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Whole School EAL Training: Graphic Organizers and Collaborative Learning (Oct 2014)

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A training to all mainstream teaching staff at my school (I delivered this in October 2014): on how to use graphic organizers, substitution tables, collaborative learning and DARTs in mainstream classrooms. Very well received.

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Whole School EAL Training: Graphic Organizers and Collaborative Learning (Oct 2014)

  1. 1. English as an Additional Language in the Mainstream: Teaching Approaches Kamil Trzebiatowski 22 October 2014
  2. 2. Who are English as an Additional Language Learners? Learning in another language Learn through another language Come from backgrounds and communities = different understandings and expectations of education Adapted from NALDIC (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curriculum discipline: A Handbook for All Teachers
  3. 3. Factors influencing language development of EAL students Age when they enter the educational system Their previous experience of school (or lack thereof) Their literacy in their L1 (first language) Their knowledge and understanding of language and school curriculum Home expectations and understanding of the education system Support for learning and language at school and community Adapted from NALDIC (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curriculum discipline: A Handbook for All Teachers
  4. 4. The task ahead of EAL learners EAL Learners have to: • Learn English • Learn content through the curriculum • Socialise with other children in the yet-unlearnt language • Learn culturally-embedded social practices of the classroom If a child is 3 years behind (linguistically), every year they need to make 1 ½ years of progress (for 6 years) to catch up with native speakers. Adapted from BASS (2006) Distinguishing the difference – SEN or EAL? Catching up is essentially EAL children’s problem – curriculum doesn’t wait. EAL children have a moving target. Adapted from NALDIC (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curriculum discipline: A Handbook for All Teachers
  5. 5. EAL Pedagogy Strategies: Support English language development In context Classroom context Level of English Prior knowledge Age Socio-economic background Cultural background L1 literacy Attitude to learning Adapted from NALDIC (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curriculum discipline: A Handbook for All Teachers
  6. 6. Cummins’s Framework Quadrant Activities requiring deep thinking B Cognitively demanding work C A D Cognitively undemanding work Concrete Context embedded Abstract Context reduced (pupils have little knowledge and can’t relate to it) Activities that can be completed without much thought For CALP, Quadrant B is required; for lessons in C: linguistic and contextual support is required; D is tempting (copying is one example), but should be avoided! Adapted from Milton Keynes Council (2004) Supporting Pupils with English as an Additional Language. Available at: http://same-project. tk/sites/default/files/Supporting%20pupils%20with% 20English%20as%20an%20additional%20language.pdf [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  7. 7. Cummins: Thinking Skills Cognitively demanding B C A D Generalises Compares and contrasts Summarises Plans Classifies by known criteria Transforms and personalises Recalls and reviews information Seeks solutions to problems Argues a case using evidence Identifies criteria persuasively Develops and sustains ideas Justifies opinion or judgment Evaluates critically Interprets evidence & makes deductions Forms hypotheses, asks further questions for investigation, predicts results Applies principles to new situation Analyses, suggests solution and tests Context embedded Context reduced Parrots: repeats utterances of adult or peers Copies: reproduces information from board or texts Reading to find specific information: • Identifies, names, matches, retells Transfers information from one medium to another: • Applies known procedures • Describes observations • Sequences • Narrates with sense of beginning, middle, and end Cognitively undemanding Adapted from Milton Keynes Council (2004) Supporting Pupils with English as an Additional Language. Available at: http://same-project. tk/sites/default/files/Supporting%20pupils%20with% 20English%20as%20an%20additional%20language.pdf [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  8. 8. Vygotsky: Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) “It is the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.” “Actual development level” = mental development level retrospectively “Zone of proximal development” = mental development prospectively Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in Society: The Development of Higher Psychological Processes
  9. 9. Good practice for pupils learning EAL •Questioning •KWL charts •Brainstorming •Discovery tasks Activate prior knowledge •Key visuals (aka graphic organizers) Provide rich contextual background •Peer tutoring •Collaborative learning •Drama / role play •Scaffolding (scaffolded writing) Encourage comprehensible output •E.g. expressing doubt (may/might) •E.g. ways of talking about the past (I did vs. I was doing) •E.g. language to express politeness when making requests Key grammar points made explicit •Scanning texts •Looking at subheadings prior to reading •Dictagloss •Using diagrams to show knowledge Develop learner independence Adapted from NALDIC (1999) The Distinctiveness of English as an Additional Language: a cross-curriculum discipline: A Handbook for All Teachers
