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glycosides
Organic natural compounds present in a lot of plants and
some animals, these compounds upon hydrolysis give one
or more sugars (glycone) moieties and non sugar
(aglycone) moietyd
Glycoside=sugar group+ nonsugar group
(glycone) (aglycone or genin)
Glycone and aglycone are linked by glycosidic linkage
defination
Glycosidic linkage is formed between –
OH group of sugar and –H group of non
sugar moieties OR other sugar with loss
of water molecule glycoside bond
glycoside=glycone{---o---}aglycon
Sugar in glycosides is mostly beta-D glucose but other
sugars like galactose, mannose, rhamnose, digitoxose can
present.
Glycosides can be alpha or beta but plants contains only
beta glycosides
therapeutic effect of glycosides is only due to aglycon part
only and suger moiety facilitate absorption of glycoside,
transportation of aglycone to site of action .
so glycosides are hydrolysed to give aglycon part for action
Glycosides have therapeutic
effect in human and animals as
they are used in traditional and
modern medicines as cardio
tonic, purgative, analgesic, anti-
rheumatic, demulcent ,and many
other uses.
Classification
1-classification based on type of aglycone in
glycoside
Anthraquinone or anthracene glycoside
Sterols or cardiac glycoside
Saponin glycoside
Cyanogenic glycoside
Isothiocynate glycoside
Coumarins and furanocoumarins
Aldehyde glycoside
phenol glycoside
Steroidal
Miscellaneous glycosides
2-classification based on type of sugar (glycone) part
glucose- glucoside
Rhamnose –rhamnoside
Digitoxose-digitoxoside
Glucose and rhamnose-glucorhamnoside
Rhamnose and glucose-rhamnoglucoside
3-classification based on type of linkage between glycone
and aglycone
Linkage between –OH group of glycone and –H group of RADICALS
LIKE –CH,-OH,-SH,-NH of aglycone. glycoside is named by perfix like
C-glycoside,-sugar linked to carbon atom of aglycone
N-glycoside,- sugar linked to nitrogen atom of aglycone
O-glycoside,- sugar linked to oxygen atom of aglycone
S- glycoside- sugar linked to sulfur atom of aglycone
4-classification based on there use
Cathartics, cardio tonics, analgesics, anti-rheumatics, anti-
ulcer etc
Physical & chemical properties
Colorless, solid, amorphous, nonvolatile
(flavonoid- yellow, anthraquinone-red or
orange.)
Give positive reaction with Molisch's and
Fehling's solution test (after hydrolysis).
They are water soluble compounds, insoluble
in organic solvents
Most of them have bitter taste
(except: populin, glycyrrhizin, stevioside)
Odorless except saponin
(glycyrrhizin).
 when a glycosides has a lot of sugars
its solubility in water decrease.
Glycosides hydrolyzed by using
mineral acids and temperature or by
using enzymes
General extraction method of glycosides
Sta-otto method
The drug containing glycoside is finely powdered
and subjected to successive extraction in a soxhlet
apparatus with alcohol or suitable solvent.
 first take drug containing glycoside, finely
powdered that, and it is extracted with alcohol or
water by using soxhlet apparatus.
 After extraction, collect the extract and treat with
lead acetate to precipitate tannins
after that filter it and to the filtrate pass H2S
gas, to precipitated excess of lead acetate and
convert it to ppt of lead sulphide as this is toxic.
 Now the extract again filter.
The filtrate is subjected to fractional
crystallization, distillation or chromatography
gives pure component
And molecular structure of component is
determined by the spectrophotometer, Ultra
Red assays, Infra red , NMR and mass
spectroscopy etc.
Saponins glycosides
They contain aglycon part sapogenin.
harmful safogenins are called sapotoxins.
This aglycone part have foaming action when shaked with
water and yields colloidal solution.
They are considerd as haemotoxic because they causes
haemolysis of erythrocytes, hence some of them used as
fish poisons
Saponins are categorized in to two groups
1-steroidal saponins(tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins)
2-pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins
Chemical tests for saponin glycosides
Haemolysis test-a drop of blood on slide was mixed
with few drops of aq. Saponin solution,RBCs becomes
ruptured in presence of saponins
Foam test- to 1gm of drug add 10-20 ml of water,
shake for few min, formation of froth which persist for
60-120 seconds
Liquorice roots
Liquorice roots
Synonyms
Glycyrrhiza, mulethi, yasti, marathi- jestha madhu
Biological source-
It consist dried ,unpeeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza
glabra linn
Family –leguminosae
It should contain not less than 3% of glycyrrhinic acid.
Geographical source
Commercially cultivated in Spain, Sicily and England
Varieties of glycyrrhiza glabra
G.Glabra var. typica ( spanish liquorice)
G.Glabra var. glandulifera (russian liquorice)
G.Glabra var. violacea ( persian liquorice)
Cultivation and collection
Propogation of plant is done by using pieces of stolons.
each piece should have 2-3 buds of aerial shoot.
Plant grow well in deep sandy soil with manures or fertilizers.
pieces of stolon planted in march at 2*3 distance.
Crop is kept free from weeds.
Roots harvested after 3-5 years of planting,they are obtained from
plants by dugging befor fruiting.
Drug is washed with water.
Large pices are cut in small one and dried under sun and then in shade
Macroscopic charecters
Colour- unpeeled drug yellowish brown or dark
brown externally and yellowish internally
Odour- faint and characteristic
Taste- sweet
size- length 20 to 50 cm, diameter 2cm
Shape- unpeeled pieces are straight
Fracture- fibrous in bark and splintery ( small, thin,
sharp piece of wood) in wood
Extra feature- unpeeled pieces show presence of
small buds and longitudinal wrinkles
Microscopic characteristics
Cork cells- polyhedral tubular brownish colour
thick, lignified, partially lignified fibers in phloem
and xylem
Starch and cal oxalate crystals present in
parenchyma
Stolon contains pith while root do not contain pith
Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular
plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma
cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout
the plant
Chemical constituents
Main constituent is glycyrrhizin( glycyrrhizic acid) glycoside
on hydrolysis it yields glycyrrhetinic acid(triterpenoide)
other constituents are sucrose, glycyramarin(bitter principle), resins,
fat, asparagin
it contain flavonoids like liquiritin and isoliquiritin
Chemical test
Thick section of drug or powder+ 80% sulphuric acid=yellow
colour
Uses
Expectorent,
demulcent(agent that forms a soothing film over a
mucous membrane, relieving minor pain and
inflammation) ,
falvouring agent,
anti- inflammatory,
rheumatide arthritis,
due to flavonoid content with antigastric ulcer effect
it is used in peptic ulcer, antispasmodic
it is ingredient of liquorice compound powder which
is potentiate the effect of senna
Adulterants and substitutes
Manchurian liquorice ( glycyrrhiza
uralensis), it is free from sugar but contains
glycyrrhizin- pale chocklet brown colour
Russian liquorice( G glabra var
glandulifera), it have purplish colour
BRAHMI
BRAHMI
Synonym- Bacopa , Hindi: ब्राह्मी
B S-it consist of fresh leaves and stems of plant
Bacopa moniera linn
family -Scrophulariaceae
It should contain not less than 2.5% of bacoside A on
dried basis
Geographical source-
It found throught india in wet , damp place
native to the wetlands of southern India,
Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and
South America
herb used in Ayurveda, where it is also known
as "Brahmi," after Brahmā, the creator God of
the Hindu pantheon.
Cultivation and collection
It can be easily grown in damp areas,
propagated by seed as well as vegetatively using
runners.
Rainy season is an appropriate time for planting of
this crop.
The whole herb is generally collected after the
rainy season in the month of October-November.
Macroscopic charecterstics
Colour- green
Tast- bitter
Size- leaves 2 cm
Shape -leaves are sessile(leaves lack a petiole and so are
attached directly to the stem) and there lower surface is
dotted, flower are bluish white in colour and 1 cm size
T.S. of Bacopa monnieri stem
(a) Vascular bundle and centrally large pith, (b) Y linked parenchyma cells, (c)
Prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate, (d) Xylem phloem
Chemical constituents
Saponin- bacoside A and B
alkaloids-brahmine, herpestine,
other- betulic acid, stigmasterol,monnierin,hersaponin
USES
nervine tonic,
asthama,
epilepsy,
insanity,
Diuretic
anticancer
DIOSCOREA
DIOSCOREA
SYNONYM- yam, rheumatism root
B.S-
it consist of dried tubers of plant Dioscorea
deltoidea,D.composita, and other species of
dioscorea.
family- dioscoreaceae
Geographical source-
North western Himalaya,Punjab to Nepal,
In China up to altitude of 1000 to 3000
meter.
it is cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir
Cultivation and collection
-Cultivated from tubers with crown of about 70-80 gm in weight.
-first sown in nursery bed.
-after 30-40 day tubers sprout.(germinate)
-after 2-3 month of growth transplanted in field at distance of 30*60cm.
-they required support for optimum growth as veins are weak and tender.
-Manures and organic fertilizers are supplied.
-Irrigation done every 10 days
-fresh tubers are harvested by deep ploughing after two years of crop.
-Dried and they loose 50% weight after drying.
Macroscopic charecterstics
Colour- slightly brown
Odour- odourless
Taste-bitter
Extra features- it is climber, rhizomes are soft,
horizontally arranged and very close to soil, drug
covered with scattered roots.
Microscopic characteristics-
Epidermis is absent in TS.
cork consist few layers.
and few layers of cortical parenchyma tissue.
stele
( primary vascular tissue in the stem or root of a vascular p
lant, consisting of the xylem and
Phloem together with supporting tissues, such as pith.) is
major part of drug consisting collateral fibro-vasculer
bundles.
endodermis and pericyle are indistinguishable.
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
75% non edible starch as it is bitter.
chief constituent is diosgenin {sugar-free (aglycone) . It is
hydrolytic product of saponin-dioscin}
other Glycosides-
smilagenin,
epismilagenin,
yammogenin
Uses
Diosgenin is steroidal sapogenin
so used as precursor for synthesis of
corticosteroids,
sex hormones,
oral contraceptive.
diosgenin used in treatment of rheumatoid
arthritis
Isolation of diosgenin
dried tubers are powdered
and dioscin is hydrolysed by mineral acids
to obtain diosgenin,
then it is extracted by non polar solvents
like benzene or solvent ether
Allied species
Dioscorea flouribunda- india,
central america -D.villosa-
USA-D,deltoidea wall var. sikkimensis prain
Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim
Cheilocostus speciosus or crêpe ginger is alternate source
of diosgenin (1.5%)
Ginseng
Ginseng
SYNONYM- ninjin, panax,pannag
B.S-
it consist of dried roots of various species of panax like
p.Ginseng(korean ginseng),
p.Japonica(japanese ginseng),
p.Notoginseng(chinese ginseng),
p.Quinquefolium(american ginseng).
family- Araliaceae
The English word ginseng derives from
the Chinese term rénshēn . Rén means "Person" and shēn means "plant
root"; this refers to the root's characteristic forked shape, which
resembles the legs of a person.
Macroscopic charecterstics
Colour-yellowish brown,white or red depending on type
Chemical constituents
It contains mixture of saponin
glycosides(triterpenoid group)
Ginsenosides,-aglycon is dammarol
panaxosides,-aglycon is oleanolic
acid,panaxadiol,panaxatriol
chikusetsusaponin
Uses
Immunomodulatory ( it increase natural
resistance and enhance power to overcome illness
or exhaustion).
Tonic and stimulant
aphrodisiac.
In old days it was used to cure giddiness and
prolong life of elderly and diabetic person.
externally used in cosmetics
Substitutes
codonopsis tangshen used by poor
people in china as substitute for costly
ginseng.
unusual climber, bearing subtle,
yellowish-green, bell-shaped flowers,
with purple markings on the inside; the
root is used in China to make a tonic.
sarsaparilla
Synonyms- smilax medica, radix sarsa,
jamaica sarsaparilla
B.S-
It consist of dried roots of Smilax Ornata
Hooker,
family-Liliaceae
Characteristica-
Word sarsaparilla derived from
-spanish sana means bramble(any rough, (usually wild) twisted spiny
shrub )
-and parilla means vine(climbing or trailing woody-stemmed plant) in
allusion to the thorny stems of plant.
-It is large perennial (plant that lives for more than two years )climber
--in market drug is found as bundles consists of numerous long slender
roots of 3 mm thickness.
- shrunken and furrowed longitudinally with
few root lets.
Drug is tough and flexible difficult to break
-colur - dark red to brown
-Odour- odurless
-Taste- slight bitter
-When chewed it tinges saliva with slightly
bitter and mucilaginous followed by acrid
taste.
Chemical constituents
Saponin glycoside
hydrolysis
sarsaponin ------------ sarsapogenin + dextrose
It also contains
starch,
sarsapic acid,
fatty acids- palmitic ,stearic, behenic, oleic, linolic acids
Uses
Used in
chronic skin diseases,
rheumatism,
passive dropsy, (old term for the swelling of soft tissues due to the
accumulation of excess water.)
syphilis.(sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. )
Other species
Smilax Officinalis- native jamaican sarsaparilla
Very long roots with thick bark, grey or brown colour,
odourless, mucilaginous taste
Marketed product-
it is Ingredient of purodil capsule and syrup( amil
pharma)
solanum
B S-
It consist of dried berries of
Solanum Khasianum C B
Clarke
family
Solanaceae
Geographical source
in india found at varoius altitudes from costal region
to up to 2000m.
in hilly regions of india
central india and china.
It is commercialy cultivated in maharashtra ,Akola-
Jalgoan tract
Cultivation and collection
cultivated from seeds either through nursery bed or by direct
broadcasting
-seeds sown in nursery bed
-after sufficient growth of seedling they are transplanted in to open
fields. At 50*50 cm
-well drained soil and sunny atmosphere are preferred.
-fertilizers are given
-after six month plant are harvested for collection of berries.
