Cardiac & Saponin Glycoside


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Digitalis, Strophanthus, Squill, Nerium, Oleander, Aspargus, Quillaia, Dioscorea,

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Cardiac & Saponin Glycoside

  1. 1. STEROIDAL OR CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE 1. Action includes both beneficial and toxic effects on heart 2. Used since 1500 BC for arrow poisoning, emetics, diuretics and heart tonics. 3. In modern treatment of CCF, atrial fibrillation & flutter 4. M/a: by affecting the availability of intracellular Ca+2 for myocardial contraction or increasing the sensitivity of myocardial contractile proteins. 5. Steroid glycosides are invariably employed in the therapeutic domain primarily for two vital reasons, namely: (a) to enhance the tone, excitability and above all the contractibility of the cardiac muscle; and (b) to increase the diuretic action, due principally to the enhanced renal circulation (an inherent secondary action). 6. Composed of 2 structures: sugar(glycone) & the non- sugar(aglycone-steroid) moieties Aglycone Moiety: 1. Steroid nucleus has –OH grp at 3- & 14- position of which the sugar attachment uses the 3-OH grp. 2. 14-OH is normally unsubstituted 3. Many genins have –OH grp at 12- & 16- positions. 4. Additional –OH grp influence the partitioning of the cardiacINTRODUCTION glycoside into the aqueous media and affect duration of action. 5. Lactone moiety at C-17 position is an important structural feature. 6. Size and degree of unsaturation varies with source of glycoside. 7. Normally plant 5 membered unsaturated lactone while animal 6 membered. Glycone Moiety: 1. 1 to 4 sugars are found to be attached to the 3b-OH grp. 2. Sugar includes: L-rhamnose, D-glucose,D-digitoxose, D- digitalose,D-digginose,D-sarmentose, L-vallarose and D- fructose. 3. Presence of –CH3CO grp on sugar affects the lippphilic character and kinetics of entire glycoside. Cardenolide Bufadienolides Unsaturated butyrolactone Pyrone ring ring Lactone has single double 2 double bond attached at bond & attached at C-17 of 17^a position steroidal nucleus
  2. 2. 5 membered lactone ring & 6 membered lactone ring & form a C23 steroid form a C24 steroid Found in Leguminosae, Found in Liliaceae, Cruciferae, Euphorbiaceae Ranunculaceae family family e.g. Digitalis e.g. Squill 1 DIGITALIS (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Source Dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea Linn Family Scrophulariaceae Syn. Purple foxglove, Lady’s glove, Finger flower Histroy The word purpurea has been derived from the purple colour of flowers Image England, Germany, France, North America, India, Iraq, Japan, Mexico, G.S. Spain, Turkey 1. Biennial herb (a plant which blooms in its second year and then dies) 2. Good quality of drug is obtained especially from cultivated plant. 3. Flourish best in well drained loose soil preferably of siliceous origin with some slight shade 4. Plant growing in sunny situation possesses the active qualities of herb compare to shade by trees. 5. Best grown when allowed to seed itselfCultivation 6. Seeds should be mixed with fine sand in order to ensure even distribution. 7. Before sowing soil is sterilized. 8. Sown in spring, the plant is not blossom till the following year. 9. In dry season, sufficient water is supplied. 10. In 1st yr, long stalk with rosette of leaves is produced. 11. True plant shows dull pink or magenta not pale colored or spotted externally. 1. September to November by handCollection 2. Organic matter and discolored leaves are avoided.
