Animal types cockroach


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morphology, nervous system, circulatory system, respiratory system, digestive system, reproductive system, excretory system of cockroach

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Animal types cockroach

  1. 1. Study of Animal Type
  2. 2. dr. aarif
  3. 3. dr. aarif
  4. 4. SYSTEMATIC POSITIONKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Arthropoda (Arthos -jointed; poda- legs). They have jointed appendages. Body is chitinous and segmented.Class: Insecta (They possess twopairs of flight appendages- wingsand three pairs of walking legs).Genus: Periplaneta (straight wings,nocturnal, chewing type of mouthparts)Species: americana (origin inMexico, USA dr. aarif
  5. 5. Periplaneta americana Blatta orientalisi. It is lighter in color. i. It is darker in color.i. It is about 38 mm long. i. It is about 25 mm long.i. Wings are present in both the sexes i. Wings are rudimentary in the female and extend beyond the posterior end andof the body. do not reach the hind end of the body in the male. dr. aarif
  6. 6. Cockroaches are omnipresent usually found inwarm, dark damp places such as kitchens, storehouses, manholes etc.They are nocturnal i.e. they are active at nightand come out for feeding. During the day timethey hide themselves in the cracks and crevicesor under the objects in kitchen, cupboards, etc.They are omnivorous and feed on all plant andanimal material.They are cursorial in nature i.e. they are fastrunners.They have wings and can fly but rarely do theyexhibit their ability to fly. dr. aarif
  7. 7. EXTERNAL FEATURES OF COCKROACHDorso-ventrally flattened bodyReddish-brown3 to 5 cm in length1.5 to 2 cm in breadthbilaterally symmetrical,triploblastic and coelomatewater proof chitinous exoskeletonWith hardened plates called scleritesEach segment subdivided into four plates namely:dorsal tergum, ventral sternum and two lateral pleurons dr. aarif
  8. 8. BODY DIVISIONS dr. aarif
  9. 9. HEADOvate, flattened dorso-ventrally ,pear-shaped,attached at the right angles to the thorax by athin, narrow, movable neck or cervicum.Head is formed of six sclerites. These fuse inadults and form the head capsule.Head bears four important parts:1. COMPOUND EYES2. ANTENNAE3. FENESTRAE4. MOUTH PARTS OR TROPHI-MOUTH PARTS dr. aarif
  10. 10. COMPOUND EYESThese are paired, dark, kidney shaped structuresplaced on the lateral sides of the head and aremade up of large number of hexagonal facetscalled ommatidia (singular-ommatidium).Each ommatidium acts as a single simple eye andforms a part of image of an object.All the images combine together in the brain &form a complete single blur mosaic image. A single ommatidium dr. aarif
  11. 11. ANTENNAE- They are paired, long slender filamentous, many jointed structures present between the compound eyes.- They are lodged in the membranous pits called antennal sockets. These are the tacto-receptors or organs of olfaction (sense of smell) useful in localizing the food material in the vicinity.- Antennae have sensory receptors that help in monitoring the environment.FENESTRAE- They are also called the oscillar spots situated at the base of each antenna and they appear as white spots.- They are sensitive to light. dr. aarif
  12. 12. MOUTH : They are of chewing and biting type because they are used for masticating the food. These are movable, segmented appendages which assist in ingestion of food Parts of the mouth : Labrum, Maxilla, Mandible and Labrum dr. aarif
  13. 13. LABRUM : Labrum or upper lip is flap like or shield like movable structure which covers the mouth from the upper side. Thus, it forms the anterior wall (roof) of the mouth cavity. It is also useful in holding of the food during feeding. It bears on its inner surface a chitinous ridge called the epipharynx. The epipharynx carries the taste receptors dr. aarif
  14. 14. MANDIBLES Mandibles or true jaws are two dark, hard chitinous structures with serrated margins with teeth present below the labium on either side of the mouth. These are useful in cutting and crushing the food. dr. aarif
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  16. 16. MAXILLAE Maxillae or accessory jaws are paired appendages situated on the either side of the mouth behind the mandibles. Each maxilla is many jointed structure with maxillary palp. These are also called first pair of maxillae. dr. aarif