-drug is dried in shade to reduce moisture content
Characterstics
berries are yellowish to greenish in colour.
Globose (globular form ) and 2.5 cm in
diameter
seeds are compressed smooth and brown in
colour
Chemical constituents
it contains steroidal glycoside solasodine (3%)
greenish yellow fixed oil
Seeds contains alkaloid
Solasodine can be converted to a group of compounds like
testosterone and methyl testosterone and corticosteroids like
predinisolone and hydrocortisone
solasodine
Uses
solasodine is precursor for steroidal synthesis
Solasodine is first converted to 16-dehydro-
pregnenolone (16 DPA) , which is then converted to a
group of compounds like testosterone and methyl
testosterone and corticosteroids like predinisolone
and hydrocortisone.
These steroidal compounds have anti-inflammatory,
anabolic and antifertility properties, sex hormones,
oral contraceptives properties.
Cardioactive sterols or cardiac glycosides
Aglycone part of cardiac glycosides is steroidal moiety, i.e 5
memberd or 6 memberd lactone rings.
Two classes exist in nature.cardenolides and bufadienolides.
Those contain five memberd lactone ring are called
cardenolides and six memberd lacton containing compounds
called bufadienolides.
cardenolide bufadienolide
Term bufadienolide is derived from
bufalin as it is obtained from skin of
toads( toad poisone)
In nature cardenolide accoure more
than bufadienolide.
Congestive heart failure is treated by
cardiac glycosides.thy act as
cardiotonic by increasing force of
systolic contraction
CHEMICAL TESTS FOR CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES
Keller-kiliani test
Alcoholic extract of drug + equal volume water and
0.5 ml strong lead acetate solution. Shake and
filtered.filtrat extracted with equal volume of
chloroform. Chloroform extract evaporated to dryness
and dried residue dissolved in 3 ml glacial acetic acid+
few drop of ferric chloride solution. this solution
transferred to test tube containing con. Sulphuric
acid. Reddish brown layer formed wich turnes bluish
green after standing due to presence of digitoxose.
Legal test
Alcoholic extract of drug + equal volume water and 0.5 ml strong lead
acetate solution. Shake and filtered. Filtrat extracted with equal volume
of chloroform. Chloroform extract evaporated to dryness and dried
residue was dissolved in 2 ml pyridine+ 2 ml sodium nitroprusside +
sodium hydroxide solution ( to make alkaline).pink colour due to
glycoside or aglycone moiety.
Baljet test
T.S of digitalis leaves + sodium picrate solution=
yellow to orange colour due to aglycone or glycoside
3,5- dinitro benzoic acid test
alcoholic solution of drug + few drops of
sodium hydroxide + 2% solution of 3,5
dinitrobenzoic acid= pink colour due to
cardiac glycosides
DIGITALIS
SYNONYMS
Digitalis leaves , foxglove leaves
B S
it consist dried leaves of Digitalis Purpurea
family
Scrophulariaceae
Should contain not more than 5% moisture,
dried below 60 0 C
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE
it is cultivated in England,
Europe,
USA ,
India
CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION
It is propagated by seeds.
it requires calcarious, acidic, sandy soil for growth.
seeds are very small in size i.e 100 seeds weigh 40 to 70 mg.
seeds are mixed with fine sand and sown in nursery beds in march/april.
young seedlings are transplanted in sep/november.
crop is manured and kept free from weeds.
In first year plant bears rosette leaves and in second year sessile leaves.
Leaves collected in second year by handpicking when 2/3 rd of flowers
are fully developed.
leaves immediately dried in vacuum driers.
dried leaves containing not more than 5% moisture are
packed in airtight containers with dehydrating agents.
Presence of moisture deteriorates glycosides. If dried above
60 0 C potency lost due to chemical degradation.
MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS
Colour- dark greyish green
odour- slight
taste- bitter
size- 10 to 40 cm long and 4 to 20 cm wide
shape- ovate- lanceolate(shape like lance head or tapering to a point at
each end) to broadly ovate( like egg)
Extra feature
Leaves are slightly pubescent on both surfaces, pinnate venation,(one
main vein extending from the base to the tip of the leaf and smaller
veins branching off the main vein.) generally leaves are broken and
crumbled.( break in small fragments)
Microscopic characters
Dorsiventral leaf.(two surfaces differing from each other in
appearance and structure,)
covering and glandular trichomes on boath surfaces.
covering trichomes are uniseriate,( arranged in single series)
3 to 4 cells long, having collapsed cells, acute apex and
warty( hard rough lump growing on) cutical.
glandular trichomes are short, unicellular stalk and bicellular
or unicellular head.
it have anomocytic stomata (irregular celled)
Starch grains are present in endodermis.
collenchyma present at upper and lower
epidermis and pericyclic ( is a cylinder of
parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells that lies just
inside the endodermis and is the outer most
part of the stele of plants.)part.
Chemical constituents
0.2 to0.45% cardenolides.
purpurea glycoside A and B,
glucogitaloxin.
Other,
odoroside H,
gitaloxin,
verodoxin,
glucoverodoxin
Saponin glycosides
digitonin,
gitonin
Hydrolysis products of purpurea glycosides
Purpurea glycoside A Purpurea glycoside B
hydrolysis hydrolysis
digitoxigenin + 3 digitoxose gitoxigenin +3 digitoxose
digitoxigenin
gitoxigenin
Uses
Congestive heart failure,( heart is unable to pump
sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body)
artrial fibrillation( common type of abnormal heartbeat. The
heart rhythm is fast and irregular in this condition.),
artrial flutter, ( abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of
the heart. When it first occurs, it is usually associated with a fast heart rate
or tachycardia (beats over 100 per minute))
supraventricular tachycardia
Adulterants
Verbascum Thapsus ( mullelin leaves)- large wooly branched candelabra(large
branched candlestick or holder for several candles) trichomes.
Primula Vulgaris (comfrey leaves)-multicellular trichomes forming hook at top.
Symphytum Officinale( primrose leaves)-uniseriate covering trichomes 8 to 9 cell long.
THEVETIA
Synonym
Oleander, lucky nut tree, trumpet flower
Hindi Name : Kaner
B S
these are dried seeds of Thevetia Peruviana.
Merrill.
Family
Apocynaceae
MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS
Colour-seeds are green to greenish black
Odour- none
taste-very bitter,produce numbness after
chewing
Shape- oblong,(elongated rectangle or oval
shape) hard
Chemical constituents
It contains three suger molecules ( triosides)
thevetin is major constituent.
theventin it is mixture of two glycosides thevetin A , and B ( trioside).
it contians L-thevetose +2 mol. D- glucose
other are monoside ( contain single suger molecule)
peruvoside, neriifolin, thevenerin, peruosidic acid
all contains L- thevetose suger
Thevetin A
Thevetin B
Thevetin A-cannogenin ( aglycone) Thevetin B-digitoxigenin(aglycone)
Uses
peruvoside used in mild cardiac insufficiency, weak
heart,
entire plant is poisonous and seeds are most
poisonous.
Seeds used as abortifacient, purgative,
rheumatism(any disease marked by inflammation and
pain in the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue),
dropsy(edema),
squill
SYNONYM
Scillae bulbus, white squill, europian squill
B.S
it consist of dried slices of the bulb of white
variety of Urginea Maritima linn
family Liliaceae
red squill have reddish brown outer scales
Morphological chrecters
Colour- scale have red or orange colour
Odour-less intense
Taste- mucilaginous, bitter, acrid
shape- sundried bulbs are pear shaped
size- size of man,s fist or larger
extra feature- bulb consist smooth juicy scales, closely
wrapped over one another.
Chemical constituents
Cardiac glycoside bufadienolide type.
scillaren A and B, glucoscillaren A, proscillaridin A,
Other
flavonoid, mucilage
scillaren A on enzymatic hydrolysis yield proscillaridin A and on acid hydrolysis yeild
scillarenin A
scillarenin A
Uses
stimulant,
expectorant,
diuretic ,
cardiac tonic,
Chronic bronchitis,
asthma,
substitute for digitalis in failing heart
strophanthus
Synonym
kombe seeds, semen strophanthi,
strophanthus seeds
B.S
it consist dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus
Kombe oliv
family
Apocynaceae
MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS
Greek strophos means twisted cord or rope, anthos means flower.
limb of corolla of flower divided in to five long tail like segments.
colour- seeds are externally light fawn(light brown) with greenish ting,
silky lustrous
odour-heavy when seeds crushed
taste- very bitter
shape- lance-ovoid flattened, obtusely edged( not pointed)
size- 7 to 20 mm length, 4mm breathy, 2mm thick
Chemical constituents
8 to 10 % cardiac glycosides known as K- strophanthin,
it is mixture of three glycosides ie.cymarin, k- strophanthin β
, k- strophanthoside, they differ in sugar part but same
aglycone part strophanthidin
Cymarin-strophanthidin+cymarose(sugar)
K-strophanthin β-strophanthidin+cymarose+ β glucose
K-strophanthoside-strophanthidin+cymarose β Glu+α glucose
kombik acid( acid saponin)
Other
mucilage,
resin,
fixed oil,
choline,
Chemical test
1 Strophanthus glycosides exhibit emerald green colour on
addition of sulphuric acid
2 Dissolve 0.1 gm strophanthin in 5 ml water + few drops of
ferric chloride solution , then 1 to 2 ml of con sulphuric acid.
It gives initial red ppt that finally turns to green in 1 to 2
hours
3 Positive baljet ,legal test, keller- kiliani test
Uses
chronic heart weakness,
its use is same like digitalis ,
diuretic
Substitutents and adulterants
adulterted with
S. hispidus,-consist k- strophanthi, colour, shape
similar to S. kombe
S.nicholsoni, -whitish seed
S.gratus,-brown colour
S. sarmentosus- brownish ting, less bitter, small size
Anthraqiunone glycosides
Anthraquinone is derivative of anthracene.( C14H10, consisting
of three fused benzene rings)
Natural anthraquinone derivative have laxative effects
These glycosides contains anthraquinone, anthrone,
anthranol, dianthranol, oxanthrone, dianthrone etc as
aglycone part.
parent molecule for all these aglycones is anthraquinone.
In reduced form anthraquinone is present as anthranol or
anthrone wich are isomeric to each other.
oxanthrone is intermediate substance from
anthraquinone to anthranol.
Bimeric form of anthrone is dianthrone.
in fresh drug these aglycones are present in
reduced form witch are biologically more
active but during drying and storage they
hydrolyzed , oxidized.
Sugar part can be glucose, rhamnose,
arabinose, primeverose etc.
anthraquinone
anthrone
oxanthrone
Chemical tests
1 borntrager,s test
To 1 gm of drug add 5-10 ml of dil HCl, boil on water
bath for 10 min and filter. Filtrate then extracted with
CCl4/ benzene and add equal amount of ammonia
solution to filtrate and shake. Ammonical layer
becomes pink or red due to presence of
anthraquinone.
2 .modified borntrager,s test
to 1 gm drug add 5 ml dil HCl + 5 ml
ferric chloride( 5%w/v). Boil on water
bath for 10 min, cool , filter. Filtrate then
extracted with CCl4/benzene and add
equal volume of ammonia solution. Pink
or red colour forms due to
anthraquinone . This test used for C- type
anthraquinone glycoside
Indian senna
Senna
Synonym
senai- ki- patti, tinnevelley senna, cassia senna
B.S
It consist of dried leaflets of Cassia Angustifolia known
as indian senna or Cassia Senna vahl
family
Leguminosae
it should contain note less than 1 % of sennoside A
and B on dried basis
GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE
inndian senna cultivated in
tinnevelley, madurai, ramnathpuram districs in
Tamilnadu
, kaddapa dist in Anthrapradesh
, Kutch in Gujarat and Rajasthan
cultivation collection and preparation
sowing is done by seed broadcasting method .
for earlier germination seed surface is triturated with sand .
seeds are sown thinly.
it required red loamy or coarse gravelly soil( high proportion of small stones).
First sowing done in feb- march.
Second sowing done in oct- november.
It required semi irrigation or light irrigation..
Once flowers are grown cutting given to flower stalk for further branching to occur.
leaves are harvested after 2-3 months of planting.
First plucking done when leaflets fully grown, second plucking after
one month of first
plucking. Last plucking done after 4-6 weeks of second.
Plant is uprooted after third plucking.
Leaflets are dried in shade for 7-10 days.
leaves are tossed( move from side to side or back and forth) to separate
pods.
Then packed in to large bundles under hydraulic pressure.
Pressing produce transverse line on Indian senna witch are absent on
Alexandrian senna leaves.
Macroscopic characteristics
colour- yellowish green
odour- slight
taste- mucilaginous, bitter and charecterstic
size- 7-8 mm width, 25-60 mm length
shape- lanceolate, apex acute with spine at
top.trichomes present on both surfaces.
Microscopic characterstics
it is isobilateral leaf.( divided into symmetrical halves )
trichomes present on both surfaces.
Trichome,s are unicellular, conical, thick walled warty,
slightly curved at base
.palisade tissue present on upper and lower surface,
they contain cluster crystals of cal oxalate
.
Pricyclic fibers present towards upper epidermis and
above xylem
Chemical constituents
sennoside A , sennoside B . they have rhein( cassic acid) dianthrone as
aglycone.
other anthraquinone
sennoside C,D,
rhein ,
kaempferol,
aloe- emodin,
isorhamnetin,
mucilase ,
resin,
myricyl alcohol,
salicylic acid,
crysophagic acid,
Cal. oxalate.
tinnevelley glucoside
USES
purgative
MOA-
anthraquinone glycosides absorbed first in
intestinal tract, then aglycone is separated and
excreted in colon. it causes irritation and
stimulation of colon, so movement( peristalsis)
of colon increases, peristalsis also reduce water
absorption hence soft and bulky faeces are
formed. due to resin and emodin content
griping occurs hence drug is given with
carminatives.
