He is professor emeritus Most recently, Krashen at the University of promotes the use of freeSouthern California,[who voluntary reading during moved from the second languagelinguistics department to acquisition, which he the faculty of the School says "is the most of Education in 1994. He powerful tool we have in is a linguist, educational language education, first and researcher. and second." Dr. Krashen has published more than 350 papers and books, contributing to the fields of second language acquisition, bilingual education, and reading. He is credited with introducing various influential concepts and terms in the study of second language acquisition, including the acquisition-learning hypothesis, the input hypothesis, the monitor hypothesis, the affective filter, and the natural order hypothesis.[
The acquisition-learning hypothesis, The input hypothesis, The monitor hypothesis, The affective filter, The natural order hypothesis.
According to Stephen Krashens acquisition-learning hypothesis, there are two independent ways in which we develop our linguistic skills: acquisition and learning.
Acquisition Acquisition of language is a subconscious process of which the individual is not aware. According to Krashen, both adults and children can subconsciously acquire language, and either written or oral language can be acquired. Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language, during which the acquirer is focused on meaning rather than form.
Learning Learning a language, on the other hand, is a conscious process, much like what one experiences in school. New knowledge or language forms are represented consciously in the learners mind, frequently in the form of language "rules" and "grammar" and the process often involves error correction. Language learning involves formal instruction, and according to Krashen, is less effective than acquisition
Talking (output) is not practicing Krashen stresses yet again that speaking in the target language does not result in language acquisition. When enough comprehensible input is provided, i+1 is present That is to say, that if language models and teachers provide enough comprehensible input, then the structures that acquirers are ready to learn will be present in that input. The teaching order is not based on the natural order Instead, students will acquire the language in a natural order by receiving comprehensible input.
If i represents previously acquired linguistic competence and extra- linguistic knowledge, the hypothesis claims that we move from i to i+1 by understanding input that contains i+1. Extra-linguistic knowledge includes our knowledge of the world and of the situation, that is, the context. The +1 represents new knowledge or language structures that we should be ready to acquire.
Beginning level Class time is filled with comprehensible oral input Teachers must modify their speech so that it is comprehensible Demands for speaking (output) are low; students are not forced to speak until ready Grammar instruction is only included for students high school age and older
Intermediate level Sheltered subject-matter teaching that uses modified academic texts to provide comprehensible input. Sheltered subject matter teaching is not for beginners or native speakers of the target language. In sheltered instruction classes, the focus is on the meaning, and not the form.
The monitor hypothesis asserts that a learners learned system acts as a monitor to what they are producing. Self-correction occurs when the learner uses the Monitor to correct a sentence after it is uttered.
According to Krashen, for the Monitor to be successfully used, three conditions must be met: The acquirer/learner must know the rule The acquirer must be focused on correctness The acquirer/learner must have time to use the monitor
There are many difficulties with the use of the monitor, making the monitor rather weak as a language tool. Knowing the rule: Furthermore, every rule of a language is not always included in a text nor taught by the teacher Having time to use the monitor:
The rules of language make up only a small portion of our language competence: Due to these difficulties, Krashen recommends using the monitor at times when it does not interfere with communication, such as while writing.
The affective filter is an impediment to learning or acquisition caused by negative emotional ("affective") responses to ones environment. It is a hypothesis of second language acquisition theory, and a field of interest in educational psychology.
Major components of the hypothesis certain emotions, such as anxiety, self-doubt mere boredom Interfere with the process of acquiring a second language.
It suggested that the acquisition of grammatical structures follows a natural order which is predictable. Krashen however points out that the implication of the natural order hypothesis is not that a language program syllabus should be based on the order found in the studies. In fact, he rejects grammatical sequencing when the goal is language acquisition.
The sociocultural theory (SCT), based on Vygotskian thoughts, claims that language learning is a socially mediated process. meaning-making in collaborative activity with other members of a given culture” (Mitchell and Myles, 2004:200). Lantolf and Thorne (2007) defend that the principles of the SCT can also apply to SLA. They explain that “SCT is grounded in a perspective that does not separate the individual from the social
It is in the social world that the language learners observe others using language and imitate them. One of the main concepts borrowed from Vygotsky is ‘’, understood as the assistance one learner gets from another person (e.g. teachers, relatives, classmates) and which enables him or her to perform am learning task.
Connectionism seeks to explain SLA in terms of mentalrepresentations and information processing while rejecting the innate endowment hypothesis.
Any learning is understood as a matter of neural networks. The networks learn in a Parallel Distributed Processing (Rumelhart et al, 1986) where connections are strengthened or weakened.
Language learning misunderstood as the processing of experience and the repetition of experiences causing the strengthening of the connections. In contrast with the linearity of behaviorism, connectionism presupposes that some mental processes can occur in a parallel or simultaneous way and that knowledge is distributed among the various