  17. 17. LABIUMLabium or lower lip is also called thesecond maxillae which covers themouth from the ventral side and isfirmly attached to the posterior part ofhead.It has labial palp which is three jointed.These are sensory in function.Labium is useful in pushing the chewedfood in the preoral cavity and alsoprevents the loss of food falling frommandibles during the chewing. dr. aarif
  18. 18. HYPOPHARYNXHypo-pharynx or tongue is along, prominent mediallyplaced appendage.It hangs in the preoral cavityjust in front of the labiumbetween the first maxillae.It receives saliva from thesalivary duct and directs it onto the food. dr. aarif
  19. 19. THORAXThorax is made up of three distinctsegments:Anterior prothorax,middle mesothorax andposterior metathorax.The exoskeleton of each segment ismade of 4 sclerites, a dorsal tergum, aventral sternum and 2 lateral pleurons.The mesothorax and metathorax bear apair of spiracles.VENTRALLY : a pair of walking legs (all 3segments)DORSALLY : a pair of wings (meso andmeta) dr. aarif
  20. 20. WINGSDorsally the thorax bears two pairs ofmembranous wings- fore wing and hind wings.Fore Wings:Forewings are first pair of dark, opaque, thick wings which are protective infunction.Hind wings:They are thin, broad membranous,delicate and transparent second pair of wingattached to tergum of metathorax. These areuseful in flight and hence are also called truewings. dr. aarif
  21. 21. LEGSThree pairs of thoracic legs are presenton ventral side.Each leg is five jointed or segmented andis covered with the sensory bristles andspines.Each leg has five podomeres namely:Coxa, Trochanter, Femur, Tibia, andTarsusTarsus is the last segment and is made upof five movable segments or tarsomeres.Last segment of the tarsus bears a pair ofclaws and arolium helpful in clinging. dr. aarif
  22. 22. The abdomen is the largest of thethree regions and contains most ofthe viscera.Its segmentation is conspicuous bothdorsally and ventrally.The abdomen consists of 11segments of which the 11th isreduced and fused with the 10th sothat a maximum of ten segments aredistinct and visible.Dorsally each segment is covered bya tergite and, ventrally by a sternite.Laterally, tergites and sternites areconnected by un-sclerotized flexiblepleura. dr. aarif
  23. 23. Cockroaches exhibit sexual dimorphism.In males, anal styles are present insegment 9. These are absent in females.Most abdominal segments lackappendages but segment 10 bears a pairof large, segmented cerci, called analcerci, which are visible in both dorsaland ventral views. These are sensitive toair movements, including sound, andperhaps to ground vibrations.Eight pairs of spiracles are present inthe abdomen.Genital openings are present ondifferent segments in both the sexesand are surrounded by the chitinousplates in both, which are collectivelycalled gonapophyses. dr. aarif
  24. 24. NERVOUS SYSTEM dr. aarif
  25. 25. NERVOUS SYSTEM Central Nervous SystemPereipheral Nervous SystemAutonomic Nervous System dr. aarif
  26. 26. Central Nervous System : 1. Nerve ring Perpheral Nervous System 2. Nerve cord Protocerebrum 2 pairs of OPTIC nerves that innervate the compound eyes Supra oesophageal ganglion (BRAIN) Duetocerebrum 2 pairs ANTENNAL nerves. They supply to the antennae Tritocerebrum 2 pairs of nerves. They supply to labrum.Nerve Circum oesophageal They arise from the supra oesophagealring connective ganglia and are a pair of nerves which are connected to the sub oesophageal ganglia, encircling the oesophagus Sub oesophageal nerves that supply to the mandibles, ganglion maxillae and labium. dr. aarif
  27. 27. CNS PNS Pro-thoracic 6 pairs ganglion Thoracic Nerve supply to the thoracic Meso-thoracic 5 pairs muscles, wings, legs and other ganglion internal organs found in the thorax. Meta-thoracic 5 pairs ganglionNerve 1st abd. Ganglion (1)cord 2nd abd. Ganglion (2) Nerve supply to the organs found in the abdomen to 3rd abd. Ganglion (3) control respiration, circulation 4th abd. Ganglion (4) and movements of alimentary canal Abdominal 5th abd. Ganglion (5) 6th abd. Ganglion (7) dr. aarif
  28. 28. Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomous is also called somatogastric or visceral nervous system.It includes 4 nerve ganglia and nerves which connect them and supply to visceral organs.The nerve ganglia are: Frontal ganglion: It is present on the pharynx, just in front of the brain. Occipital ganglion or Hypocerebral ganglion: It is present behind the brain above the oesophagus. Visceral ganglion or Ingluvial ganglion: It is present on the wall of crop. Proventricular ganglion: It is present on gizzard.Somatogastric nervous system supply nerves to alimentary canal, heart and other visceralorgans.It regulates the functions of those organs hence it is called visceral nervous system dr. aarif