ADULTERANTS AND SUBSTITUTES
Dog senna (c. obovata)- shape of leaves is
obovate(ovate with the narrower end at the base.)
with tapering apex. Papillose( nipple-like structure)
cells in lower epidermis
Palthe senna- anthraquinone glycosides
absent.leaflets have long hairs and when boiled with
chloral hydrate solution crimson colour occurs.
bombay senna, mecca senna, arabian senna etc
have leaflets brownish green colour and more
elongated and narrower in shape.
Alexandrian senna
synonym
folia sennae alexandrina, egyptian senna, cassia
senna
B.S
it consist dried leaflets of Cassia Acutifolia delile
family
Leguminosa
Macroscopic and microscopic charecters
are same like indian senna.
colour is pale greyish green.
Base is more symmetrical, more
pubescent.
Chemical constituents and adulterants are
same like Indian senna
Aloe
Aloes
Synonym
Aloe, Hindi-musabbar, kumari. Marathi- korphad
BS
It is dried juice of leaves of Aloe Barbadensis miller known as
curacao aloe or ALoe Perryi baker known as socotrine aloes
or Aloe Ferox miller, and hybrids of this species Aloe Africana
miller and Aloe Spicatya baker known as cape aloes
family
Liliaceae
Geographical source
it is indigenous to estern and southern Africa.
Cultivated in Caribben Island,
Europe,
India
Cultivation and collection
Propagation is done from root suckers.
Root suckers planted in rows about 50 cm apart.
Plant grow in dry climate and poor grade soil.
Roots do not penetrate much in soil.
Manure is provided.
Leaves are cut first time after second year of planting and drug is obtained from
leaves for 12 years.
After 12 years plant is uprooted and new crop is taken.
during collection cut is given at base of leaves so juice located in parenchymatous cells
of pericycle exudes out.
Preparation of aloe
1 barbados or curacao aloes
it is obtained by giving cut on leaves of aloe barbadensis.
because of spines on leaves it is put in to kerosene tins immediately
after cutting .
Then kept in tilted position on V- shaped wooden troughs to drain out
juice.
juice is boil in copper pans for evaporation to obtain thick juice.
Then it is poured it to metal containers , where it hardens.
2 cape aloes
Obtained from aloe ferox and its hybrid species.
Leaves are cut transversely and kept in circular manner in basin shaped
depression lined with goat skin or canvas.
They are kept in this position for 5-6 hours till all juice exudes out and
collected in goat skin.
juice is boiled in iron kettle with continuous stirring with wooden
paddle.
Once juice is thick it is poured in to wooden cases where it solidify.
3 socotrin aloes
It is obtained from aloe perryi in east Africa.
juice is collected in goat skin and allowed to become semisolid in nature.
It is exported in past like consistency.
4 zanzibar aloes
it is verity of socotrine aloe.
Juice is placed in skin of small carnivorous animals, where it solidify.
Then packed in wooden boxes.
It is also called monkey skin aloe, although skin is not of monkey.
Description
1 curacao aloes
Odour-strong odour resembling to iodoform.
Taste is bitter.
Colour is brownish black, opaque mass.
Fracture-uneven fractured surface
2 cape aloes
colour- dark brown or greenish brown to olive brown mass.
Taste – nauseating and bitter.
Odour - sour but distinct.
Fracture - glassy
3 socotrine aloes
colour- brownish yellow, opaque mass with pasty consistency.
Taste- extremely bitter, nauseous.
Odour –unpleasant
4 zanziber aloes
colour- liver brown.
Odour- characteristic but not disagreeable.
taste bitter.
Fracture – dull, waxy, smooth, even
Microscopic charecterstics-
TS shows
outermost cuticle followed by epidermis, palisade tissue, mucilaginous
parenchyma mesophyll.
mesophyll contains vascular bundle covered with pericycle fibers layer.
Inside pericycle ,aloetic cells are located witch contains aloe gel (
viscous yellow).
Calcium oxalate crystals present in parenchyma.
leaves are sessile
Microscopic chrecters of aloe powder
It is useful for identification of powdered aloes. it is studied in lacto phenol reagent to gradually
solubilize particles so crystals can clearly seen
1 curacao aloes
fragments consist of large number of very small needle or slender prisms
2 cape aloes
transparent, brown, angular or irregular fragments.
3 socotrine aloes
fragments consist of large prisms in group or dispersed form.
4 zanzibar aloes
irregular lumps in with modular masses are embedded.
Chemical constituents
anthraquinone glycosides.
main active constituent is Aloin.
Aloin is also called as barbaloin
barbaloin is C-glycoside
Aloin
Other
isobarbaloin,
beta barbaloin,
aloe-emodin,
resin,
aloetic acid,
homonataloin,
aloesone,
saponins,
mucopolysccharides,
glucosamines,
hexuronic acid.
aloe resin contains aloesin( purgative action)
Barbaloin( aloin)
aloesin
Chemical teasts
general chemical tests
1 gm aloe is powder boiled with 10 ml water, filtered. Filtrate
used for bromine test and schoenteten,s reaction.
1 bromine test- filtrate+ freshly prepared bromin solution=
pale yellow ppt of tetrabromalin
2 schoenteten,s test- filtrate+ borax shake well until borax
dissolves.few drop of this soluition added in test tube filled
with water= green fluorescence appears.
Special test
these test are to distinguish between varieties of aloe
1 nitrous acid test-
aqueous solution of aloe + sodium nitrate crystals + acetic
acid
curacao aloes-sharp pink to carmine colour
cape aloes- faint pink colour
socotrine and zanzibar aloes- very less change in colour
2-Nitric acid test-
nitric acid applied to drug or its aqueous solution
curacao aloes- deep brownish red colour
cape aloe- brownish colour changes to green
socotrine aloes- pale brownish- yellow colour
zanzibar aloes- yellowish brown colour
3 kupraloin test( klunge,s isobarbaloin test)-
Dil. aqueous solution of aloe+ drop of copper sulphat+
sodium chloride + excess 90% alcohol
Curacao aloes-wine red colour persist for 4 hours
Cape aloes- faint colour rapidly changes to yellow
Socotrine aloes-no colour
zanziber aloes- no colour
Uses
purgative.
Stronger purgative than all anthraquinon glycosides.
To prevent gripping action carminative can be given.
it is ingredient of compound tincture of benzoin(
friar,s balsam)
aloe gel is used for topical application and many
cosmetic uses.
Aloe gel-
it is obtained from inner
parenchyma cells of leaf.
Slightly viscous and clear
liquid. It should not be
contaminated with aloe juice
Adulterants and substitutes
Natal aloes-it contains natalion, homonatalion, resin,
it is weak purgative
Mocha aloes- brittle, black and glossy with strong
odour
Aloe can be adulterated with black catechu.
Alcoholic extract of aloe gives deep brown colour
while black catechu gives black colour.
cascara
Cascara
synonym
cascara sagrada, sacred bark, chittem bark
BS
it is dried bark of Rhamnus Purshiana de candolle,
family
Rhamnaceae
It is collected at least one year before use
Macroscopic charecters
colour- purplish brown externally and reddish brown internally
Odour- charecterstic nauseous
taste- persistently bitter
Size- 1 to 4 mm thick with varying size
shape- Brocken pieces, small flat. Occurs in squills or channels
extra feature- bark is very smooth, shows presence of scattered
lenticels, and cork. Internally shows longitudinal striations.
Chemical constituents
fresh bark contains anthranol derivatives( gripping, emetic effect).
After one year storage anthranol is oxidised to anthraquinones.
it contains four primary glycosides Cascarosides A,B,C,D.
OTHER
barbaloin,
chrysaloin,
alo-emodin,
chrysophanol,
palmidins A,B,C,
Uses
mild purgative
in small dose used as bitter stomachic
(tone the stomach, improving its
function and increasing appetite)and
tonic,
in large dose as purgative
RHUBARB
Rhubarb
synonym
East indian rhubarb, China rhubarb, Turky rhubarb
BS
it consist of peeled dried rhizomes and roots of
Rheum Palmatum linn
family
polygonaceae
Macroscopic charecters
colour- externally brown, internally
deep yellow colour
taste -astringent
odour- characterstic
Chemical constituents
antharaquinones
Chrysophanol,
aloe- emodin,
emodin,
physcion,
rhein
Others
tannoids,
starch,
cal oxalate,
resins phloretin is purgative
chemical test
1 -Rhubarb powder+ ammonia= pink
colour
2 -Rhubarb powder+ 5% potassium
hydroxide solution= blood red colour
Uses
Laxative,
purgative,
stomachic ,
tonic,
demulcent,
cholagogue,
astringent,
antitumer,
antispasmodic,
antiseptic,
anticholesterolemic
ANDROGRAPHIS
Andrographis
Synonym-
Kalmegh, king of bitter, chiretta Hindi- kiryeti, marathi – kadu
kirayata
B.S
it consist of leaves or entire aerial part of Andrographis
Paniculata Nees
family
Acanthaceae
Geographical source
Southeast Asia,includes
India,
Sri Lanka,
Pakisthan, etc
Indonesia,cultivated in China, Thailand, east and
west Indies, Mauritius
Cultivation and collection
It is propagated from seeds.
in India it is cultivated in rainy season ( kharif crop).
it can be cultivated in any soil containing organic matters.
planted at distance of 30 cm *15cm.
no major insect and disease infection occurs to plant.
at flowering stage after 90-120 days after cultivation ,it is cut at base
leaving 10-15 cm stem for plant regeneration.
50-60 days after first harvesting ,final harvest is performed
Macroscopic characters
colour- leaves are dark green, flowers are rose colour
Odour- odourless
Taste-intensly bitter
Size- leaves 7cm*2.5cm, flowers 1.8 cm length
Shape- leaves are lanceolate, petilolate with entire margin
and acuminate (Tapering gradually to a sharp point)apex.
Venation is unicostate (only one primary or prominent rib,
midrib) reticulate(divide in such a way as to resemble a net or network.)
Chemical constituents
bitter principles- andrographolide,( bicyclic diterpenoid lactone)
kalmeghin
andrographolide
Uses
Bitter tonic,
anthelmintic,
Febrifuge,
astringent,
antityphoid,
antibiotic,
hepatoprotective
Psoralea
Psoralea
Synonym-
Bavachi fruits, malaya tea, bavachi seeds
BS
It consist of dried ripe fruits and seeds of Psoralea
Corylifolia Linn
family
Leguminosa
Macroscopic characterstics
Colour- fruits are dark chocolate to black colour
Odour- no
Taste-bitter, acrid and unpleasant
Size- 3-4.5 mm long, 2-3 mm broad
Shape- ovate, oblong
Extra- pericarp attached to seeds
Chemical constituents
coumarin gycosides
Psoralen
,isopsoralen,
psoralidin,
isopsoralidin,
Psoralenol
bavachromanol
other-
fixed oil,
essential oil,
Resin
Chemical tests
1 dissolve psoralea in alcohol then add sodium
hydroxide and observe under UV light=yellow
fluorescence
2 dissolve psoralea in alcohol+ 3 times of
propylene glycol+5 times of acetic acid+40
times of water=blue fluorescence under UV
light
Uses
Aphordisiac,
antibacterial,
tonic for genital organs,
diuretic ,
stimulant,
stomachic
Ammi majus
Ammi majus
Synonyms-
bishop,s weed, laceflower, large bullwort,
BS
these are fruits of Ammi Majus Linn
Family
Umbelliferae
Macroscopic characteristics
Odour-slightly aromatic
taste- strongly pungent, slightly bitter
Size- fruits are 22.5mm long, 0.5-1.7mm broad
Fruit shows four prominent secondary ridges
Chemical constituents
Furanocumarins-
xanthotoxin
Imperatorin
Bergapten,
isopimpinellin
Chemical tests
1 -boil 1 gm drug with 10ml water for 1 min and
strain, add one or two drops of this decoction to 2 ml
of solution of sodium hydroxide=no rose colour (
distinction from ammi visnaga)
2-alcoholic extract of fruit gives blue fluorescence
under UV light
Uses
Furanocoumarins stimulate pigment
production in skin when exposed to
bright sunlight ,so used in skin disease
like vitiligo( depigmentation of skin)
and psoriasis(systemic disease characterized
by skin lesions including red, scaly patches,itch)
vitiligopsoriasis
Ammi visanaga
Ammi visanaga
synonym- khella, pick tooth fruit
B.S
These are dried ripe fruits of Ammi
Visanaga Linn
family
Umbelliferae
Macroscopic charecteristics
Colour- fruit is greenish brown
Odour- slightly aromatic
Taste-bitter and slightly pungent
Size-2-2.5mm length,0.7-1.2 mm width,0.8-1mm thickness
Extra features-mericarp shows 5 primary ridges and 4
secondary ridges
Chemical constituents
Furanocumarin compounds
Khellin,
visnagin,
khellol,
khellol glucoside
1% volatile oil,
oil contains
samidine,
dihydrosamidine,
visnadine
Chemical test
when drug trated with strong
mineral acid shows lemon
yellow colour while ammi
majus shows dirty green brown
colour
Uses
Khellin is smooth muscle
relaxant and used as coronary
vasodilator in angina pectoris,
uterine colic,
bronchial asthma,
whooping cough
Bitter almond
Bitter almond
synonym-
amygdala amara
BS
These are dried ripe seeds of plant Prunus Amygdalus
Batsch var amara
family
Rosaceae
Macroscopic characterstics
colour- brown
odour- odourless
taste- bitter
size- 20mm length, 125mm width,10 mm thickness
shape- flattened, oblong, ovoid shape with marking
on testa
Chemical constituents
40-50% bland fixed oil,
20% protien,
bitter glycoside -amygdalin(1-3%),
0.5% volatile oil
Amygdalin hydrolyzed to produce benzaldehyde+ hydrocyanic
acid.
