English language learners intro power point

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English language learners intro power point

  1. 1. English Language Learners
  2. 2. National Student Profile <ul><li>1 in 5 students in the U.S. are immigrants or American-born children of immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>2.0-3.3 million are English language learners </li></ul><ul><li>73% of ELLs are native Spanish speakers </li></ul><ul><li>2 in 5 Latino students aged 15-17 were enrolled below grade level </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: U.S. Department of Education) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stages of Second Language Learning <ul><li>Provide example of how students acquire a new language </li></ul><ul><li>Different children may enter school at different stages </li></ul>
  4. 4. Phase I: Observation & Imitation <ul><li>Silent stage – child is taking in new situation & listening </li></ul><ul><li>Child will imitate what other children do in class; may be pretending to understand </li></ul><ul><li>An outgoing child may use a lot of body gestures; this may be misinterpreted as physical aggression </li></ul>
  5. 5. Phase II: Single word & phrase use <ul><li>Child begins to use words or phrases that are important for survival in classroom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop it; I’m next; Me too! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Child begins to use language but is still not sure of what constitutes single word in English </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I like it” which students hears as two words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I like it play ball”; “I like it little trucks” </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Phase III: Initial Understanding of Grammatical Rules <ul><li>Child may leave out plurals or past tense </li></ul><ul><li>Child’s comprehension exceeds ability to produce language; may use appropriate content words but not in appropriate form </li></ul><ul><li>Child may use grammatical forms that are literal translations from first language </li></ul><ul><li>Child makes most of vocabulary but generalizes meaning </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Points <ul><li>Easy to assume child knows a lot more of language than they actually do </li></ul><ul><li>Children will experiment more with new language when with peers than with adults; if possible observe student interacting with peers </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) <ul><li>Language skills needed in social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Day-to-day language </li></ul><ul><li>Social interactions are usually context embedded; occur in a meaningful social context; not very demanding cognitively </li></ul><ul><li>Language required is not specialized </li></ul><ul><li>Usually develops within 6 months to 2 years after arrival in U.S. </li></ul>
  9. 9. BICS (Continued) <ul><li>ELLs can comprehend social language by: </li></ul><ul><li>Observing speakers’ non-verbal behavior (gestures, facial expressions, and eye actions); </li></ul><ul><li>Observing others’ reactions; </li></ul><ul><li>Using voice cues such as phrasing, intonation, and stress; </li></ul><ul><li>Observing pictures, concrete objects, and other contextual cues which are present; and </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for statements to be repeated and/or clarified. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) <ul><li>Refers to formal academic learning </li></ul><ul><li>Listening, speaking, reading, & writing about subject area content material </li></ul><ul><li>Essential for students to succeed in school </li></ul><ul><li>Usually takes from 5-7 years </li></ul><ul><li>If child has no prior schooling or no support in native language development may take 7-10 years for ELLs to catch up to their peers </li></ul>
  11. 11. CALP (continued) <ul><li>Isn’t just understanding of content area vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Includes comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, & inferring </li></ul><ul><li>Context reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes more cognitively demanding; new ideas, concepts & language are presented at same time </li></ul>
  12. 12. CALP (continued) <ul><li>Proficiency in CALP is gained more slowly because: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal clues are absent; </li></ul><ul><li>There is less face-to-face interaction; </li></ul><ul><li>Academic language is often abstract; </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy demands are high (narrative and expository text and textbooks are written beyond the language proficiency of the students); and </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural/linguistic knowledge is often needed to comprehend fully. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) <ul><li>Skills, ideas, & concepts learned in first language will be transferred to second language </li></ul>
  14. 14. Teacher Expectations, Beliefs, and Attitudes about the ELLs <ul><li>Teachers expectations work to make or break the ELLs. </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations help ELLs. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering expectations hurts the ELLs. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher expectations work as a self-fulfilling prophecy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Strategies <ul><li>The key is to teach students strategies so that they can be empowered to learn’ make them independent learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding – break concept down into manageable pieces; guide students through process; help students move to higher levels of expertise. </li></ul><ul><li>Use different question types. </li></ul>

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