BOTTOM-UP READING MODEL Emphasizes a single direction Emphasizes the written or printed texts Reading is driven by a process that results in meaning PART TO WHOLE MODEL
FEATURES OF BOTTOM-UP MODELBelieves the reader needs to: Identify letter features Link these features to recognize letters Combine letter to recognize spelling patterns Link spelling patterns to recognize words Then proceed to sentence, paragraph, and text- level processing
VIEWS OF SOME RESEARCHERS ABOUT THEBOTTOM-UP READING MODEL:Leonard Bloomfield: the first task of reading is learning the code or the alphabetical principle. The meaning of the text is expected to come naturally as the code is broken based on the reader’s prior knowledge of words, their meaning and the syntactical patterns of his or her language. Writing is merely a device for recording speech
Emerald Dechant: “ Bottom-up models operate on the principle that the written text is hierarchically organized and that the reader first process smallest linguistic unit, gradually compiling the smaller units to decipher and comprehend the higher units.
Charles Fries: The reader must learn to transfer form the auditory signs for language signals to a set of visual signs for the same signals. The reader must automatically respond to the visual patterns. Learning to read…. Means developing considerable range of habitual responses to a specific set of patterns of graphic shapes
Philip B. Gough: Reading is strictly a serial process Lexical,syntactic and semantic rules are applied to the phonemic output which itself has been decoded from print.
TOP-DOWN READING MODELSuggest that processing of a text begins in the mind of the readers with : Meaning- driven processes, or An assumption about the meaning of a text.
The proponents generally agree that: Comprehension is the basis for decoding skills, not a singular result Meaning is brought to print, not derived from print
TOP-DOWN READING MODELA reading model that: Emphasizes what the reader brings to the text Says reading is driven by meaning Proceeds from whole to part
Also known as: INSIDE OUT MODEL CONCEPT-DRIVEN MODEL WHOLE TO PART MODEL
VIEWS OF SOME RESEARCHERS ABOUT THETOP-DOWN READING MODEL:Frank Smith Readingis not decoding written language to spoken language Reading does not involve the processing of each letter and each word. Reading is a matter of bringing meaning to print
Kenneth S. Goodman “ the goal of reading is constructing meaning in response to text .. It requires interactive use of graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic cues to construct meaning.” “ it is one which uses print as input and has meaning as output. But the reader provides input too, and the reader, interacting with text, is selective in using just as little of the cues from text as necessary to construct meaning.”
FEATURES OF TOP-DOWN APPROACH: Readers can comprehend a selection even though they do not recognize each word. Readers should use meaning and grammatical cues to identify unrecognized words. Reading for meaning is the primary objective of reading, rather than mastery of letters, letters/sound relationships and words.
Reading requires the use of meaning activities than the mastery of series of word- recognition skills. The primary focus of instruction should be the reading of sentences , paragraphs, and whole selections The most important aspect about reading is the amount and kind of information gained through reading.
INTERACTIVE READING MODEL Attempts to combine the valid insights of bottom-up and top-down models. It attempts to take into account the strong points of the bottom-up and top-down models, and tries to avoid the criticisms leveled against each.
INTERACTIVE READING MODEL A reading model that recognizes the interaction of bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously throughout the reading process.
VIEWS OF SOME RESEARCHERS ABOUT THEINTERACTIVE READING MODEL:Emerald Dechant The interactive model suggests that the reader constructs meaning by the selective use of information from all sources of meaning without adherence to any set order. The reader simultaneously uses all levels of processing even though one source of meaning can be primary at a given time.
Kenneth Goodman An interactive model is one which uses print as input and has meaning as an output But the reader provides input too, and the reader interacting with the text, is selective in using just as little of the cues from text as necessary to construct meaning
David E. Rumelhart Reading is at once a perceptual and a cognitive process. Itis a process which bridges and blurs these two traditional distinctions. A skilled reader must be able to make use of sensory, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic information to accomplish the task.