  29. 29. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM dr. aarif
  30. 30. The blood vascular system is of the OPEN type i.e. the blood does not flow in the vesselsand capillaries, but moves through the internal open spaces and comes in contact with thebody organsHaemolymph (blood) : The haemolymph is composed of colorless plasma and haemocytes(irregular white blood corpuscles and leucocytes).Haemocoel : In the thoracic and abdominal region the body cavity or haemocoel is dividedinto 3 large spaces by 2 partitions (dorsal and ventral diaphragm) a) Pericardial sinus : present dorsally below the terga and encloses the Heart b) Perivisceral sinus : largest and encloses most of the viscera c) Perineural sinus : present ventrally above the sterna and encloses the nerve cord.All the sinuses are connected to each other by perforations in the diaphragmsHeart : The blood is kept circulating by a long, tubular, dorsal, muscular, funnel shaped 13-chambered heart. The heart lies along the dorsal line of thorax and abdomen. Each chamber of the heart opens into the one in front of it. The opening is guarded by a pair of ventricular valves, which allow only forward flow of the blood. At the posterior end of the chamber, except the last, is a pair of holes, called ostia, on either side. The ostia are guarded by auricular valves, which allow the blood to pass into the heart from the haemocoel dr. aarif
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  32. 32. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM dr. aarif
  33. 33. Digestive SystemAlimentary canal Digestive GlandsForegut Midgut Hindgut Salivary Hepatic Glands of Glands Caecae mesenteron Ileum Colon Rectum Pre-oral Mouth Pharynx Oesophagus Crop Gizzard Cavity dr. aarif
  35. 35. FORE GUT OR STOMODAEUM:It consists of pre oral cavity, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, crop and gizzard or proventriculus.PRE ORAL CAVITY : It is a space in front of the mouth. The hypopharynx projects in the pre oral cavityMOUTH : It is a small narrow opening surrounded by the mouth partsPHARYNX : Short funnel-like part lying in the head region; it leads to the oesophagus Both mouth and pharynx possess taste sensillaeOESOPHAGUS : It passes through the neck and opens into a sac like structure called cropCROP : It is a large, highly distensible, pear-shaped sac that stores food. It is long extending to fourth or fifth abdominal segment. From crop food enters into gizzard dr. aarif
  36. 36. GIZZARD : It is also called proventriculus. It is provided with a circlet of six chitinousteeth that help to crush the food.Behind the chitinous teeth are, backwardlydirected fine chitinous bristles in the groovesof gizzard.These are interconnected with each other andform a filter.Gizzard has, therefore, an efficient grindingand straining apparatuGizzard marks the end of fore-gut. dr. aarif
  37. 37. MID GUT OR MESENTERON: It consists of ventriculus (stomach) and eight hepatic caecae. Hepatic caeca are thin, transparent, blind tubules arranged in a whorl or rosette fashion in the anterior part of the stomach. They secrete digestive enzymes. Ventriculus or stomach is a short and narrow tube of uniform diameter. It is concerned with digestion of food. The mid-gut is the major organ of digestion and absorption dr. aarif
  38. 38. HIND GUT OR PROCTODAEUM: Hind-gut consists of ileum, colon and rectum. It is slightly broader than the mid-gut. At its junction with mid-gut, are present a ring of up to 150 yellow thread-like blind Malpighian tubules which are excretory in nature. It helps in removal of excretory products from the haemolymph. Their product is poured into the ileum. Ileum is short and narrow Colon is coiled and wide tube. Rectum is the last part of the hind-gut. Rectum opens to the outside by anus which lies below the 10thtergum dr. aarif
  39. 39. Cockroach has two salivary glands, one on each SALIVARY GLANDSside of crop.Each gland has two glandular lobes and areceptacle or reservoir.Glandular lobes consist of several irregular, whitecolored lobules which are provided withcollecting ducts. They secrete saliva.The two gland ducts of two salivary glands uniteand form a common salivary duct.Thin walled transparent bag-like structures calledsalivary receptacles store saliva.The common salivary receptacular duct runsbelow the oesophagus through the neck andopens at the base of the tongue or hypo pharynx.Salivary glands open by the common salivary ductinto the preoral cavity.Saliva contains amylase, chitinase and cellulase dr. aarif
