(copyleft 2008) Chad David Cover.Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 1.0 Generic. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/1.0/
The 369th Infantry, aka the Harlem Hellfighters, fought alongside the French in an integrated unit.
Malvin Gray Johnson, “Negro Soldier”
Some of the men of the 369th United States Infantry returning home after World War I. The 369th served in the trenches longer than any other American outfit and had the distinction of having never had a single man captured, or lost a trench or a foot of ground. They are wearing the Croix de Guerre awarded to 171 officers and men by the French government for thier accomplishments on the battlefield.
The parade of the 369th Infantry Regiment up Fifth Avenue in New York City on Feb. 18, 1919. TheGermans nicknamed the unit the “Hell Fighters.”
50,000 African-American soldiers served in Europe where they met other colonized & diasporal people. 175,000 North Africans served on the Western Front in the French Army.
Albert Smith, “The Reason,” The Crisis, March 1920