  3. 3. 3. After collection, leaves should be dried as soon as possible at 60°C. 4. By quick drying, green color of leaves is maintained. 5. Drying is carried out till moisture is NMT 5%. 6. Packed under-pressure in airtight container. Color Dark grayish green Odour odourless Taste bitter Shape Ovate lanceolate to broadly ovate Size 10-30 cm long, 4-10 cm wideMorphology Margin Crenate or dentate Apex Sub acute Base decurrent Upper surface Hairy, slightly pubescent, dark green and little wrinkled Lower surface Hairy, grayish green, very pubescentMicroscopy 1. Dorsiventral leaf 2. Plenty of simple covering & glandular trichome on both surfaces 3. Covering trichome: uniseriate, 3-4 celled long, collapsed cells, acute apex & finely warty cuticle. 4. Glandular trichome: short unicellular stalk, bicellular or rarely unicellular head 5. Anomocytic(ranunculaceous) stomata 6. Trichome-stomata more in lower surface 7. Pericycle: parenchymatous above & collechymatous below 8. Calcium oxalate crystal absent Chemical 1. 0.2-0.45% primary & secondary glycosides
  4. 4. Constituents 2. Primary: Purpurea glycoside A&B, glucogitoloxin 3. Purpurea Glycoside A (Fresh leaves) digipuridase enzyme hydrolysis Digitoxin + Glucose 4. Purpurea Glycoside B (Fresh leaves) digipuridase enzyme hydrolysis Gitoxin + Glucose 5. Digitoxin on hydrolysis Digitoxigenin + 3 Digitoxose 6. Gitoxin on hydrolysis Gitoxigenin + 3 Digitoxose 7. Verodoxin on hydrolysis Gitaloxigenin + Digitalose 8. Verodoxin found to potentiate activity of digitoxin by synergism 9. Digitoxose, Digitalose-Cardiac glycoside 10. Saponin- digitonin, tigonin, gitonin, luteolin (a flavones responsible for color of drug and present in leaves) 1. Baljet Test: thick section of leaf + Sodium picrate Yellow to orange color Legal Test:Glycoside (dissolved in pyridine) + Sodium nitroprusside (toChemical Test make alkaline) Pink to red color 2. Keller-killiani Test: isolate glycoside(dissolved in glacial acetic acid) + FeCl3 + H2SO4 reddish brown color between two liquids and upper layer becomes bluish green
  5. 5. Heart complaints, internal heamorrhage, inflammatory disease, epilepsy, acute mania Uses Note: it has cumulative effect in the body so the dose has to be decided very carefully. Market Lanoxin tablets (Glaxo Smith Kline)preparation 1. Verbascum thapus: Mullelin leaves, covered with large woolly branched candelabra trichomesAdulterants 2. Primula vulgaris: long 8-9 celled covering trichomes 3. Symphytum officinale: comfrey leaves, multicellular trichome forming hook at the top 1.1 DIGITALIS LANATA (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Source Dried leaves of Digitalis lanata Family Scrophulariaceae Syn. Grecian foxglove Gain much importance in recent years because of the less cumulative History effect ad 3-4 times greater activity than D.purpurea
  6. 6. Image G.S. Central & southern Europe, England, California, India 1. Biennial herb (a plant which blooms in its second year and then dies) of 0.3-0.6 m 2. Perrenial herb (perennial (Latin per, "through", annus, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years) 3. Light(sandy), medium loamy and heavy clay soilCultivation 4. Prefers acid-alkaline-neutral soil 5. Can grow in semi-shade or no shade. 6. Dry or moist soil 7. Propagated by seeds 8. Seeds are sown in early spring in a cold frame 9. Germination in 2-4 weeks at 20° C 1. Large enough to handle, seedlings are transplanted into individual Collection pots and planted them out in summer Shape Sessile, linear lanceolate Size 30 cm long, 4 cm wideMorphology Margin entire Apex acuminate 10-14 celled non glandular trichomes 1. Lanatoside A,B,C,E Chemical 2. Lanatoside A & B: acetyl derivative of purpurea glycoside A & BConstituents 3. Lanatoside C hydrolysis Digoxin
  7. 7. Same like D. purpurea Commercial source of Digoxin Uses Auricular fibrillation, CCF(supervised application) (S/e: nausea, vomiting, slow pulse, visual disturbance, anorexia & fainting 2 STROPHANTHUS (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus kombe deprived of their awns Source (an awn is either a hair- or bristle-like appendage on a larger structure) Family Apocynaceae Syn. Kombe seeds, Strophanti semina Image East Africa, near lakes of Nyasaland and Tanganyika, Portugese, G.S. Cameroon -Strophanthus = Strophos ( twisted cord or rope) + anthos ( a flower) History Tribals are using this plant as Arrow poison (frog type animal) 8-10% Cardiac glycoside: k-strophanthin (cymarin + k-strophanthin P + k- Chemical strophanthoside, On hydrolysis strophanthidin, cymarose-methoxyConstituents digitoxose (sugar) Mucilage, resin, fixed oil, choline, trigonellin, kombic acid (an acid saponin)Chemical Test -Baljet Test: thick section of leaf + Sodium picrate Yellow to orange
