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By
Rajkumar Gupta
MBA FM-MARKETING
ROLL NO-38
Introduction
It had its early roots
inWorldWar II and is
flourishing in
business and industry
with the aid of
computer
Operations
The activities carried out in an organization.
Research
The process of observation and testing
characterized by...
• The British/Europeans refer to “Operational
Research", the Americans to “Operations Research" -
but both are often short...
 In Industry
 Business
 Government
 Defense fields
 People
 Machine
 Material
 Money
management
 More complete data
 Consideration of all available options
 Careful predictions of outcomes and
estimates of risk
 Th...
.
Optimization is a word that
comes to mind first in
operations research.
• 7 Steps of Problem Solving
(First 5 steps are the process of decision making)
– Identify and define the problem.
– Deter...
Management Science Approach
Observation
• Identification
of a problem
that exists in
the system
or
organization.
 “Right solution” can not be
obtained from the “wrong
problem
 The first and most
important stage of the
work is definin...
The Establishment Of The Model
Development of the functional mathematical relationships that describe-
 Decision variable...
• Generally, experimenting with models
(compared to experimenting with the real
situation):
– requires less time
– is less...
Obtaining Model Solution
 This phase obtains an optimal solution for the
model by using various techniques.
1. Linear Programming Problem (LPP)
2. Transportation Problem (TP)
3. Assignment Problem (AP)
4. Simulation
5. PERT/CPM
Va...
 Before the application of the model solution, the validity of model
and reliability of the solution should be tested.
 ...
If past behavior is repeated when
provided similar inputs (a stable
solution is being obtained), the
model will be valid.
A solution to a problem usually implies changes
for some individuals in the organization
Implementation of the solution ob...
CONCLUSION
Operation research ensures the effective working of organizations by
providing solutions to their various probl...
THANK
YOU
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  1. 1. By Rajkumar Gupta MBA FM-MARKETING ROLL NO-38
  2. 2. Introduction It had its early roots inWorldWar II and is flourishing in business and industry with the aid of computer
  3. 3. Operations The activities carried out in an organization. Research The process of observation and testing characterized by the scientific method. Situation, problem statement, model construction, validation, experimentation, candidate solutions. Operations Research is a quantitative approach to decision making based on the scientific method of problem solving.
  4. 4. • The British/Europeans refer to “Operational Research", the Americans to “Operations Research" - but both are often shortened to just "OR". • Another term used for this field is “Management Science" ("MS"). In U.S. OR and MS are combined together to form "OR/MS" or "ORMS". • Yet other terms sometimes used are “Industrial Engineering" ("IE") and “Decision Science" ("DS"). Terminology
  5. 5.  In Industry  Business  Government  Defense fields  People  Machine  Material  Money management
  6. 6.  More complete data  Consideration of all available options  Careful predictions of outcomes and estimates of risk  The latest decision tools and techniques This Situation Provides
  7. 7. .
  8. 8. Optimization is a word that comes to mind first in operations research.
  9. 9. • 7 Steps of Problem Solving (First 5 steps are the process of decision making) – Identify and define the problem. – Determine the set of alternative solutions. – Determine the criteria for evaluating the alternatives. – Evaluate the alternatives. – Choose an alternative. ------------------------------------------------------------- -- – Implement the chosen alternative. – Evaluate the results. Problem Solving and Decision Making
  10. 10. Management Science Approach Observation • Identification of a problem that exists in the system or organization.
  11. 11.  “Right solution” can not be obtained from the “wrong problem  The first and most important stage of the work is defining the problem well.  This phase helps examine the problem at hand quantitatively. Identification Of The Problem
  12. 12. The Establishment Of The Model Development of the functional mathematical relationships that describe-  Decision variables  Objective function  Constraints of the problem and  Non negativity condition
  13. 13. • Generally, experimenting with models (compared to experimenting with the real situation): – requires less time – is less expensive – involves less risk Advantages of Models
  14. 14. Obtaining Model Solution  This phase obtains an optimal solution for the model by using various techniques.
  15. 15. 1. Linear Programming Problem (LPP) 2. Transportation Problem (TP) 3. Assignment Problem (AP) 4. Simulation 5. PERT/CPM Various Techniques/Methods
  16. 16.  Before the application of the model solution, the validity of model and reliability of the solution should be tested.  Validity of the model can be decided by comparing its outputs with the results of past. Testing Of The Model Solution
  17. 17. If past behavior is repeated when provided similar inputs (a stable solution is being obtained), the model will be valid.
  18. 18. A solution to a problem usually implies changes for some individuals in the organization Implementation of the solution obtained from a validated model is a reliable solution to the real- life problems Implementation Situation Procedure Implement the Procedure
  19. 19. CONCLUSION Operation research ensures the effective working of organizations by providing solutions to their various problems.
  20. 20. THANK YOU
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