  40. 40. RESPIRATORY SYSTEMThe respiratory system consists of a network of white, shining tubes, thetrachea, that open out by 10 pairs of lateral apertures called the stigmataor spiracles (2 pairs in the thorax and 8 pairs in the abdomen).The opening of the spiracles is regulated by the sphincters.The trachea divides and sub-divides forming fine tracheoles that penetratethe tissues.Terminal parts of tracheoles contain fluid that facilitates exchange of O2 andCO2 by diffusion.During intense activity, fluid is withdrawn from the tracheoles so that moreempty surface area is available and air reaches the tissue cells directly forquick O2 supply.Blood has no role to play in respiratory gas exchange. dr. aarif
  41. 41. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMCockroaches are dioecious, i.e. sexes are separate and distinguishable externally.That is to say, cockroaches exhibit sexual dimorphism.Both sexes have well developed reproductive organs MALE FEMALE
  43. 43. 1. TESTES : - A pair of testes - in the 4th/5th abdominal segemnts - Trilobed, dorsolaterally below the terga2. VASA DEFERENTIA :- Arises from each testis - white thread like tube - pass downwards & enters seminal vesicles3. SEMINAL VESICLES : - Sac-like structures which store sperms4. EJACULATORY DUCT : - Formed by the union of 2 seminal vesicles at the base of utricular gland - Elongated tube which opens through the male genital pore5. UTRICULAR GLAND : - present at the junction of vasa deferentia and ejaculatory duct - formed by several tubules arising from seminal vesicles - present in the 6th and 7th segments - Utricular gland = long tubules + short tubules + seminal vesicle6. MALE GENITAL PORE : - between the 9th and the 10th abdominal segement, ventrally dr. aarif
  44. 44. 7. GONAPOPHYSES / PHALLOMERES : - The male genital pore is surrounded by chitinous hooks and plates called gonapophyses which help in copulation8. SPERMATOPHORES : - The sperms are bundled into spermatophores wherein they are glued together and covered by a 3-layered protective covering. - Inner layer ----- by tubules of utricular gland Middle layer ----- by ejaculatory duct Outer layer ------ by phallic gland dr. aarif
  46. 46. 1. OVARIES : - pair of Ovaries lying laterally in the 4th – 6th segment - each ovary is made up of 8 ovarioles (broad base and narrow end) - The narrow end of all the 8 ovarioles unite to form a filament. - The ovarioles have linear rows of ova at different stages of development in the middle region. - The basal part of the ovariole is tubular and allows passage of the ova; it is called as the PEDICEL - The pedicels of all the ovarioles unite to form OVIDUCT. - The right and left oviduct join to form the VAGINA, which opens in the genital chamber.2. SPERMATHECAE : - Pair of unequal sized spermathecae in the 6th segment - The left one stores sperms during copulation The right one is non-functional . - They open in the genital chamber by a common duct.3.GONAPOPHYSES : - 3 pairs of chitinous plate like structures present around the genital aperature. - Posterior 2 chambers are as ovipositors,which carry the eggs to the oothecal chamber. dr. aarif
  47. 47. PROCESS OF REPRODUCTION:- Sperms are transferred through spermatophores.- Their fertilized eggs are encased in capsules called oothecae.- Within the oothecae development takes a month to complete and after that the young ones , the nymph emerges from the oothecae- The cuticle is cast off periodically called as ECDYSIS or MOULTING.- These oothecae are dropped or glued to a suitable surface, usually in a crack or creviceof high relative humidity near a food source.- On an average, females produce 9-10 oothecae, each containing 14-16 eggs.- The development of P. Americana is paurometabolous, meaning there is developmentthrough nymphal stage.- The nymphs look very much like adults.- The nymph grows by moulting about 13 times to reach adult form.- The next to last stage has wing pads but only adults have wings. dr. aarif
  48. 48. EXCRETORY SYSTEMExcretion is carried out mainly by Malpighian tubules, body fat and nephrocytes1. MALPIGHIAN TUBULES : - Fine unbranched, blind tubules attatched at thejunction of midgut and hindgut. - The blind end is freely floating in the haemolymph The proximal end opens in the anterior end ofhindgut - They absorb the N2 waste, which get converted touric acid2. BODY FAT : - The fat cells extract the excretory products from the blood3. NEPHROCYTES : - Large , bi nucleated cells found attached to the dorsal diaphragm dr. aarif
  49. 49. dr. aarif