Hydrocyanic acid is very poisonous hence it is not used
internally.
sweet almond do not contain amygdalin
Uses
oil is demulcent ,
In perfumary,
in preparation of bitter almond water,
sedative
gentian
Gentian
Synonym-
Gentiana, radix gentianae
B.S
It is dried partially fermented rhizome
and root of yellow gentian i.e Gentiana
Lutea
Family
Gentianaceae
Macroscopic characteristics
colour- rhizomes are yellowish-brown
Odour-peculiar( different)
Taste- sweet taste followed by intense bitter
Fracture- short and smooth in dried drug but
tough and flexible in moist drug
Chemical constituents
Bitter glycoside -gentiopicrin(gentiopicroside)
Others-
Amarogentin, ( bitter)
amaroswerin,
gentioside,
Gentinin
Gentisin( yellow colour flavonoid)
Gentisic acid,
gentianose(trisaccharide)
Gentibiose(disaccharide)
sucrose
Chemical test
under UV light gentian extract shows light blue
fluorescence
Uses
Bitter tonic
saffron
Saffron
Synonym
Crocus,marathi-keshar, spanish saffron,
french saffrone
B.S
It is the dried stigma and styletops of
Crocus Sativum Linn.
Family
Iridaceae
Macroscopic charecterstics
Colour-reddish brown
Odour-strong,peculiar and aromatic
Taste- aromatic and bitter
Extra features-
Flattish tubular, almost thread like
stigmas
Chemical constituents
Volatile oil(1.3%),
fixed oil,
wax,
crocin( colouring compound),
crocetin( aromatic compound),
picrocrocin( bitter glycoside)
caretenoids
Uses
Fever,
Cold,
enlargement of liver,
cosmetics preparations,
spice,
aphrodisiac,
stimulant,
Tonic,
emmenagouge
chirata
Chirata
Synonym-
Indian gentian, indian balmony.
B.S
It consist of the entire herb of Swertia Chirata
Family
Gentianaceae
it contains not less than 1.3% bitter constituent
Chemical constituents
Chiritin,
gentiopicrin,
amarogentin,
ophelic acid,
gentinine,
gentiocrucine
Uses
Extramely bitter tonic,
digestive,
stimulant,
lowers fever,
Dyspepsia(indigestion)
cholagogue
picrorhiza
Picrorhiza
Synonym-
Kami, hindi- kuru or kutki, marathi- kali
katuki
BS
It consist of dried rhizome of Picrorhiza
Kurroa royle ex benth
family
Scrophulariaceae
Morphological characteristic
Colour- greyish brown
Odour- slightly unpleasant
Taste- bitter
Extra features- cylindrical, straight or curved,
wrinkled longitudinally
Chemical constituents
Picrorhizin
kutkin
picroside-I,II,III,
D- mannitol
vanillic acid,
kurrin
kutkiol,
kutkisterolphenolic
kutkoside
phenolic glycosides- picein, androsin
Uses
Cathartic,
Stomachic
Antiperiodic( prevent recurrence of disease)
cholagouge,
Febrifuge
antimalerial,
jaundice
emmenagogue,
emetic
antidote for dog bite
abortifacient
bitter tonic
laxative
Quassia
Quassia
Synonym-
Bitter wood, jamaica Quassia, bitter ash
BS
It is dried wood of stem of Aeschrion Excela(
Picroena Excela, or Picrasma Excela)
family-
Simarubaceae
Morphological characteristics
Colour- white but changes to yellow in air
Odour-no
taste- intense bitter
Chemical constituents
Quassin,
isoqassin
neoquassin
volatile oil,
Uses
Bitter tonic,
stomachic,
vermicide,
slight narcotic
in small dose increase appetite
Marine pharmacognosy
Definition: a branch of pharmacology concerned
with pharmacologically active substances present
in aquatic plants and animals; its objective is to
find and develop new therapeutic agents.
traditional Western pharmacognosy focused on the investigation and
identification of medically important plants and animals in the
terrestrial environment, although many marine organisms were used in
traditional Chines medicines.
research into the chemistry of marine organisms is relatively unexplored
and represents a vast resource for new medicines to combat major
diseases such as cancer, AIDS or malaria
Research typically focuses on sessile organisms or slow moving animals
because of their inherent need for chemical defenses.
Standard research involves an extraction of the organism in a suitable
solvent followed by either an assay of this crude extract for a particular
disease target or a rationally guided isolation of new chemical
compounds using standard chromatography techniques..
Marin sources are used to find novel drugs in
treatment of human ailments
Marin organism contains secondary metabolites
useful as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer,anti-
inflammatory, neurophysiological, cardiovascular and
many more. Many of these species contains toxic
compounds
Classification of marine drugs
1 cardiovascular drugs– Anthopleurins, laminine, eptatretin,
saxitoxin, spongosine, eledosin, autonomium
2 anticancer compound– Ara-c, crassin acetate simularin
3 antimicrobial compounds– holotoxin A,B,C, tholepin,
cycloeudesmol, variabilin, ircinin-1
4 anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic- manolide, tetrado
toxin
5 marin toxins- ciguatoxin, palytoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin
6 miscellaneous- kainic acid, domoic acid, aplysinopsin
Cardiovascular active compound
Anthopleurins-
is a toxin from the venom of the sea anemones Anthopleura
Xanthogrammica and Anthopleura eleqantissima.
Anthopleurin has four isoforms (Anthopleurin-A, -B, -C, and -Q).
Their working mechanism is based on binding to sodium channels, which leads to
increased excitation especially in cardiac myocytes .positive inotropic effect without
acting on sodium potassium ATPase. it is35 times more potent than digoxin with less
toxicity
Eptatretin
Found in pacific hogfish Eptatretus Stoutii.
it is potent cardiac stimulant and effect is comparable to adrenalin
Laminine
It is hypotensive compound obtained from marin algae Laminaria Angustata
D(-) OCTOPAMINE
found in Octopus Macropus, O. vulgaris.
it produce adnergic and cardiovascular response
Saxitoxin
found in butter clam ie Saxidomus giganteus and
California mussel.
It is hypotensive
Autonomium
it is found in Vernogia fistularis.
it is both adrenergic and cholenergic compound hence
regulate behaviour of heart
ATX-II
It is polypeptide found in sea Anemones.
it is cardiotonic ( positive inotropic)
Holothurins and asterosaponins
these are marin saponins glycosides
Holothurins present in sea cucumbers of family holothuroidae.
It is cardiotonic and ichthyotoxic action( either toxic to fish or are toxins
produced by fish)
Asterosaponins obtained from star fishes of family asteroide.toxic to
various marin organisms. They have hypotensive, haemolytic,
antiinflammatory effect
Sea cucumber starfish
Spogosine
It is methoxy derivative of adenosine.
Found in caribbean sponge Crypotethia crypta.
it reduces rate and force of heart contraction
Eledosin
Obtained from posterior salivery glands of Cephalopod Eledone
moschata.
powerful hypotensive and strong vasodilator
Anticancer compounds
Ara-C (Cytarabine or cytosine arabinoside)
It is synthetic compound based on natural compound
spongosine and spongouridine obtained from
caribbean sponges
used mainly in the treatment of CANCER of WBC such as
Acute myeloida leukemia (AML) and non-hodgkin
lymphoma
Ara-C
Crassin acetate
It is obtained from caribbean gorgonian ( sea fans)
Pseudoplexaura Porosa.
It is cytotoxic to human leukemia.
it is cyclic diterpene
CRASIN ACETATE
Antimicrobial compounds
Holotoxine A,B,C ( steroid glycosides) -obtained from sea cucumber
Stichopus japonicum.
Tetrabromoheptane- from brown algae Dictyopteris zonaroides
Aeroplysinin-1(+) and1(-)- red algae and spoge
Prepacifenol- from red algae Laurencia pacifica
Tholpin- from annelida Thelepsus setosus
Debromolaurenterol- from sea hare Aplysua californica
Eunicin- from gorgonian corals, Eunicia mammosa
Acanthelin-1 – from Acanthella acuta
Antibiotic compounds
Cycloeudesmol- from rad algae, Chondria oppositiclada
variabilin, ircinin-1- from sponge, Ircinia strobilina and Ircinia oros
acetamide- from sponge, Veronigia archery
variabilin
cycloeudesmol
Anti-inflammetory and antispasmodic agents
Mannoalidae- it is non steroidal anti-inflammetory compound obtained
from sponge Luffariella variabilis.
Dendalone-3- hydroxy butyrate -from sponge, Phyllospongia dedyi
Flexibilis- from soft coral, sinularia
Luffariella variabilis.
sinularia
flustramineA, B- these are muscle relaxant obtained from swedish
marin moss Flustra foliaceae
Teradotoxin- is strong antispasmodic obtained from liver and ovaries of
puffer fishes
Flustra foliaceae
puffer fish
Marine toxins
Ciguatoxine
These are a group of marine biotoxins, which are the cause of
a foodborne intoxication known as ciguatera fish poisoning
(CFP). CFP is associated with consumption of coral reef fish
from tropical and subtropical waters in the Pacific and Indian
Oceans and the Caribbean sea.
Ciguatoxin is produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a type
of dinoflagellate, that are eaten by big coral reef fish,
Ciguatoxin usually accumulates in skin, head, viscera, and roe
of the fish.
Toxic symptomes are neurological,cardiovascular,
gastrointestinal like respiratory depression, bradycardia.
Palytoxin
it is an intense vasoconstrictor, and is
considered to be one of the most toxic
non- peptide substances known.
produced by several marine pylothia
species and can be found in many more
species due to accumulation. Because
palytoxin affects every cell in the body,
the symptoms are very different for the
various routes of exposure
Red tide toxins ( paralytic shell fish toxins)
These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate
neurotoxins, called saxitoxin, produced by microscopic algae.
these algae change colour of sea water as red water or red
tides. They contain peridinin , a red colour pigment.
Human toxicity and mortality can occur after ingestion of
these animals, but toxicity is also seen in wild animal
populations.
shellfish poisonings are water-insoluble, heat and acid-stable,
and ordinary cooking methods do not eliminate the toxins
marin toxins have yet not been used in clinical medicines
Miscellaneous compounds
They are used as anthelmentic, anticoagulant, insecticides.
kinic acid- anti-ascariatic activity
Domic acid- used against pinworm and ascaria
Ara-A- ( adenine arabinoside)-active aginst herpes
encephalitis
carrageenan- anticoagulant
aplisinopsin- antidepressent, cytotoxic activity
Study of traditional drugs
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine)
comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations
within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as:
"Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and
practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences
indigenous to different cultures, whether understood or not, used
in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention,
diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental
illness.
Amala
Amala
Synonyms
Indian gooseberry, embilic myrobalan
Regional names
Sansk-amalki, dhatriphala,hindi-amala,marath-anvala, avalkanthi
B.S
Amala consist of fresh or dried fruits of Emblica officinalis
Family
Euphorbiaceae
Macroscopy
Colour-green when tender but changes to light yellow or brick red on
maturity
Taste- sour and astringent initially and sweet afterwards
Shape- globose
Size-1.5-2.5 cm in diameter
It is distinctly marked in six lobes
Chemical constituents
It is important source of vitamin C, minerals, amino acids
Tannin (gallic acid, ellagic acid),
sugar,
gum,
albumin,
crude cellulose,
moisture
Uses
Diuretic,
cooling,
refrigerant,
laxative,
antioxident,
antibacterial,
antiviral,
disorders of digestive system,
Marketed formulations
Triphala churna by zandu,
chawanprash by dabour
Jeevani malt by chirayu pharma
kantkari
Kantakari
Synonyms
Kateli, yellow-berried nightshade
BS
It consist whole plant of Solanum surattense
Family
Solanaceae
Chemical constituents
Berries contain
Caffeic acid,
chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid
, neochlorogenic acid, esculin,
Cycloartanol,cholesterol,diosgenin,
derivatives of cholesterol, fruit oil,
flower contains
Disgenin, apigenin, quercetin
Uses
Antiasthmatic,
aperient,(used to relieve constipation.)
diuretic,
digestive,
febrifuge,
decoction used in gonorrhoea, and to promot conception
Marketed formulations
It is ingredient of preparations like
chyawanprash,diakof, koflet(himalaya),
khadiradi gutika( dabur)
shatavari
Shatavari
Synonym
Asparagus
Regional names
Sansk-narayani,vari,atirasa,hindi-satavar,satamul,marath-shatavari
BS
It is dried tuberous roots of Asparagus racemosus
Family
Liliaceae
Macroscopy
Colour-white
Taste-bitter
Shape -cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, swollen
in middle, tapering towards base.