  10. 10. Delivering the content to EAL learners Scaffolding (writing frames, oral frameworks) Realia, video, artefacts, charts Key visuals / graphic organizers Modelling of the use of key language features Demonstrations Questioning, repetition and remodelling Different forms of questioning: closed, open, concrete, abstract Collaborative learning
  11. 11. Mohan: Knowledge Structures, Graphic Organizers and Associated Language CLASSIFICATION PRINCIPLES EVALUATION DESCRIPTION SEQUENCE CHOICE To describe something you need to be able to classify, a description of triangles in Maths requires understanding the types of triangles A description of games in PE requires understanding types games, strategies and equipment We create order informed by our understanding of principles behind the order. We create sequences because we know what we’re trying to achieve: Instructions for lab reports (Science) Mathematical solutions (Maths) Baking (Food Technology) In order to make a choice, one has to be able to evaluate available options. We have to understand how these options are justified. In a salt-and-sand mixture (Science) we do not pick salt with tweezers; we use understanding of solubility to wash the salt out. Adapted from: Mohan, Mohan, B. (1986) Language and Content. Addison- Wesley: Reading, Massachusetts. Slater, T. and Gleason, J. (2011) Integrating Language and Content: The Knowledge Framework
  12. 12. Classification Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  13. 13. Principles Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  14. 14. Evaluation Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  15. 15. Description Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  16. 16. Sequence
  17. 17. Choice Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  18. 18. There are three kinds of dogs that I like best. I like Pugs because they are companion dogs and have cute faces. Boston Terriers are on my list because they are intelligent and not too big. I also like Golden Labrador Retrievers because they are faithful, loving, and fun to play with. There are three types of triangles: equilateral, isosceles and scalene. Equilateral triangles are made up of three equal sides and three equal angles. Isosceles triangles are made up of two equal sides and two equal angles. Scalene triangles are made up of unequal sides and unequal angles. Scalene triangles look the most unsymmetrical. Adapted from: Knowledge Framework (2012) Language and Content. Available at: http://tslater.public.iastate.edu/kf/index.html [Accessed 15 October 2014]
  19. 19. Writing/speaking frames  Sentence starters:  ‘I learnt that …’ ‘One thing I discovered was …’, ‘I found out that …’  Sentence frames:  One similarity between _____ and ____ is that …’, ‘A key distinction between ________ and _________ is that __________  Writing frames  can be used for pieces of extended writing, in which case learners can be given the first few words of each paragraph. To start with… Then… Next… After that… Finally… Concluding the letter To sum up / To conclude, I would like… An acceptable solution / compromise would / might / could be… Your reasons The main reason is… because… Also… Moreover / additionally… Finally… Your view I think that / My view is…
  20. 20. Writing/speaking frames  Guided small group activity:  Teacher or TA explains the task, then models new vocabulary  Repetition and guided questioning  Can be used as a speaking frame  Pair work / talk partners:  EAL learners are paired with a good linguistic role model for a purposeful speaking activity (e.g. making predictions in science)  A speaking frame and is modelled. This ensures that talk is focused and accurate.  Display writing or speaking frames:  Mats, posters, on the whiteboard  Always orally rehearse the frames first  Sentence frames:  Model a sentence frame on the whiteboard or on a wall  may be used as a starter or plenary.  Sentence sequencing:  EAL learners make a writing frame with a teacher or TA  Learners decide how to order phrases to create their scaffold, e.g. First, we put…, Then we add… Adapted from: British Council (2014) Great Idea: Speaking and Writing Frames. Available at: [https://eal.britishcouncil.org/teachers/great-ideas-speaking-and-writing- frames] Accessed: 10 October 2014
  21. 21. Substitution tables S.Cooke’s resource (2010) What can you grow? Available at: http://www.collaborativelearning.org/whatcanyougrow.pdf
  22. 22. Because of this… Therefore… That’s why… Hence… Thus…
  23. 23. Introduction: collaborative learning (1) Why collaborative learning?  more language  interact more with other speakers  language used meaningfully for a purpose
  24. 24.  different ways of expressing ideas (questions, information exchange – words are repeated)  genuinely seeking new information  easier to work with peers  if L1 is shared, students’ whole language repertoire is used for learning
  25. 25. Introduction: Collaborative learning  A socially and linguistically inclusive situation where EAL learners can engage in cognitively demanding activities  Different from “group work” as it is based on ‘thinking aloud’ and requires the interaction of all involved to produce a specific output.