  8. 8. color -Legal Test:Glycoside (dissolved in pyridine) + Sodium nitroprusside (to make alkaline) Pink to red color -Keller-killiani Test: isolate glycoside(dissolved in glacial acetic acid) + FeCl3 + H2SO4 reddish brown color between two liquids and upper layer becomes bluish green[cymarose] - seed + 80% H2SO4 green color Same as digitalis, adjuvant/ alternative of Digitalis Uses Diuretic, dropsy Note: no cumulative effect 3 SQUILL (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Dried slices of the bulb of white variety Urginea maritima Source Red variety: Urginea maritima Family Liliaceae Syn. Scillae bulbus, Urginea scilla, Drimia maritime, European Scilla Image Spain, Portugal, Morocco, Algeria, Southern France, Italy, Dalmatia, G.S. Greece, Syria White variety Cardiac glycoside: Bufadienolide: Scillaren A (2/3rd of total glycoside content, responsible for activity ) & Scillaren B Scillaren A acid hydrolysis Scillarenin + Scillabiose (Glucose + Rhamnose) Scillaren A enzyme hydrolysis Proscillaridin A + Glucose Chemical Glucoscillaren A: Scillarenin + Rhamnose + Glucose + GlucoseConstituents Proscillaridin A acid hydrolysis Scillarenin A + Rhamnose Xanthoscillide, flavonoids, mucilage, Calcium oxalate, sinistrin (carbohydrate similar to inulin), volatile substances (causing irritation) Red variety Anthocyanin (red color), Scilliroside (glycoside which is toxic to rat) White & Red variety is chemical races.
  9. 9. -NOT POSITIVE Baljet Test & Legal Test: Liberman’s sterol Test: Squill glycoside Squill mesophyll region: mucilage, calcium oxalate and yellow coloring matter xanthoscillide is present. Mucilage not pink color with ruthenium red but stains red with corallin soda & pale yellow with iodineChemical Test Due to mucilage, it is very much susceptible for moisture & with moisture it forms clumpy mass. Moisture hydrolyses glycoside content aglycone become less active Calcium oxalate, as a bundle of long acicular crystal, which easily penetrate skin when bulbs are handled, cause intense irritation, sometimes eruptions Stimulating, expectorant, diuretic property, cardiac tonic, same like Uses digitalis (but more irritating to GI mucus membrane), chronic bronchitis, catarrhal affection, asthma 3.1 INDIAN SQUILL (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Source Dried slices of the bulb of Urginea indica Family Liliaceae Syn. Sea onion, jungali pyaj Image G.S. Westernal Himalaya, Konkan, Coramandal coast, Bihar Chemical Cardiac glycoside similar to European squill, Mucilage in mesophyll cellConstituents Mesophyll Colarin solution red.Chemical Test Mucilage reddish purple with iodine water while European squill does not
  10. 10. Cardiotonic, Expectorant, Stimulant, Diuretic, Cathartic, Bronchodilator & Uses anti cancer 4 NERIUM (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Source Dried seeds and leaves of Nerium indicum Family Apocynaceae Syn. Indian Oleander, Kaner, Image G.S. USA, India, West indies Chemical Cardiac Glycoside: Oleandrine, Gitoxigenin, Neridiginosideadynerigenin,Constituents Terpenoids, Sterols, Tannins, Essential oils Leaves-cutaneous eruptions, Root paste-Haemorrhoides and ulceration Uses Glycoside—paralysing action on heart, stimulating action on spinal cord 5 THEVETIA (CARDIAC GLYCOSIDE) Source Dried seeds of Thevetia nerifolia (Thevetia peruviana) Family Apocynaceae Syn. Yellow Oleander, Lucky nut tree, Trumphet flower Image G.S. Mexico, America, India Kernel-cardioactive glycoside:Thevetia A, Thevetia B (Cerebroside), Chemical peruvoside, Nerrifolin, Thevenenin(ruvoside), peruvosidic acid (perusitin)Constituents Sugar: L-thevetose, D-Glucose Entire plant :Poisonous , seeds most toxic, Ticture: Cathartic, febrifuge, Emetic; Root paste: tumours; Seeds: treatment of rheumatism, dropsy, Uses abortifacient & purgative SAPONIN GLYCOSIDE