size-5-15cm length,1-2cm diameter
Fracture- irregular
Chemical constituents
Steroidal saponins
shatavarinI,II,III,IV,
OTHERS
beta sitosterol,
stigmasterol,
sarsasepogenin,
spirostanolic acid,
aspargamine a
Uses
Antispasmodic,
aphordisiac,
Demulcent
,diuretic,
galactogogue,
refrigerant
Marketed formulation
It is ingredient of following
K G Tone (Aimil)
Diabecon, galactin,abana(Himalaya)
Dhatupaushtik churna, rhuma oil, mahanarayan tel(
Baidyanath)
J P massage oil, painkill oil (Jamuna pharma)
Shatavari kalp, shatavarex granules( Zandu)
TYLOPHORA
Tylophora
Synonyms
Anantmul,
B .S
It consist of dried leaves and roots of Tylophora
Indica
Family
Asclepiadaceae
Macroscopy
Colour-yellow-brown
Odour-no
Taste-sweetish and subsequent acrid
Shape-elliptic-oblong,
Size-5-10cm long,2.5-5.3 cm wide
Chemical constituents
Alkaloid
Tylophorine,
tylophorinine,
tylophorinidine,
septicine
Phytosterols ‘
Flavonoids
Quercetin,
kaempferol,
tyloindane
Uses
Bronchial asthama,
bronchitis,
rheumatism,
Dermatitis
,emetic,
diphoretic,( induce sweting)
anti inflammatory,
antibacterial,
expectorent
Marketed formulation
Geriforte Aqua by Himalaya
BHILWA
BHILWA
SYNONYM
marking nut, oriental cashew, bhilama
BS
It consist of the tree of Semicarpus Anacardium Linn
family
Anacardiaceae
Macroscopy
Colour- shining black
Taste- bitter
Pericarp is abandent in black ,vesicant(causes severe skin, eye
and mucosal pain and irritation.) oily juice
Juice is known as bhilwa shell liquid witch is reach source of
phenolic compounds
Chemical constituents
Juice cantains
Bhilwanol (46%), monohydroxy phenol, semicarpol,
Fruit contains
nicotinic acid,
riboflavin,
thiamin,
anacardic acid,
bioflavanoids A,B,C,
tetrahydrobustaflavone,
tetrahydroamentoflavone,
nallaflavone,
anacarduflavanone
USES
asthma,ascites,
piles,
epilepsy,
neuralgia,
tumours,
warts,(solid blister)
psoriasis,
rheumatism,
abortifacient,
anthelmintic,
seed oil used externally in goute (kind of arthritis), leprosy, leucoderma
juice of pericarp is counter-irritent , vesicant(
MARKETED FORMULATIONS
ingredient of prasarini tail, patrangasava, sanjivani vati ( DABUR)
bach
BACH
Synonym
Sweet flag, Sweet Root, Bach
BS
it is plant Acorus Calamus
family
Acoraceae
Charecters
it is perinnial (plant that lives for more
than two years) herb growing up to six
fit.
leaves are long, slender, grass like.
flowers are minute greenish yellow
in colour.
fruit is berry like
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Asarone,
beta asarone,
monoterpene hydrocarbons,
ketones
Medicinal uses
Analgesic for thooth ache or
headache
.
clean and disinfect teeth,
fatigue,
cough
punarnava
Punarnava
Synonym
Hogweed
Regional names
Sansk-punarnava, gophagni, hindi-punarnava, mar- ghetuli, vasuchimuli, khaparkuti
BS
It consist of fresh as well as dried whole plant of Boerhaavia diffusa linn
Family
Nyctaginaceae
Macroscopic charectes
Colour-stem is greenish purple,roots are yellowish
brown,flowers are white or pink
Odour-dourless
taste-bitter
It have two verities
those having white flowers are sweta punarnava and
those with red flowers are called rakta punarnava
Chemical constituents
Phenolic glycoside
Punarnavoside
Others
boeravinones A,B,C,
beta sitosterol,
boeravine,
ursolic acid
USES
Antifibrinolytic (prevent the breakdown of BLOOD clots)
Anti-inflammatory,
Diuretic
IUD menorrhagia,
hepatoprotective,
antihypertensive,
blood purifier
Marketed formulations
Ingredient of preparations
Deepact-lupin hearb,
abana, immunol, diabecon- himalaya,
punarnawadi guggulin, punarnavarista-baidyanath,
sobigol-aimil,
j p liver syrup-jamun pharma
chitrak
Chitrak
Synonym
White leadwort
Regional names
Sansk-agni,vahni,dahana,hindi-chira,chitrak,mar-
chitrak
BS
It consist of dried mature roots of Plumbago
zeylanica linn
Family
Plumbaginaceae
Macroscopy
Colour- reddish to deep brown,
Odour- disagreeable
Taste-acrid
Size- 30cm diameter
Chemical constituents
plumbagin
Uses
Increase digetion and appetite,
hypoglycemic,
hypolipidaemic,
CNS stimulant,
piles,
diarrhoea,
skin disease
Marketed formulation
ingredient of
j p liver syrup-jamuna pharma
Piles care, mansulate-chitryu
Chitrakadi bati avajeha- baidyanath
Apamarg
Apamarga
Synonym
Prickly chaff flower
Regional names
Sansk- apamarga.hindi-chirchira, mar- aghada
BS
It consist of dried whole plant of Acyranthes aspera linn
Family
Amaranthaceae
Chemical constituents
Triterpenoid saponin glycoside –
oleanoil acis ( aglycone)
Long chain alcohols,
long chain ketones
Uses
Astringent,
Diuretic,
Pneumonia,
renal dropsy,
Dysentery,
gonorrhoea,
Menorrhagia,
cancer
Marketed formulations
Ingredient of
Cystone tablet- himalya
Gokhru
Gokhru
Synonym
Caltrops fruit
Regional names
Sansk-goksuraka, trikanta,hind-gokhru, mar- sarate, gokharu
BS
These are dried ripe seeds of Tribulus terrestris linn
family
Zygophyllaceae
Macroscopy
colour- yellowish
Odour-no
taste- mucilagenous
Shape- globus fruits
Size-1.2cm diameter
Extra -fruit is densely hairy, spiny cocci, large pointed spin at each
coccus, two spines directed downwards, several seeds present in each
coccus
Chemical constituents
Steroidal saponin
Terestrosins A,B,C,D,E,
desgalactotigonin. F-
gitonin,desglucolanatigonins,
Gitonin,diosgenin, Chlorogenin
, hecogenin, neotiogenin,
other
tersterosideF,
Tribulosingracillin, dioscin
, flavonoids, beta sitosterol, stigmasterol
Uses
Cooling,
anti-inflammatory,
antiarthritic,
diuretic,
tonic,
aphordisiac,
build immunity,
painful micturition,
impotency,
prolong and improve duration of erection,
stimulate reproductive organ
Marketed formulation
Ingredient of
Bonnisan, confido, himplasia,renalka- himalya,
dhatupaushtik churna- baidyanath,
semento- aimil,
body plus cap- jay pranav ayurved
shankhpushpi
Shankhpushpi
Synonym
Sankhapushpi
regional names
sansk- sankhapushpi, hindi- sankhpushpi, mar- shankhavela,
sanklmhull
BS
It consist of whole aerial parts of Convolvulus pluricaulis
Family
Convolvulaceae
Chemical constituents
alkaloid
shankhpushpine,
Flavonoides and cumarins
Kaempferol,
long chain fatty alcohols,
beta sitosterol,
sugars
Uses
Brain tonic,
antihypertensive,
tranquillizer,
improve memory
Marketed formulation
Ingredient of
Mentat, anxocare-himalaya,
Shankhapushpi syrup-baidyanath,
Shankhpushpi churna- shantikunj
Adulsa
Adulsa
Synonym
Vasaka
Regional names
Sansk- atarusa, vasaka, hindi- adusa, mar- adulsa
BS
It consist of fresh or dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica nees
family
Acanthaceae
Macroscopy
Colour- green when fresh , brown to grey on drying
odour-characteristic
taste- bitter
Shape- lanceolate-TO ovate lanceolate,
Margin- crenate to entire,
apex- acuminate (tapering to point)
Base- tapering
Petiolr- 2-10cm broad,
vennation- pinnate,
glabrous or slightly pubescent
Chemical constituents
Alkaloids
vasicine,
vasicinol,
vasicinone,
adhatonine
Uses
bronchitis,
asthama,
cough,
local bleeding due to peptic ulcer,
piles,
menorrhagia,
tuberculasis
Marketed formulations
ingredient of
vasavaleha-dabur
Kasamrit herbal- baidyanath
Vasaka cap- himalaya
TINOSPORA
Tinospora
Synonym
Guduchi,
Regional names
sansk- anirtavallf, amrta,guducika, hindi- giloe, gurcha
BS
It consist of matured pieces of stem of Tinospora cordifolia
Family
Menispermaceae
Macroscopy
Colour-young stems green and mature stems
are light brown
Odour- no
taste- bitter
Pieces of varying thickness, lenticels are present
Chemical constituents
columbin, tinosporaside,,alkaloids
jactrorhizine,palmatine,
berberine, tembeterine,
sesquiterpene glucoside
tinocordifolisoide,
disaccharide
cordifolioside A,B
Others
choline, tinosporic acid, tinosporal, tinosporone
Uses
rejuvinator,
hypoglycaemic,
immunomodulatory,
astringent,
antipyretic,
blood purifier,
antineoplastic,
cardiotonic,
antiasthmatic,
skin disease,
goute,( kind of arthritis)
rheumatic arthritis
Marketed formulation
one of the ingredient of
guduchi tablet, abana, bonnisan, rumalaya- himalaya
METHI
Methi
Synonym
Fenugreek, greek hay
regional names
sansk- methini, hindi- methi,
BS
It consist of dried seeds of Trigonella foenuma- graecum linn
family
Fabaceae
Macroscopy
colour-dull yellow
Odour-pleasant
taste – bitter
shape- oblong
siaze- 0.2-0.5cm long, 0.15-0.35cm broad
Chemical constituents
seed contains
Steroidal saponins
trigofoenoside A,B,C,D,E,F,G,
Trigonelloside C,
Yamogenin tetroside B,C,
tenugrin B
trigogenin,
neotigogenin,
yemogenin,
diosgenin,
gitogenin,
flavonoid
quercetin, luteolin, vitexin, vicenin-1,2
Uses
Anticholesterolemic,
antiinflammatory,
antitumour,
Carminative, demulcent, emollient,
expectorent, febrifuge, galactogogue,
Hypoglycemic,laxative, parasiticide,
uterine tonic
Marketed formulations
one of the ingredient of
dabur vatika antidandruff shampoo-dabur
Ayurslim, geriforte, immunol- himalaya
lahsun
Lahsun
Synonym
Garlic
regional names
sansk– rasona, yavanesta, hind- lahasun, mar- lasun
BS
it consist of bulb of Allium sativum linn
family
Liliaceae
Macroscopy
Colour-pappery whitish and brittle scales
odour- -characteristic, aromatic
taste- aromatic pungent
Bulbs are composed of several cloves, enclosed in white skin
of parent bulb
Chemical constituents
Volatile oil contains
allyl disulphide,
allin,
allicin,
allyl propyl disulphide,
diallyl disulphide
other
thoglycoside,
amino acid
, fatty acids,
flavonols,
vitamines,
trace elements,
mucilage,
albumin
Uses
Anthelmintic,
antiasthmatic,
anticholesterolemic,
antiseptic, antispasmodic,
cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic,
Expectorant, febrifuge,
stimulant,stomachic,tonic, vasodilator,
colon cancer, cough, whooping cough, gangrene
of lung( tissue dies)
Marketed formulations
one of the ingredient of
lasuna tablet- himalaya
Lashunadi bati- baidyanath
palash
Palash
synonym
dhak, bastard teak, bengal kino tree, flame of
forest
BS
it consist of whole plant of Butea monosperma
Family
Papilionaceae
Chemical constituents
butea gum contain
leucocyanidin,
procyanidin,
gallic acid,
riboflavin,
flower contains
flavonoid glycosides,
amino acids,
fatty acids
Uses
anti- implantation,
anti-vovulatory ,
antibacterial,
worm infection,
extract of seed is used to prevent pregnancy,
anthelmintic,
inflammation,
piles,
skin disease,
tumers
Marketed formulations
one of ingredient of
lukol- himalaya,
j p nikhar oil- jamuna pharma
guggal
Guggal
Synonym
gumgugul, salai-gogil
regional names
sansk- purd, kaugika, hindi- gugal, guggui, mar- guggul
BS
it consist of gum resin obtained by incision of bark of Commiphora
mukul
family
Burseraceae
Macroscopy
colour-brown tears, with water forms
white emulsion,
odour- balsamic
taste- bitter aromatic
Chemical constituents
Gum,
essential oil,
sterols
Guggulsterols I to VI,
beta sitosterol,
cholesterol,
z- guggulsterone,
E- guggulsterone,
sugars,
amino acids,
alpha camphorene,
cembrene,
allylcembrol,
flavonoids
quercetine
Uses
reduce holesterol, LDL, VLDL( bad cholesterol)
Increase HDL( good cholesterol)
Inhibit platelet aggregation,
reduce body weight
Astringent,
anti rheumatic,
antiseptic,
expectorent,
aphordisiac,
demulcent,
emmenagogue
Marketed formulations
one of the ingredient of
arogyavardhini gutika- dabur
abana, diabecon, diakof- himalaya
Neem
Neem
Synonym
margosa, azardirachta
BS
It consist of almost all parts of plant Azardirachta
indica
Family
Meliaceae
Macroscopy
Colour- leaves are yellowish green
odour- charecterstic
taste- bitter
Neem is large evergreen tree
Chemical constituents
It contains isoprenoids( terpenoids) and non isoprenoids
Limodids(bitter),
Tricyclic diterpenoids
nimbol,
morgocin,
nimbidol,
Nimolin
, nimbisinol,
nimbinone,
nimbione,
nimboson,
margosolone,
Nonisopernois includes
glycosides,
flavonoids,
sulphur compounds,,
polysaccharides,
Uses
Skin infections,
cardiovascular disease,
diabetes,
cancer,
pesticide,
antifeedent,
insecticide,
antimalerial
gymnema
Gymnema
Synonym
Gymnema sylvester
regional names
sansk- meshashring, hind- gurmar, mar- kavali, vakundai
BS
It consist of dried leaves of Gymnema sylvestre
Family
Asclepiadaceae
macroscopy
it is large, woody, much
branched climber,
leaves are simple, opposite,
elliptic, pubescent on both
surface
Chemical constituents
Gymnemic acid,
tartaric acid,
resin,
carbohydrate,
albumin
Uses
Antidiabetic agent,
Gulmar ( suger destroying), it abolish taste of
suger.
It anaesthetises sweet taste buds and effect last
for several hours
Astringent,
stomachic,
tonic,
refrigerant
Shilajit
Shilajit
Synonym
Mineral Pitch, mineral wax in English
Sanskrit meaning is "conqueror of mountains and destroyer of weakness.“
thick, sticky tar-like substance with a colour ranging from white to dark brown
Botanical Name :- Asphaltum
Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species
such as Euphorbia royleana andTrifolium repens
Shilajeet is obtained from rocks in the Himalayan region.
