(copyleft 2008) Chad David Cover.Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 1.0 Generic. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0/
Territorial AccommodationStronger Fugitive Slave LawWashington D.C. Slave Market shut down (although private sales remained legal, as did slavery)
Charles Sumner said of the case during debates over Reconstruction that it had been “born a putrid corpse,” becoming “at once a stench in the nostrils and a scandal to the court itself, which made haste to turn away from its offensive offspring.” (Dray, Capitol Men, 72)
"My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone I would also do that. What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union; and what I forbear, I forbear because I do not believe it would help to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, and I shall do more whenever I shall believe doing more will help the cause." The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln edited by Roy P. Basler, Volume V, "Letter to Horace Greeley" (August 22, 1862), p. 388.
“When we show that we are men, we can then demand our liberty, as did the revolutionary fathers,” noted one black speaker at a Washington, DC church.
African-American History ~ Civil War
Civil War<br />
Sectional Crisis<br />40 year of misunderstanding over expansion of slavery & powers of federal government<br />Missouri Compromise<br />Nullification Crisis of 1832<br />After Mexican-American War<br />Wilmot Proviso<br />Compromise of 1850<br />Kansas-Nebraska Acts of 1854<br />
Purported Cause of the War<br />“This is a white man’s war.” ~ Popular Shibboleth<br />Politicians assert war was fought over different interpretations of the Constitution. <br />Did the Constitution create: <br />An indissoluble union in which state identity was subsumed by national identity?<br />A confederation of convenience in which the federal government had power over matters of foreign policy & trade alone, but not over the internal politics of states?<br />
Lincoln’s Tight-Wire Act<br />Lincoln maintained this was a war to preserve the Union & not to end slavery.Promised to protect the rights of slave-holders within the South.Wanted to check the expansion of slavery in the Western territories.Balked at enlisting black troops:<br />Feared alienating slave-holding Union states<br />Preferred colonization<br />Could not see whites & blacks living as equals in America<br />
A War to End Slavery<br />Abolitionists & African-American activists saw this as a war to end slavery. Frederick Douglass: “Any attempt now to separate the freedom of the slave from the victory of the government—any attempt to secure peace to the whites while leaving the blacks in chains—will be labor lost.”<br />As such, blacks quickly moved to form volunteer militia companies & to volunteer to serve in battle. Lincoln ignored their requests.<br />
Emancipation<br />Came in stages as an exigency of war:<br />Contraband <br />Confiscation Acts<br />Provisional & Final Emancipation Proclamations(Did no grant universal emancipation.)<br />WLNL led a massive petition drive to secure 13th Amendment<br />
Black Military Service<br />Black Volunteer Companies (1861)<br />Militia Act of 1862<br />Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863)<br />USCT Bureau in War Department<br />Blacks Served Proportionally to Whites<br />Issues of Rank & Pay<br />Confederacy denies rights to black POWs<br />