  11. 11. 1. Referred to as “Natural detergent” because of their foamy texture 2. Name derive from soapwort plant (saponaria), the root of which was used historically as a Soap(Latin sapo-soap) 3. Tendency to froth formation when shaken with water 4. Hemolytic, sneezing effect, toxicity, complex formation with cholesterol & antibiotic properties. 5. Consists of polycyclic aglycone that is either a choline steroid or triterpenoid attached via C3 and ether bond to sugar side chain. 6. The aglycone is referred to as the sapogenin and steroid saponins are called sarsaponins. 7. The ability of saponin to foam is caused by the combination of the non polar sapogenin and the water soluble side chain. 8. Bitter and reduce the palatability of livestock feeds. 9. If triterpenoid aglycone, taste as glucuronic acid replaces sugar in triterpenoid. 10. For example, saponins found in oats and spinach increase and accelerate the body’s ability to absorb Calcium and Silicon, thus assisting digestion. 11. Composed of Steroidal (C-27) or Triterpenoid (C-30) saponin nucleus with one more carbohydrate branches. Chemical Properties: 1. Rarely crystalline & generally amorphous powder with high MWINTRODUCTION 2. Soluble in water and form colloidal solutions 3. Soluble in ethyl & methyl alcohol 4. Insoluble in organic solvents like petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone etc. 5. Bitter in taste 6. Non-alkaline in nature 7. Produce sneezing and have property of lowering surface tension 8. Hydrolysed by acids, alkalies to yield aglycone called sapogenin Physiological Properties: 1. Extremely toxic to fishes but not poisonous to man when taken orally 2. Very dilute solution of saponins hemolyses RBC (hemolysis takes place due to the formation of complex with the cholesterol or erythrocyte membrane causing its destruction (chief property of saponin, very rarely shown by any other plant product. 3. Accelerate the germination and growth of the seeds. 4. Shows fungicidal, antifertility, molluscidal, blood purifying, abortifacient, anthelmintic, sedative & antispasmodic effects. Occurrence: 1. In whole, 75% of the families showed the presence of saponins 2. Function in the plant is as storage in form of carbohydrate and acts as immune system.
  12. 12. 3. Also found in animals: Snake venom, starfish, sea cucumber TETRACYCLIC TRITERPENOID SAPONIN OR STEROIDAL SAPONINS 1. Used as the raw material for synthesis of Vitamin D, Cardiac glycoside, Corticoids like betamethasone, cortisone acetate, sex hormone & contraceptives. 2. Steroidal sapogenin viz. Diosgenin & HecogeninINTRODUCTION 3. Distribution in dicot families like Leguminosae, Apocynacea & Solanaceae 4. Distribution in monocot families like Liliaceae, Dioscoriadaceae & Amyryllidaceae 6 DIOSCOREA (STEROIDAL SAPONIN) Dried tubers of Dioscorea deltoidea, D. composita & other species of Source Dioscorea Family Dioscoreaceae Syn. Yam, Rheumatism root Image G.S. North western Himalaya, USA, Mexico Non-edible as very bitter. Rhizome: 75% starch & phenol; Roots: Diosgenin (4-6%) steroidal sapogenin, glycoside: smilagenin, epismilagenin, B-isomer of yammogenin, Enzyme: sapogenase; Diosgenin is hydrolytic product of saponin dioscin. ChemicalConstituents Source of diosgenin (in manufacturing progesterone, steroidal drugs, Uses contraceptive ) & in treatment of arthritis
  13. 13. 7 ASPARGUS-SHATAVARI (STEROIDAL SAPONIN) Source Dried tuberous roots of Aspargus racemosus Family Liliaceae Syn. Shatavari, Satmuli Image Tropical Africa, Java, Australia, India, Sri Lanka and southern parts of China. G.S. In India it is found in plains to 4,000 ft high, in tropical, sub-tropical dry and deciduous forests and in the Himalayas. -under-shrub, climbs up to 1-3 m high, with stout and creeping root stock. -The root occurs in clusters or fascicle at the base of the stem with succulent and tuberous rootlets. -The stem is scandent, woody, triquetrous, striate, terete and climbing. -The young stem is delicate, brittle and smooth. -The spines are long, sub-recurved or straight. -Cladodes are in tufts of 2-6 in a node, slender, finely acuminate, falcateMorphology divaricate. [A flattened leaflike stem] -The flowers, solitary or fascicles, simple or branched racemes of 3 cm long. -The pedicel is slender and jointed in the middle. -Perianth lobes white, fragrant and 3 mm in length. -The anthers minute and purple. -The berry globular or obscurely 3 lobbed, purple-reddish, seeds hard with brittle testa.