It is a form of mineral that drips from the cracks of the rocks during hot
weather.
It is decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries before.
The bio-transformed plant matter is extruded from the rocks by
geothermal pressures.
It is collected in raw form for further purification.
Chemical constituents
humic substances, including fulvic acid,( around 60% to 80% ),
contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form
humic substances are the results of degradation of organic matter, mainly vegetal
substances, which is the result of the action of many microorganisms.
Humic acid.
eldagic acid,
some fatty acids,
resins
, latex,
gums,
albumins,
triterpenes,
sterols,
aromatic carboxylic acids,
, amino acids,
polyphenols,
phenolic lipids
Uses
Antioxident
Antibacterial
Immune defense
Anti-inflammatory
Dispels pain
Anti-ulcer
Anti-anxiety,
anti-stress
Anti-aging (both mental and physical)
Nagarmotha
Nagarmotha
Synonym
nut grass- english, mutha, nagarmotha,-hindi ,
moth,-mar, mustak-sansk
BS
It consist of dried tuberous roots and rhizomes
of Cyperus rotundus
family
Cyperaceae
Macroscopy
Colour- dark brown
Odour- aromatic
Taste- sweetish aromatic, somewhat
pungent
Chemical constituents
Flavonoids,
alkaloids,
fatty acids,
sterols,
tannins,
essential oil,
oil contains, cyperene,
cyperol,
isocyperol,
sugetriol,
sugeonol,
cyprotundone,
cyperenone
Uses
Stimulant,
tonic,
diuretic,
stomachic,
carminative,
diaphoretic,
astringent,
emmenagogue,
vermifuge
Marketed formulations
Diarex,-himalaya, hempushpa oil- RajVaidya Sheetal Prasad &
Sons
Indian traditional system of medicines
Ayurveda
Ayurveda is a Sanskrit word,
derived from two roots: ayur, which means life,
and veda, knowledge.
Knowledge arranged systematically with logic
becomes science. Ayurveda is the science of life
It has its root in ancient vedic literature and
encompasses our entire life, the body, mind and
spirit.
It is the earliest health care system of India
beginning over 5,000 years ago.
Purusha/Prakruti
According to Ayurveda,
every human being is a creation of the cosmos, the
pure cosmic consciousness, as two energies: male
energy, called Purusha and female energy,Prakruti.
Purusha is choiceless passive awareness,
while Prakruti is choiceful active consciousness.
Prakruti is the divine creative will.
Purusha doesn't take part in creation,
but Prakruti does the divine dance of creation
called leela.
In creation, Prakruti is first evolved or manifested as
supreme intelligence, called mahat.
Mahat is the buddhiprincipal (individual intellect)
which further manifests as self identity,
called ahamkara, which is ego.
Ahamkara is influenced by three basic universal
qualities: satva, rajas and tamas.
Satva is responsible for clarity of perception.
Rajas causes movement, sensations, feelings and
emotions.
Tamas is the tendency towards inertia, darkness,
heaviness, and is responsible for periods of confusion
and deep sleep.
Manifestation of Creation
From the essence of satva the five senses are created:
the ears to hear,
skin to perceive touch,
eyes to see,
the tongue to taste,
and the nose, to smell.
The essence of rajas is manifested as the five motor organs:
speech,
hands,
feet,
genitals
and the organs of excretion.
The mind is derived from satva, while rajas is
manifested as prana, the life force.
The tamasic quality is also responsible for the
creation of tan matra, the subtle elements, and from
whom the five basic elements are manifested.
They are space,
air,
fire,
Water
and earth.
It is from pure consciousness that space is
manifested.
Mental Constitution
Vedic philosophy classifies human nature into three basic qualities:
satvic,
rajasic
and tamasic.
These individual differences in psychological and moral dispositions and their
reactions to socio-cultural and physical environments are described in all the classic
texts of Ayurveda.
Satvic qualities imply essence, reality, consciousness, purity and clarity of perception
which are responsible for goodness and happiness.
All movements and activities are due to rajas. It leads to the life of sensual
enjoyment, pleasure and pain, effort and restlessness.
Tamas is darkness, inertia, heaviness and materialistic attitudes. There is a constant
interplay of these three gunas (qualities) in the individual consciousness, but the
relative predominance of either satva, rajas, or tamas is responsible for individual
psychological constitution.
Vata, Pitta and Kapha: the Three Doshas
The structural aspect of the body is made up of five elements,
but the functional aspect of the body is governed by three biological humors. –
Ether and air together constitute -vata;
fire and water,- pitta;
water and earth,- kapha.
Vata, pitta and kapha are the three are biological components of the organism.
They govern psycho-biological changes in the body and physio-pathological changes
too.
Vata-pitta-kapha are present in every cell, tissue and organ.
In every person they differ in permutations and combinations.
The sperm is the male seed, and the ovum is the female egg.
They also contain vata-pitta-kapha (VPK).
Bodily vata-pitta-kapha changes according to diet,
life style and emotions.
The sperm gets influenced by the father's lifestyle, diet and emotions,
and the ovum by the mother's.
At the time of fertilization, when a single sperm enters a single ovum,
individual constitution is determined.
According to Ayurveda, there are seven body
types:
mono-types (vata, pitta or kapha predominant),
dual types (vata-pitta, pitta-kapha or, kapha-vata),
equal types, (vata,pitta and kapha in equal proportions).
Every individual has a unique combination of these
three doshas.
To understand individuality is the foundation of healing
according to Ayurveda, "The Science of Life".
The Qualities of the Three Doshas
The three Doshas possess qualities and their increase or decrease in the system
depends upon the similar or antagonistic qualities of everything ingested.
Vata is : dry, cold, light, mobile, clear, rough, subtle
Pitta is : slightly oily, hot, intense, light, fluid,free flowing, foul smelling.
Kapha is: oily, cold, heavy, stable, viscid, smooth, soft
Both Vata and Pitta are light and only Kapha is heavy.
Both Vata and Kapha are cold and only Pitta is hot.
Both Pitta and Kapha are moist and oily and only Vata is dry.
Anything dry almost always increases Vata , anything hot increases Pitta and
anything heavy , Kapha.
Seats of Doshas
Vatha Adharangam Lower part of the body
Pitta Madhyangam Middle part of the body.
Kapha Urdhwangam Upper part of the body
- See more at: http://www.nagarjunaayurveda.com/ayurveda-basics-principles.aspx#sthash.97ESUctd.dpuf
The Seven Dhatus
The word dhatu comes from the root word dha which means
basis or foundation.
In Ayurvedic medicine, the structural components that nourish
the body are called dhatus or tissue levels.
There are seven primary sapta dhatus
: • rasa – plasma tissue, lymph
• rakta – blood, red blood cells
• mamsa – muscle
• meda – adipose tissue, fat
• asthi – bone and cartilage
• majja – nerve, marrow, connective tissue
• shukra/artava – male and female reproductive system
Problems that occur in the dhatus are:
• Insufficient nourishment
• Over nourishment
• Structural damage
the Disease Process
According to Ayurveda, health is a state of balance between the body,
mind and consciousness.
Within the body, Ayurveda recognizes the three doshas, or bodily
humors vata, pitta and kapha;
seven dhatus, or tissues, plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, nerve, and
reproductive;
three malas, or wastes; feces, urine and sweat; and agni, the energy of
metabolism.
Disease is a condition of disharmony in any of these factors.
The root cause of imbalance, or disease, is an aggravation of dosha,
vata-pitta-kapha, caused by a wide variety of internal and external factors.
According to the attributes of these different etiological factors the bodily
humors become aggravated and start to accumulate at their respective sites.
Vata tends to accumulate in the colon,
pitta in the intestines and
kapha in the stomach.
the accumulated dosha reaches a state of overflowing the original site and
spreads throughout the body.
The aggravated dosha then enters and creates a lesion in a specific weak tissue
where pathological changes are manifested in the organ or system.
Chikitsa, Disease Management
Ayurveda says that to restore health we must understand the exact quality, nature and
structure of disease, disorder, or imbalance.
The body has its own intelligence to create balance. and we are helping in that process.
There are four main classifications of management of disease in
Ayurveda:
shodan, or cleansing;
shaman or palliation;(specialised medical care for people with
serious illnesses)
rasayana, or rejuvenation; ( To restore to an original or new
condition)
and satvajaya, or mental hygiene.
Ayurveda and Relationships
According to Ayurveda, our life is a relationship;
the relationship between you and your spouse,
girlfriend and boyfriend,
and parents and children.
Equally important is the relationship with yourself, your relationship between the
body, mind and consciousness,
and the inner relationship between vata-pitta-kapha.
These relationships are life, and
Ayurveda is a healing art which helps bring clarity in relationships.
Clarity in relationships brings compassion, and compassion is love, therefore love is
clarity.
Without this clarity, there is no insight.
Ayurveda is an art of insight which brings harmony, happiness, joy and bliss in our
daily life, in our relationships, and in our daily living.
Ayurveda, can definitely bring longevity to life.
It can bring a quality of consciousness, such that one can get insight to deal with
one's inner life, one's inner emotions, one's inner hurt, grief and sadness.
Ayurveda is a total healing art.
Preparation and standardization Asavas,Arishtas
Asava and arishtas -are liquid ayurvedic preparations
or self generated herbal fermentations.
Asavas prepared by direct use of fresh herbal juices or
herbs soaked in water
Arishtas are prepared with decoction of herbs in
boiling water
Both have sweet test, alcoholic smell
Powder herbs are soak in herbal juice or decoction in
presence of sugar or jaggaery for specific period of time.
Fermentation is brought by addition of dhataki, dhaay ke
phool( woodfordia fruticosa) flowers.
fermentated alcohol facilitate extraction of active constituents
in herbs and also act as preservative.
Both asva and arishta contains up to 12 % alcohol and hence
called medicinal wines.
Preparation of Asava
Boil required quantity of water. Add sugar or honey or jaggery, cooled
and transferred to wooden vessel.then add powderd drug mentioned in
formula. Cover vessel with lid and edges are sealed with seven
consecutive layers of clay smeared cloth.vessel is kept in basment for
specified period of time, after that vessel is removed ,liquid is decanted
or filtered. Asava can be stored for any length of time in well stoppered
glass bottle.
E,g, kumariasava, lauhasava
Characterstic-
 filtered final asava should not contain any particle of sediment
Taste should not be sour
Should have charecterstic odour of fermented liquid
If any growth of mould is obsereved , reject immediately
 mix equal quantity of water and asava before consumption
Preparation of Arishta
Prepare decoction of crude drug in potable water.
filter it and transfer to wooden pots. Wooden pots should be fumigated
with pimply churna and also smeared with ghee before addition of
parent material or sugar. Then add sugar, honey, jaggery to decoction.
Now add dravas, other powder ingredients and dhataki pushpa if
mentioned. close vessel with lid and seal edges with clay smeared cloth
of seven layers. place vessel in basement ( underground cellar) all under
heap of paddy to ensure constant atmospheric temperature during
fermentation. after specified period of 7-10 days , remove pot and
decant fluid. After 2-3 days when particle of sediment is settled down
arishta is botteled.arishta can be stored for any length of time in well
stopped glass bottle
sumption
Charecterstics-
Filtered final arishta should not contain any
particle of sediment
The taste should not be sour
Should have characteristic odour of
fermented liquid
If any growth of mould is observed reject
immediately
 mix equal quantity of water and arishta befor
con
DIFFERENT PARAMETERS OF STANDARDIZATION OF ASAVA ARISHTA
It generally involves the following parameters:
1. Orgamnoleptic Parameters
a) Colour of sample
b) Odor of sample
c) Taste of sample
d) Determination of pH of sample
2. Physical Parameters
a) Determination of foreign organic matter
b) Determination of ash value
Total ash value
Acid insoluble ash
Water soluble ash
Sulphated ash
c) Determination of extractive value
Alcohol soluble extractive value
Water soluble extractive value
d) Determination of moisture content
e) Determination of physical constant
Melting point
Boiling point
Refractive index
Optical rotation
f) Determination of specific gravity
g) Determination of solid content
h) Determination of alcohol content
3. [Chemical parameters
– following parameters involves in chemical evaluation like
a) Alkaloids – Dragandroffs test
b) Glycosides – Molish test
c) Flavonoids – Shinoda test
d) Phenolic – Lead acetate test
e) Tannins – Ferric chloride test
f) Steroids – Salkowski reaction
g) Amino acids – Ninhydrine test
h) Carbohydrates – Fehling’s test, Benedict test
4. Toxicological parameters –
It involves following parameters
a)Pesticides residue
b) Heavy metal
c) Microbial contamination
Tailas
Taila is liquid ayurvedic prepararation
E,g. Anu taila, Kanak taila, Narayan taila
Preparation of taila-
Preparation of taila contains three components-
drava(liquide in the form of swarasa),kalka( fine paste of drug)
, sneha drava( taila).
Unless otherwise indicated in text , kalka, sneha and drava are
taken in 1,4.16 parts respectively. kalka and drava are mixed
together. Sneha is then added boiled and stirred to obtained
desired paka
i.e. mrudu paka ( useful for nasya)
,madhyam paka( useful for pana or vasti) and
khara paka(useful for abhyanga).
Exception to this rule are
If no drava is prescribed; 4 parts of water is added to one
part of sneha, the kalka is 1/4th of weight of sneha.
If number of drava are 4 or less than 4; each drava has to
be taken 4 times the weight of sneha.
If drava are more than 4; each drava will be equal in
weight to sneha.
If no kalka is prescribed in formula then drugs of swarasa
may be used as kalka which should be 1/4th of sneha.
Characteristics
 taila will have colour , odour, consistancy
of oil used.
