundthe world would be considered vernacular language because they are used ineveryday communication. 7
  9. 9. 12-9-2009REFERENCESHolmes, J. (2001). Introduction to sociolinguistics. Edinburg: Person.UNESCO. (1953). The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization._____________________________As a conclusion, I can say that there are different ways of expressing somethingin the same language and we can talk and behavior differently according to thecircumstances, even if we use a codified or not codified language. Also, peoplewho speak only one language usually borrow words from other languages, anduse such words either consciously or unconsciously. It is clear that ourlanguage variation depends about some factors such as context, relationship,topic and other social factors such as sex, status, education includingbackground. 8