  14. 14. Microscopy Shatavarin I-IV (0.1-0.2%) Aglycone: Sarsapogenin Shatavarin-I: 3 Glucose + 1 Rhamnose Shatavarin-IV: 2 Glucose + 1 Rhamnose Β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, spirostanolic acid, Furostanolic saponins, 4,6- hydroxy-2-O-(2’-hydroxyl-isobutyl) benzaldehyde, Undecanyl cetanoate, Chemical polycyclic alkaloid asparagamine A.Constituents Oleaginous, cooling, antispasmodic, indigestible, appetizer, alliterative, stomach, tonic, aphrodisiac, galactagogue, astringent, antidiarrhoeatic, Uses antidysenteric, laxative properties and is useful in tumors, Unflammations, diseases of blood and eye, throat complaints, tuberculosis, leprosy, epilepsy, night blindness and kidney troubles Market Menosan, Diabecon (Himalaya)preparation Mahanarayn tel (Baidynath) 8 AGAVE STEROIDAL SAPONIN Source Dried leaves of Agave sisalana Family Agavaceae Syn. Sisal, sisal fiber
  15. 15. Image G.S. Sub tropical America & Kenya Agave (derived from greek word, agavos = noble) History Sisal (place on the coast of Yucatan) Chemical Juice & pulp from the leaves: Hecogenin, Smilagenin, TigogeninConstituents -Source of hecogenin & manufacturing of corticosteroids -demulcent, laxative, gastric ailments, liver disease, infection & Uses inflammation [Note: contact may cause allergy, irritation & swelling of tissue] 9 FENUGREEK STEROIDAL SAPONIN Source Dried seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Family Leguminosae (Fabaceae) Syn. Methi, Greek Hay, Medhika G.S. India, Europe, US, Africa Image Steroidal saponin: Diosgenin & Trigofoenoside A,B,C,D,E,F,G Chemical Trigonelloside C, yamogenin tetrosid B & C, coumarin derivative &Constituents mucilage, Trigonellin-alkaloid Anticholesterolemic, Anti-inflammatory, antitumour, carminative, Uses expectorant, febrifuge, galactogogue, laxative, parasiticide, uterine tonic -Externally: boils, ulcer, burn Market Dabur vatika anti-dandruff shampoo (dabur)Preparation Ayurslim (Himalaya) 10 SMILAX (STEROIDAL SAPONIN) Dried roots & sometimes rhizomes of species of Smilax Source Mexican (S. aristolochiaefolia), Honduras (S.regelii), Peruvianr
  16. 16. (S.febrifuga), India (S.zeylanica), China (S.china) Family Liliaceae (Modern: Smilacaceae) Syn. Sarsaparilla Image G.S. Central & south America, China, India Sarsaparilla = Zarza (thorny shrub) + Parilla (grape vine) History Thorny stem of the plant Steroidal Saponin: Smilagenin, Sarsapogenin (differ in configuration at C- 25) Chemical -reduced form of Diosgenin & yamogeninConstituents -parillin (sarsaponin + sarsasaponoside) hydrolysis sarsapogenin + 3 glucose + rhamnose -syphilis, rheumatism, skin diseases, psoriasis, eczema Uses -vehicle in non-alcoholic drink -genin-partial synthesis of cortisone & other steroids PENTACYCLIC TRITERPENOID SAPONINS
  17. 17. 1. The group contains the sapogenins with pentacyclic triterpenoids nucleus which is linked with sugars and uronic acids. The sapogenins are furthered divided in to α-amyrin, β-amyrin & Lupeol. 2. Important derivative of this group is triterpenoid acid formed via substitution of carboxylic acid group at C4, C17 & C20 positions.INTRODUCTION 11 LIQUORICE (SAPONIN GLYCOSIDE) Dried peeled or unpeeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra & GlycyrrhizaSource speciesFamily Leguminosae Syn. Radix Glycyrrhizae, Sweet licorice, Mulethi,Jethimadh The word Glycyrrhiza has been derived from the Greek origin that means sweetHistory root; and glabra means smooth and usually refers to the smooth, pod-like fruit of this particular species.Image