  26. 26. Difficulties for EAL Learners  Completely ignored by their peers due to their language levels (if beginners)  Feeling left out as their English academic language is not fully developed  Unable to fully participate when group activities are un-scaffolded (advanced EAL learners)  Withdrawing from group activities as unable to contribute – can lead to disenchantment and anger
  27. 27. Pre-teach vocabulary  Use gestures  Use pictures / images  Use graphic organizers  Label drawings and pictures
  28. 28. Model speaking/listening exchanges  Provide sentence starters (speaking frames)  Pick one student to show to the class how the activity should be done  Do a “pretend” conversation of your own  Use your voice emphasis to “underline” any areas you want to draw your students’ attention to
  29. 29. S.Cooke’s resource (2010) What can you grow? Available at: http://www.collaborativelearning.org/whatcanyougrow.pdf
  30. 30. http://www.collaborativelearning.org/ S.Scott’s resource (2010) Macbeth’s Characters. Available at: http://www.collaborativelearning.org/macbethconnect.pdf
  31. 31. Dictogloss Read the text once through at normal speed. Learners listen but don’t write anything. Read the text again at normal speed, but this time pause after each sentence to give time for learners to make brief notes Learners sit in small groups and compare their notes. Working together, they try to reconstruct the story One person from each group shows their version (or reads it out).
  32. 32. DARTs Directed Activities Related to Texts DARTs are: • Gap fill exercises • Sentence halves • Jumbled sentences and paragraphs Using modified texts Using unmodified texts Gap-filling - missing words, phrases or sentences Underline or highlight particular sections of text (descriptive language, nouns, connectives, topic sentences, etc.). Sequencing - words, sentences or short paragraphs Break the text into chunks and devise a heading for each chunk. Grouping segments of text according to categories Use the information in the text to draw a table, diagram, flow chart, etc. Completing a table, grid, flow chart, etc. Devise questions about the texts – pairs can devise questions for each other Labelling a diagram Predicting - writing the next step or an end to the text
  33. 33. DARTs - To help learners to see how a text is structured:  Cut up a text for learners to sequence correctly.  Blank out words (e.g. nouns, verbs, every tenth word, etc.) for learners to decide what to put in (also known as cloze procedure).  Ask learners to think of a subheading for each paragraph to show they have understood its meaning.  Write labels or annotations for a diagram.  Change the text into a picture or flow chart.
  34. 34. DARTs - To help learners choose and analyse information  Highlight key words in a text.  Use different colours to highlight different characters’ views; or speech and action ready for converting into a play script.  Recast information using graphic organisers, for example: tables, Venn diagrams, hierarchy pyramids, life cycles, tree diagrams.  Transform text into other formats, e.g. letter, instructions, diary, article, advert, web page, storyboard

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