Taila should be preserved in bottle
 taila should be taken with anupan(
vehicle)
Taila should be used within 16 months
Standerization of taila
1 Colour
2 Smell
3 Appearance
4 Touch Oily
5 Clarity
6 Specific gravity
7 Acid value mg/gm
8 Saponfication value
9 Iodine value gm/100gm
Churna
Churna is solid ayurvedic preparation of powder of drugs with
often taken with some anupan like milk, ghee, honey. fine the
powder the better its therapeutic effect
Preparation-
Make powder of crud drug and sieve through cloth, or
mechanical shifter. If there is more than one drug each drug
should be separately powdered, sieved and weighed. finally
mix all the powders well together. if salt , sugar, camphor is
mentioned then it should be powdered and added separately
at end.
Charecters-
Powder should be fine at least of 80 mesh size
It should be kept in air tight container
It should be used within 6 months.
Standerization of churna
1 Study of organoleptic characters
i. Colour
ii. Odour
iii. Taste
2 Determination of physico-chemical parameters
 Moister content
 Total ash
 Acid insoluble ash
 Water soluble ash
 Water soluble extractive
 Alcohol soluble extractive
 Crude fiber contents
3 Quantitative estimation of selected phyto- constituents
Total alkaloids
4 Evaluation of Churna
 Powder fineness
 Bulk density
 Tap density
 Angle of repose
 Compressibility
 Hausner ratio
5 Determination of Ph
6 Establishing the safety pertaining to Heavy metals & Microbial
load
Bhasma
Bhasma is solid ayurvedic preparation in which metals, minerals and
animal products are brunt to ash. they are generally white, pale yellow,
black or red.
eg. Suvarnabhasma, pravalbhasma,launhbhasma, shankhbhasma
Preparation-
Bhasma is prepared by two stage method i.e shodhana and marana
1 shodhana-
it is very first stage of metal purification called shodhana.
shodhana eliminates harmful matter, modifies or converts undesirable
properties to desirable enhanced therapeutic action. it involves
immersion of metal sheets in taila, gomutra or dukdha(milk)
2 marana-
in this method purified drug is put in to stone morter ( khalva) and grounded with
specified metal, mineral and animal part for specified period of time. then small
cakes are made( cakrikas) and dried under sunlight. Dried cakes are placed in single
layer in mud tray and closed with another tray and sealed by clay smeared with
cloth of seven consecutive layers. In the ground pit of appropriate size is dug. Half
of pit is filled with dried cow dung cakes. then above processed clay tray is placed in
it and pit is again packed with cow dung cake. Fire is lit from all sides and middle of
pit. After specified burning , it is allowed to cool at room temperature. Clay tray is
removed and seal broken. Contents are taken out and finely powdered. The final
bhasma should be preserved in airtight earthen container.
Characterstics-
Final bhasma should be free from metallic luster
Bhasma when rubbed between fingers should be so fine so as to get easily into
lines of finger
In water bhasma should float on surface
Standardization of bhasma
Organoleptic characters
Sound : The Bhasma should have imperceptible sound
on grinding the Bhasma between teeth.
Colour : depends
Touch - Soft ~ Imperceptible coarseness in the Bhasma
Taste - The Bhasma should be tasteless
Odour - The Bhasma should be odourless
Physico-chemical parameters
pH :
Ash Value (AV):
Acid Insoluble Ash (AIA) :
Particle Size Distribution
X-ray Diffraction
Inductively Coupled Plasma – Emission Spectroscopy
UV-Visible Spectrophotometry
Glycosides: Organic Compounds Found in Many Plants

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Glycosides: Organic Compounds Found in Many Plants

  • 2. Organic natural compounds present in a lot of plants and some animals, these compounds upon hydrolysis give one or more sugars (glycone) moieties and non sugar (aglycone) moietyd Glycoside=sugar group+ nonsugar group (glycone) (aglycone or genin) Glycone and aglycone are linked by glycosidic linkage defination
  • 3. Glycosidic linkage is formed between – OH group of sugar and –H group of non sugar moieties OR other sugar with loss of water molecule glycoside bond glycoside=glycone{---o---}aglycon
  • 4. Sugar in glycosides is mostly beta-D glucose but other sugars like galactose, mannose, rhamnose, digitoxose can present. Glycosides can be alpha or beta but plants contains only beta glycosides therapeutic effect of glycosides is only due to aglycon part only and suger moiety facilitate absorption of glycoside, transportation of aglycone to site of action . so glycosides are hydrolysed to give aglycon part for action
  • 5. Glycosides have therapeutic effect in human and animals as they are used in traditional and modern medicines as cardio tonic, purgative, analgesic, anti- rheumatic, demulcent ,and many other uses.
  • 6. Classification 1-classification based on type of aglycone in glycoside Anthraquinone or anthracene glycoside Sterols or cardiac glycoside Saponin glycoside Cyanogenic glycoside Isothiocynate glycoside Coumarins and furanocoumarins Aldehyde glycoside phenol glycoside Steroidal Miscellaneous glycosides
  • 7. 2-classification based on type of sugar (glycone) part glucose- glucoside Rhamnose –rhamnoside Digitoxose-digitoxoside Glucose and rhamnose-glucorhamnoside Rhamnose and glucose-rhamnoglucoside
  • 8. 3-classification based on type of linkage between glycone and aglycone Linkage between –OH group of glycone and –H group of RADICALS LIKE –CH,-OH,-SH,-NH of aglycone. glycoside is named by perfix like C-glycoside,-sugar linked to carbon atom of aglycone N-glycoside,- sugar linked to nitrogen atom of aglycone O-glycoside,- sugar linked to oxygen atom of aglycone S- glycoside- sugar linked to sulfur atom of aglycone 4-classification based on there use Cathartics, cardio tonics, analgesics, anti-rheumatics, anti- ulcer etc
  • 9. Physical & chemical properties Colorless, solid, amorphous, nonvolatile (flavonoid- yellow, anthraquinone-red or orange.) Give positive reaction with Molisch's and Fehling's solution test (after hydrolysis). They are water soluble compounds, insoluble in organic solvents Most of them have bitter taste (except: populin, glycyrrhizin, stevioside)
  • 10. Odorless except saponin (glycyrrhizin).  when a glycosides has a lot of sugars its solubility in water decrease. Glycosides hydrolyzed by using mineral acids and temperature or by using enzymes
  • 11. General extraction method of glycosides Sta-otto method The drug containing glycoside is finely powdered and subjected to successive extraction in a soxhlet apparatus with alcohol or suitable solvent.  first take drug containing glycoside, finely powdered that, and it is extracted with alcohol or water by using soxhlet apparatus.  After extraction, collect the extract and treat with lead acetate to precipitate tannins
  • 12. after that filter it and to the filtrate pass H2S gas, to precipitated excess of lead acetate and convert it to ppt of lead sulphide as this is toxic.  Now the extract again filter. The filtrate is subjected to fractional crystallization, distillation or chromatography gives pure component And molecular structure of component is determined by the spectrophotometer, Ultra Red assays, Infra red , NMR and mass spectroscopy etc.
  • 13. Saponins glycosides They contain aglycon part sapogenin. harmful safogenins are called sapotoxins. This aglycone part have foaming action when shaked with water and yields colloidal solution. They are considerd as haemotoxic because they causes haemolysis of erythrocytes, hence some of them used as fish poisons Saponins are categorized in to two groups 1-steroidal saponins(tetracyclic triterpenoid saponins) 2-pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins
  • 14. Chemical tests for saponin glycosides Haemolysis test-a drop of blood on slide was mixed with few drops of aq. Saponin solution,RBCs becomes ruptured in presence of saponins Foam test- to 1gm of drug add 10-20 ml of water, shake for few min, formation of froth which persist for 60-120 seconds
  • 16. Liquorice roots Synonyms Glycyrrhiza, mulethi, yasti, marathi- jestha madhu Biological source- It consist dried ,unpeeled roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra linn Family –leguminosae It should contain not less than 3% of glycyrrhinic acid.
  • 17. Geographical source Commercially cultivated in Spain, Sicily and England Varieties of glycyrrhiza glabra G.Glabra var. typica ( spanish liquorice) G.Glabra var. glandulifera (russian liquorice) G.Glabra var. violacea ( persian liquorice)
  • 18. Cultivation and collection Propogation of plant is done by using pieces of stolons. each piece should have 2-3 buds of aerial shoot. Plant grow well in deep sandy soil with manures or fertilizers. pieces of stolon planted in march at 2*3 distance. Crop is kept free from weeds. Roots harvested after 3-5 years of planting,they are obtained from plants by dugging befor fruiting. Drug is washed with water. Large pices are cut in small one and dried under sun and then in shade
  • 19. Macroscopic charecters Colour- unpeeled drug yellowish brown or dark brown externally and yellowish internally Odour- faint and characteristic Taste- sweet size- length 20 to 50 cm, diameter 2cm Shape- unpeeled pieces are straight Fracture- fibrous in bark and splintery ( small, thin, sharp piece of wood) in wood Extra feature- unpeeled pieces show presence of small buds and longitudinal wrinkles
  • 21. Cork cells- polyhedral tubular brownish colour thick, lignified, partially lignified fibers in phloem and xylem Starch and cal oxalate crystals present in parenchyma Stolon contains pith while root do not contain pith Pith, or medulla, is a tissue in the stems of vascular plants. Pith is composed of soft, spongy parenchyma cells, which store and transport nutrients throughout the plant
  • 22. Chemical constituents Main constituent is glycyrrhizin( glycyrrhizic acid) glycoside on hydrolysis it yields glycyrrhetinic acid(triterpenoide) other constituents are sucrose, glycyramarin(bitter principle), resins, fat, asparagin it contain flavonoids like liquiritin and isoliquiritin
  • 23. Chemical test Thick section of drug or powder+ 80% sulphuric acid=yellow colour
  • 24. Uses Expectorent, demulcent(agent that forms a soothing film over a mucous membrane, relieving minor pain and inflammation) , falvouring agent, anti- inflammatory, rheumatide arthritis, due to flavonoid content with antigastric ulcer effect it is used in peptic ulcer, antispasmodic it is ingredient of liquorice compound powder which is potentiate the effect of senna
  • 25. Adulterants and substitutes Manchurian liquorice ( glycyrrhiza uralensis), it is free from sugar but contains glycyrrhizin- pale chocklet brown colour Russian liquorice( G glabra var glandulifera), it have purplish colour
  • 27. BRAHMI Synonym- Bacopa , Hindi: ब्राह्मी B S-it consist of fresh leaves and stems of plant Bacopa moniera linn family -Scrophulariaceae It should contain not less than 2.5% of bacoside A on dried basis
  • 28. Geographical source- It found throught india in wet , damp place native to the wetlands of southern India, Australia, Europe, Africa, Asia, and North and South America herb used in Ayurveda, where it is also known as "Brahmi," after Brahmā, the creator God of the Hindu pantheon.
  • 29. Cultivation and collection It can be easily grown in damp areas, propagated by seed as well as vegetatively using runners. Rainy season is an appropriate time for planting of this crop. The whole herb is generally collected after the rainy season in the month of October-November.
  • 30. Macroscopic charecterstics Colour- green Tast- bitter Size- leaves 2 cm Shape -leaves are sessile(leaves lack a petiole and so are attached directly to the stem) and there lower surface is dotted, flower are bluish white in colour and 1 cm size
  • 31. T.S. of Bacopa monnieri stem (a) Vascular bundle and centrally large pith, (b) Y linked parenchyma cells, (c) Prismatic crystal of calcium oxalate, (d) Xylem phloem
  • 32. Chemical constituents Saponin- bacoside A and B alkaloids-brahmine, herpestine, other- betulic acid, stigmasterol,monnierin,hersaponin
  • 35. DIOSCOREA SYNONYM- yam, rheumatism root B.S- it consist of dried tubers of plant Dioscorea deltoidea,D.composita, and other species of dioscorea. family- dioscoreaceae
  • 36. Geographical source- North western Himalaya,Punjab to Nepal, In China up to altitude of 1000 to 3000 meter. it is cultivated in Jammu and Kashmir
  • 37. Cultivation and collection -Cultivated from tubers with crown of about 70-80 gm in weight. -first sown in nursery bed. -after 30-40 day tubers sprout.(germinate) -after 2-3 month of growth transplanted in field at distance of 30*60cm. -they required support for optimum growth as veins are weak and tender. -Manures and organic fertilizers are supplied. -Irrigation done every 10 days -fresh tubers are harvested by deep ploughing after two years of crop. -Dried and they loose 50% weight after drying.
  • 38. Macroscopic charecterstics Colour- slightly brown Odour- odourless Taste-bitter Extra features- it is climber, rhizomes are soft, horizontally arranged and very close to soil, drug covered with scattered roots.
  • 39. Microscopic characteristics- Epidermis is absent in TS. cork consist few layers. and few layers of cortical parenchyma tissue. stele ( primary vascular tissue in the stem or root of a vascular p lant, consisting of the xylem and Phloem together with supporting tissues, such as pith.) is major part of drug consisting collateral fibro-vasculer bundles. endodermis and pericyle are indistinguishable.
  • 40. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS 75% non edible starch as it is bitter. chief constituent is diosgenin {sugar-free (aglycone) . It is hydrolytic product of saponin-dioscin} other Glycosides- smilagenin, epismilagenin, yammogenin
  • 41. Uses Diosgenin is steroidal sapogenin so used as precursor for synthesis of corticosteroids, sex hormones, oral contraceptive. diosgenin used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis
  • 42. Isolation of diosgenin dried tubers are powdered and dioscin is hydrolysed by mineral acids to obtain diosgenin, then it is extracted by non polar solvents like benzene or solvent ether
  • 43. Allied species Dioscorea flouribunda- india, central america -D.villosa- USA-D,deltoidea wall var. sikkimensis prain Himalayas, Nepal, Sikkim Cheilocostus speciosus or crêpe ginger is alternate source of diosgenin (1.5%)
  • 45. Ginseng SYNONYM- ninjin, panax,pannag B.S- it consist of dried roots of various species of panax like p.Ginseng(korean ginseng), p.Japonica(japanese ginseng), p.Notoginseng(chinese ginseng), p.Quinquefolium(american ginseng). family- Araliaceae The English word ginseng derives from the Chinese term rénshēn . Rén means "Person" and shēn means "plant root"; this refers to the root's characteristic forked shape, which resembles the legs of a person.