  18. 18. G.S. China, Europe, Iraq, India, Japan, Spain, Turkey, US -Deep well cultivated fertile moistened retentive soil for good root production -prefers a sandy soil with abundant moisture and does not flourish in clay. -slightly alkaline condition gives best productionCultivation -thrives in maritime climate -propagated using seeds and roots -seeds are presoaked for 24 h in warm water and then sown in spring or autumn in a green house -The roots are usually harvested after 3 to 4 years from its plantation when they mostly display enough growth. -The rhizomes and roots are normally harvested in the month of October, particularly from all such plants that have not yet borne the fruits, thereby ascertaining maximum sweetness of the sap. -The rootlets and buds are removed manually and the drug is washed withCollection & running water.Preparation -The drug is first dried under the sun and subsequently under the shade till it loses almost 50% of its initial weight. -The large thick roots of the Russian Liquorice are usually peeled before drying. - It is an usual practice in Turkey, Spain and Israel to extract a substantial quantity of the drug with water, the resulting liquid is filtered and evaporated under vacuo and the concentrated extract is molded either into sticks or other suitable forms. Color Unpeeled Liquorice-Externally, yellowish brown or dark brown; and internally, yellowish colour Odour Faint and characteristicMorphology Shape Unpeeled drug—Straight and nearly cylindrical Peeled drug— Mostly angular Size Length 20 to 50 cm; Diameter 2 cm
  19. 19. Taste Sweet Fracture Fibrous in bark; and splintery in the woodMicroscopy -Glycyrrhizin (6-8%) is found to be 50 times as sweet as sugar. - Glycyrrhizin upon hydrolysis loses its sweet taste and gives rise to the aglycone glycyrrhetinic acid (glycyrrhetic acid) together with two moles of glucuronic acid. -Color of drug is due to Chalcone glycoside-isoliquiritin -A host of other chemical constituents essentially include are namely: coumarin derivatives e.g., umbelliferone and herniarin; flavonoid glycoside e.g., liquiritoside; isoliquiritoside, liquiritin; isoliquiritin, rhanoliquiritin, and rhamnoisoliquiritin; Usparagines; 22-33-dihyrostigmasterol; glucose; mannitol and about 20% of starch. Interestingly, carbenoxolone, which is an oleandane Chemical derivativeConstituents Chemical Section/Powder + 80% H2SO4 orange yellow color Test (transformation of flavones glycoside liquiritin to chalcone glycoside isoliquiritin -demulscent and expectorant; -as a masking agent for bitter drugs in pharmaceutical formulations, such as: Uses quinine, aloe, ammonium chloride etc. -Ammoniated glycyrrhiza: as a flavouring agent in beverages, pharmaceuticals
  20. 20. and confectionary. - The inherent surfectant activity due to the presence of saponins helps to facilitate the absorption of poorly absorbed drugs, for instance: anthraquinone glycosides. -It is invariably added to beer to form stable and enhanced foaminess. -It imparts a distinct and characteristic bitter tastte to a number of beverages, such as: stout, root beer and porter. -The presence of glycyrrhetinic acid exert mineralocorticoid activity and hence it is used in the treatment of inflamations, rhematoid arthritis and Addison’s disease. - liquid extract: as a foam stabilizer in the foam type-fire-extinguisher & in the treatment of peptic ulcer. - In Europe the glycyrrhetic acid: in dermatological formulations; anti- iinflammatory properties. 1. Glycyrrhiza uralansis, also known as Manchurian Liquorice, which is paleSubstitutes chocholate brown in appearance having wavy medullary rays and & exfoliated cork ThisAdulterants 2. Russian Liquorice is also used as an adulterant, because the drug is purplish in appreance, has long roots but having no stolons. 12 QUILLAIA (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Source Dried inner bark of Quillaia saponaria and other species of Quillaia Family Rosaceae Syn. Soap bark, Panama wood, China bark, Cortex quillaiae Image G.S. South America i.e., Peru and Chile. It is also cultivated in Northern India. The generic name is derived from the Chilean word quillean= to wash, from the History use made of the bark -Saponin (10%), quillaic acid, Calcium oxalate, starch, sucrose, tannin Chemical -Quillaia saponin on hydrolysis pentacyclic triterpenoid, quillaic acid (quillaiaConstituents sapogenin), a sugar glucuronic acid & gypsogenin
