UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGÓGICA EXPERIMENTAL LIBERTADOR INSTITUTO PEDAGÓGICO DE CARACAS DEPARTAMENTO DE IDIOMAS MODERNOS PROGRAMA DE INGLÉS CÁTEDRA DE LINGÜÍSTICA FACTORS AFFECTING SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITIONTeacher: Mirna Quintero Student: Francisco de Barnola
AGE“You cant teach an old dog new tricks” (Idiomatic Expression) Second language acquisition is influenced by the age of the learner. Children with solid literacy skills in their own language, seem to be in the best position to acquire a new language efficiently. Motivated, older learners can do it, but usually struggle to achieve native-speaker- equivalent pronunciation and intonation. •
PERSONALITY "I know one thing, that I know nothing“ (Socrates)Introverted or anxious learnersusually make slower progress,particularly in the developmentof oral skills. They are lesslikely to take opportunities tospeak.More outgoing students will notworry about the inevitability ofmaking mistakes. Theywill take risks, and thus willgive themselves much morepractice.
EXPERIENCESLearners who have acquiredgeneral knowledge andexperience are in a strongerposition to develop a newlanguage than those whohavent.
MOTIVATION•Intrinsic motivation has beenfound to correlate strongly witheducational achievement. Clearly,students who enjoy language learningand take pride in their progress will dobetter than those who dont.•Extrinsic motivation is also asignificant factor. ESL students, forexample, who need to learn English inorder to take a place at an Americanuniversity are likely to make greaterefforts and thus greater progress.
COGNITION How much wood would a woodchuck chuck, if a woodchuck could chuck wood?In general, it seems thatstudents with greatercognitive abilities will makethe faster progress. Somelinguists believe that there isa specific, innate languagelearning ability that isstronger in some studentsthan in others.
AFFECTIVE FACTORSAffective factors are emotional factors whichinfluence learning.1.Self-Esteem2.Inhibition3.Risk Taking4.Anxiety5.Empathy
SELF-ESTEEMSelf-esteem refers to a personalevaluation and judgment ofworthiness that is expressed in theindividuals attitude toward him orherself or toward his or hercapabilities.Low motivation, low self-esteem,and debilitating anxiety cancombine to raise the affective filterand form a mental block thatprevents comprehensible input frombeing used for acquisition. (Krashencited by Schütz, 2007)
INHIBITIONInhibition in a person arisesas he/she tries to defend orprotect their self-image. Ifthe learner perceives themistakes that he/she makesin the second language as athreat to their emotionalwell-being and selfperception, then acquisitionwill not occur or will occurmuch more slowly.
RISK TAKINGOne of the characteristicsthat has been found toexist in "good" languagelearners is the willingnessto guess. If the learner isless inhibited, he/she ismore willing to take achance on producing a"correct" utterance in thesecond language.
ANXIETYAnxiety is associated with thefeelings of uneasiness, self-doubt, worry or fear that aperson feels under certaincircumstances. A threateningenvironment does not promotelanguage acquisition. Factorssuch as an emphasis oncompetition between studentsor forcing students to producein the second language beforethey are ready can causeanxiety.
EMPATHYEmpathy refers to an individualsability to put him/herself in theothers shoes. When a learner isacquiring a second language, heor she is also acquiring, in asense, a new personality, and anew culture. Is the ability of alearner to open him or herself tonew cultural experiences andadopt these experiences as theirown is essential in the languageacquisition process..
REFERENCESSchütz, R. (2007) . Stephen Krashens Theory of Second LanguageAcquisition [Document Online] Available : http://www.sk.com.br/sk-krash.html [Consulted : 2012, June, 30]Inter American University of Puerto Rico (n.d.) Psycholinguistic andAffective Factors. [Document Online] Available :http://ocw.inter.edu:8080/eduCommons/ingles/english-fundamentals-of-second-language-acquisition/modules/unit-6-psycholinguistic-and-affective-factors [Consulted : 2012,June, 30]Universidad de Jaen. (n.d.) . Factors affecting L2 learning [DocumentOnline] Available: Factors affecting L2 learning [Consulted : 2012,June,30]