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African-American History ~ Civil War


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African-American History ~ Civil War

  1. 1. Civil War<br />
  2. 2. Sectional Crisis<br />40 year of misunderstanding over expansion of slavery & powers of federal government<br />Missouri Compromise<br />Nullification Crisis of 1832<br />After Mexican-American War<br />Wilmot Proviso<br />Compromise of 1850<br />Kansas-Nebraska Acts of 1854<br />
  3. 3. Compromise of 1850<br />
  4. 4. Apparent Causes of the War<br />Radical Abolitionism<br />Liberty, Free Soil & Republican Parties<br />“Bleeding Kansas” <br />Dred Scott Decision<br />Ascent of Lincoln<br />
  5. 5. Dred Scott Decision<br />
  6. 6. Purported Cause of the War<br />“This is a white man’s war.” ~ Popular Shibboleth<br />Politicians assert war was fought over different interpretations of the Constitution. <br />Did the Constitution create: <br />An indissoluble union in which state identity was subsumed by national identity?<br />A confederation of convenience in which the federal government had power over matters of foreign policy & trade alone, but not over the internal politics of states?<br />
  7. 7. Lincoln’s Tight-Wire Act<br />Lincoln maintained this was a war to preserve the Union & not to end slavery.Promised to protect the rights of slave-holders within the South.Wanted to check the expansion of slavery in the Western territories.Balked at enlisting black troops:<br />Feared alienating slave-holding Union states<br />Preferred colonization<br />Could not see whites & blacks living as equals in America<br />
  8. 8. A War to End Slavery<br />Abolitionists & African-American activists saw this as a war to end slavery. Frederick Douglass: “Any attempt now to separate the freedom of the slave from the victory of the government—any attempt to secure peace to the whites while leaving the blacks in chains—will be labor lost.”<br />As such, blacks quickly moved to form volunteer militia companies & to volunteer to serve in battle. Lincoln ignored their requests.<br />
  9. 9. Emancipation<br />Came in stages as an exigency of war:<br />Contraband <br />Confiscation Acts<br />Provisional & Final Emancipation Proclamations(Did no grant universal emancipation.)<br />WLNL led a massive petition drive to secure 13th Amendment<br />
  10. 10. Emancipation Proclamation<br />
  11. 11. Black Military Service<br />Black Volunteer Companies (1861)<br />Militia Act of 1862<br />Final Emancipation Proclamation (1863)<br />USCT Bureau in War Department<br />Blacks Served Proportionally to Whites<br />Issues of Rank & Pay<br />Confederacy denies rights to black POWs<br />
  12. 12. Remember Fort Pillow<br />
  13. 13. “Then on the charge!”<br />