  21. 21. 1. Powdered drug + water shaking produce soap like froth which Chemical persists for some time. Test 2. Drug + blood drop hemolytic zone formation -emulsifying agent, for coal tar emulsion, cleansing industrial equipments, washing delicate fabrics, to prepare tooth powder-tooth paste, hair shampoo, hair tonic, tar solution & metal polishes. -added in topical preparation for skin disorders and as a protective agents for Uses cracks, bruises, frostbite and insect bites. [Drug is highly irritating & causing nausea-and expectorant on internal consumption.] -Diuretic & cutaneous stimulant 13 GINSENG (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Dried roots of Panax ginseng (Korea) and other species of Panax Source P. japonicas (Japan), P. pseudoginseng (Himalaya), P. quinquefolius (American), P. trifolius (Dwarf), P. vietnamensis (Vietnamese), P. notoginseng (Chinese) Family Araliaceae Syn. Ninjin, Pannag, Energofit Image G.S. Korea, China, Russia now cultivated in Japan, Canada & US The term panax (derived from greek) panaceae = cure all History The term ginseng (derived from chinese) shen sang = man root Shape of human body - Ginsenosides, Panaxosides and Chikusetsu Saponins. Chemical - Ginsenoside consists of aglycone dammarolConstituents - Panaxoside have aglycone as oleanolic acid
  22. 22. - Starch, Gum, Resin, volatile oil, flavonoids, sesqui terpenoids -important immunomodulatory drug, increase natural resistance and overcome illness -both stimulant & sedative property Uses -aphordiasic & adrenal & thyroid disfuntioning -blood sugar, anaemia, gastritis etc [toxic on prolonged usage 14 BACOPA (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Source Fresh leaves and stem of Bacopa monnieri (Herpestis monnieri) Family Scrophulariaceae Syn. Jalbrahmi, Neerbrahmi Image G.S. Throughout India in wet, damp & marshy places up to 1200 m elevation -saponin glycosides known as bacoside A and bacoside B -on acid hydrolysis triterpenoid aglycone bacogenin A and bacogenin B - asiatic acid and brahmic acid ChemicalConstituents
  23. 23. - treatment of insanity and epilepsy, asthma Uses - potent nervetonic, cardiotonic and diuretic - mild laxative. 15 HYDROCOTYL (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Source dried aerial parts of Centella asiatica (Hydrocotyl asiatica) Family Umbelliferae Syn. Indian pennywort, Mangosteen,Mandukparni Image G.S. India, Pakistan, Srilanka, Madagaskar -tri terpenoid saponin glycoside in form of α-amyrin derivative: asiaticoside,madecassoside - Asiaticoside hydrolysis asiatic acid + 2 glucose + rhamnose -Madecassoside hydrolysis madecassic acid + 2 glucose + rhamnose Chennai & Lucknow variety Brahmoside, Brahminoside hydrolysis brahmic acid & iso brahmic acid , arabinose, glucose, rhamnose ChemicalConstituents -nervine tonic, spasmolytic, anti anxiety, anti-stress, sedative Uses -skin diseases, leprosy, syphilis Market -Iqmen (Lupin)preparation -Abana, Menosan (Himalaya) 16 ACACIA CONCINNA (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Source Dried seed of Acacia concinna Family Mimosaceae (Touch me not) Syn. Shikakai, Soap Pod
  24. 24. Image G.S. India -hydrolysis lupeol, spinasterol, acacic acid, lactone -sugar: glucose, arabinose and rhamnose. Chemical -hexacosanol, spinasterone, oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, succinic acid,Constituents ascorbic acid -alkaloids calyctomine and nicotine. -"fruit for the hair" as it has a naturally mild pH, that gently cleans the hair without stripping it of natural oils. - control dandruff, promoting hair growth and strengthening hair roots. Uses - leaves are used in malarial fever, -decoction of the pods are used to relieve biliousness and acts as a purgative. - An ointment, prepared from the ground pods, is good for skin diseases. 17 SAPINDUS (TRI TERPENOID SAPONIN) Source Dried fruits of Sapindus saponaria Family Sapindaceae Syn. Indian soap plant, Reetha Image G.S. Brazil, India-Himalaya to Assam Chemical Hederagenin-aglycone, saponin, cyano genetic glycoside, cyclitols (shikimic acid),Constituents Oleic acid Uses In shampoo manufacturing, purgative, anthelmintic, anti spasmodic