  • 47. Chemical constituents It contains mixture of saponin glycosides(triterpenoid group) Ginsenosides,-aglycon is dammarol panaxosides,-aglycon is oleanolic acid,panaxadiol,panaxatriol chikusetsusaponin
  • 48. Uses Immunomodulatory ( it increase natural resistance and enhance power to overcome illness or exhaustion). Tonic and stimulant aphrodisiac. In old days it was used to cure giddiness and prolong life of elderly and diabetic person. externally used in cosmetics
  • 49. Substitutes codonopsis tangshen used by poor people in china as substitute for costly ginseng. unusual climber, bearing subtle, yellowish-green, bell-shaped flowers, with purple markings on the inside; the root is used in China to make a tonic.
  • 51. Synonyms- smilax medica, radix sarsa, jamaica sarsaparilla B.S- It consist of dried roots of Smilax Ornata Hooker, family-Liliaceae
  • 52. Characteristica- Word sarsaparilla derived from -spanish sana means bramble(any rough, (usually wild) twisted spiny shrub ) -and parilla means vine(climbing or trailing woody-stemmed plant) in allusion to the thorny stems of plant. -It is large perennial (plant that lives for more than two years )climber --in market drug is found as bundles consists of numerous long slender roots of 3 mm thickness.
  • 53. - shrunken and furrowed longitudinally with few root lets. Drug is tough and flexible difficult to break -colur - dark red to brown -Odour- odurless -Taste- slight bitter -When chewed it tinges saliva with slightly bitter and mucilaginous followed by acrid taste.
  • 54. Chemical constituents Saponin glycoside hydrolysis sarsaponin ------------ sarsapogenin + dextrose It also contains starch, sarsapic acid, fatty acids- palmitic ,stearic, behenic, oleic, linolic acids
  • 55. Uses Used in chronic skin diseases, rheumatism, passive dropsy, (old term for the swelling of soft tissues due to the accumulation of excess water.) syphilis.(sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. )
  • 56. Other species Smilax Officinalis- native jamaican sarsaparilla Very long roots with thick bark, grey or brown colour, odourless, mucilaginous taste Marketed product- it is Ingredient of purodil capsule and syrup( amil pharma)
  • 58. B S- It consist of dried berries of Solanum Khasianum C B Clarke family Solanaceae
  • 59. Geographical source in india found at varoius altitudes from costal region to up to 2000m. in hilly regions of india central india and china. It is commercialy cultivated in maharashtra ,Akola- Jalgoan tract
  • 60. Cultivation and collection cultivated from seeds either through nursery bed or by direct broadcasting -seeds sown in nursery bed -after sufficient growth of seedling they are transplanted in to open fields. At 50*50 cm -well drained soil and sunny atmosphere are preferred. -fertilizers are given -after six month plant are harvested for collection of berries. -drug is dried in shade to reduce moisture content
  • 61. Characterstics berries are yellowish to greenish in colour. Globose (globular form ) and 2.5 cm in diameter seeds are compressed smooth and brown in colour
  • 62. Chemical constituents it contains steroidal glycoside solasodine (3%) greenish yellow fixed oil Seeds contains alkaloid Solasodine can be converted to a group of compounds like testosterone and methyl testosterone and corticosteroids like predinisolone and hydrocortisone solasodine
  • 63. Uses solasodine is precursor for steroidal synthesis Solasodine is first converted to 16-dehydro- pregnenolone (16 DPA) , which is then converted to a group of compounds like testosterone and methyl testosterone and corticosteroids like predinisolone and hydrocortisone. These steroidal compounds have anti-inflammatory, anabolic and antifertility properties, sex hormones, oral contraceptives properties.
  • 64. Cardioactive sterols or cardiac glycosides Aglycone part of cardiac glycosides is steroidal moiety, i.e 5 memberd or 6 memberd lactone rings. Two classes exist in nature.cardenolides and bufadienolides. Those contain five memberd lactone ring are called cardenolides and six memberd lacton containing compounds called bufadienolides. cardenolide bufadienolide
  • 65. Term bufadienolide is derived from bufalin as it is obtained from skin of toads( toad poisone) In nature cardenolide accoure more than bufadienolide. Congestive heart failure is treated by cardiac glycosides.thy act as cardiotonic by increasing force of systolic contraction
  • 66. CHEMICAL TESTS FOR CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES Keller-kiliani test Alcoholic extract of drug + equal volume water and 0.5 ml strong lead acetate solution. Shake and filtered.filtrat extracted with equal volume of chloroform. Chloroform extract evaporated to dryness and dried residue dissolved in 3 ml glacial acetic acid+ few drop of ferric chloride solution. this solution transferred to test tube containing con. Sulphuric acid. Reddish brown layer formed wich turnes bluish green after standing due to presence of digitoxose.
  • 67. Legal test Alcoholic extract of drug + equal volume water and 0.5 ml strong lead acetate solution. Shake and filtered. Filtrat extracted with equal volume of chloroform. Chloroform extract evaporated to dryness and dried residue was dissolved in 2 ml pyridine+ 2 ml sodium nitroprusside + sodium hydroxide solution ( to make alkaline).pink colour due to glycoside or aglycone moiety.
  • 68. Baljet test T.S of digitalis leaves + sodium picrate solution= yellow to orange colour due to aglycone or glycoside 3,5- dinitro benzoic acid test alcoholic solution of drug + few drops of sodium hydroxide + 2% solution of 3,5 dinitrobenzoic acid= pink colour due to cardiac glycosides
  • 70. SYNONYMS Digitalis leaves , foxglove leaves B S it consist dried leaves of Digitalis Purpurea family Scrophulariaceae Should contain not more than 5% moisture, dried below 60 0 C
  • 71. GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE it is cultivated in England, Europe, USA , India
  • 72. CULTIVATION AND COLLECTION It is propagated by seeds. it requires calcarious, acidic, sandy soil for growth. seeds are very small in size i.e 100 seeds weigh 40 to 70 mg. seeds are mixed with fine sand and sown in nursery beds in march/april. young seedlings are transplanted in sep/november. crop is manured and kept free from weeds. In first year plant bears rosette leaves and in second year sessile leaves. Leaves collected in second year by handpicking when 2/3 rd of flowers are fully developed.
  • 73. leaves immediately dried in vacuum driers. dried leaves containing not more than 5% moisture are packed in airtight containers with dehydrating agents. Presence of moisture deteriorates glycosides. If dried above 60 0 C potency lost due to chemical degradation.
  • 74. MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS Colour- dark greyish green odour- slight taste- bitter size- 10 to 40 cm long and 4 to 20 cm wide shape- ovate- lanceolate(shape like lance head or tapering to a point at each end) to broadly ovate( like egg) Extra feature Leaves are slightly pubescent on both surfaces, pinnate venation,(one main vein extending from the base to the tip of the leaf and smaller veins branching off the main vein.) generally leaves are broken and crumbled.( break in small fragments)
  • 75. Microscopic characters Dorsiventral leaf.(two surfaces differing from each other in appearance and structure,) covering and glandular trichomes on boath surfaces. covering trichomes are uniseriate,( arranged in single series) 3 to 4 cells long, having collapsed cells, acute apex and warty( hard rough lump growing on) cutical. glandular trichomes are short, unicellular stalk and bicellular or unicellular head. it have anomocytic stomata (irregular celled)
  • 76. Starch grains are present in endodermis. collenchyma present at upper and lower epidermis and pericyclic ( is a cylinder of parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells that lies just inside the endodermis and is the outer most part of the stele of plants.)part.
  • 77. Chemical constituents 0.2 to0.45% cardenolides. purpurea glycoside A and B, glucogitaloxin. Other, odoroside H, gitaloxin, verodoxin, glucoverodoxin Saponin glycosides digitonin, gitonin
  • 78. Hydrolysis products of purpurea glycosides Purpurea glycoside A Purpurea glycoside B hydrolysis hydrolysis digitoxigenin + 3 digitoxose gitoxigenin +3 digitoxose digitoxigenin gitoxigenin
  • 79. Uses Congestive heart failure,( heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the needs of the body) artrial fibrillation( common type of abnormal heartbeat. The heart rhythm is fast and irregular in this condition.), artrial flutter, ( abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart. When it first occurs, it is usually associated with a fast heart rate or tachycardia (beats over 100 per minute)) supraventricular tachycardia
  • 80. Adulterants Verbascum Thapsus ( mullelin leaves)- large wooly branched candelabra(large branched candlestick or holder for several candles) trichomes. Primula Vulgaris (comfrey leaves)-multicellular trichomes forming hook at top. Symphytum Officinale( primrose leaves)-uniseriate covering trichomes 8 to 9 cell long.
  • 82. Synonym Oleander, lucky nut tree, trumpet flower Hindi Name : Kaner B S these are dried seeds of Thevetia Peruviana. Merrill. Family Apocynaceae
  • 83. MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS Colour-seeds are green to greenish black Odour- none taste-very bitter,produce numbness after chewing Shape- oblong,(elongated rectangle or oval shape) hard
  • 84. Chemical constituents It contains three suger molecules ( triosides) thevetin is major constituent. theventin it is mixture of two glycosides thevetin A , and B ( trioside). it contians L-thevetose +2 mol. D- glucose other are monoside ( contain single suger molecule) peruvoside, neriifolin, thevenerin, peruosidic acid all contains L- thevetose suger
  • 85. Thevetin A Thevetin B Thevetin A-cannogenin ( aglycone) Thevetin B-digitoxigenin(aglycone)
  • 86. Uses peruvoside used in mild cardiac insufficiency, weak heart, entire plant is poisonous and seeds are most poisonous. Seeds used as abortifacient, purgative, rheumatism(any disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue), dropsy(edema),
  • 88. SYNONYM Scillae bulbus, white squill, europian squill B.S it consist of dried slices of the bulb of white variety of Urginea Maritima linn family Liliaceae red squill have reddish brown outer scales
  • 89. Morphological chrecters Colour- scale have red or orange colour Odour-less intense Taste- mucilaginous, bitter, acrid shape- sundried bulbs are pear shaped size- size of man,s fist or larger extra feature- bulb consist smooth juicy scales, closely wrapped over one another.
  • 90. Chemical constituents Cardiac glycoside bufadienolide type. scillaren A and B, glucoscillaren A, proscillaridin A, Other flavonoid, mucilage scillaren A on enzymatic hydrolysis yield proscillaridin A and on acid hydrolysis yeild scillarenin A scillarenin A
  • 91. Uses stimulant, expectorant, diuretic , cardiac tonic, Chronic bronchitis, asthma, substitute for digitalis in failing heart
  • 93. Synonym kombe seeds, semen strophanthi, strophanthus seeds B.S it consist dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus Kombe oliv family Apocynaceae
  • 94. MACROSCOPIC CHARECTERS Greek strophos means twisted cord or rope, anthos means flower. limb of corolla of flower divided in to five long tail like segments. colour- seeds are externally light fawn(light brown) with greenish ting, silky lustrous odour-heavy when seeds crushed taste- very bitter shape- lance-ovoid flattened, obtusely edged( not pointed) size- 7 to 20 mm length, 4mm breathy, 2mm thick
  • 95. Chemical constituents 8 to 10 % cardiac glycosides known as K- strophanthin, it is mixture of three glycosides ie.cymarin, k- strophanthin β , k- strophanthoside, they differ in sugar part but same aglycone part strophanthidin Cymarin-strophanthidin+cymarose(sugar) K-strophanthin β-strophanthidin+cymarose+ β glucose K-strophanthoside-strophanthidin+cymarose β Glu+α glucose kombik acid( acid saponin)
  • 97. Chemical test 1 Strophanthus glycosides exhibit emerald green colour on addition of sulphuric acid 2 Dissolve 0.1 gm strophanthin in 5 ml water + few drops of ferric chloride solution , then 1 to 2 ml of con sulphuric acid. It gives initial red ppt that finally turns to green in 1 to 2 hours 3 Positive baljet ,legal test, keller- kiliani test
  • 98. Uses chronic heart weakness, its use is same like digitalis , diuretic
  • 99. Substitutents and adulterants adulterted with S. hispidus,-consist k- strophanthi, colour, shape similar to S. kombe S.nicholsoni, -whitish seed S.gratus,-brown colour S. sarmentosus- brownish ting, less bitter, small size
  • 100. Anthraqiunone glycosides Anthraquinone is derivative of anthracene.( C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings) Natural anthraquinone derivative have laxative effects These glycosides contains anthraquinone, anthrone, anthranol, dianthranol, oxanthrone, dianthrone etc as aglycone part. parent molecule for all these aglycones is anthraquinone. In reduced form anthraquinone is present as anthranol or anthrone wich are isomeric to each other.
  • 101. oxanthrone is intermediate substance from anthraquinone to anthranol. Bimeric form of anthrone is dianthrone. in fresh drug these aglycones are present in reduced form witch are biologically more active but during drying and storage they hydrolyzed , oxidized. Sugar part can be glucose, rhamnose, arabinose, primeverose etc.
  • 103. Chemical tests 1 borntrager,s test To 1 gm of drug add 5-10 ml of dil HCl, boil on water bath for 10 min and filter. Filtrate then extracted with CCl4/ benzene and add equal amount of ammonia solution to filtrate and shake. Ammonical layer becomes pink or red due to presence of anthraquinone.
  • 104. 2 .modified borntrager,s test to 1 gm drug add 5 ml dil HCl + 5 ml ferric chloride( 5%w/v). Boil on water bath for 10 min, cool , filter. Filtrate then extracted with CCl4/benzene and add equal volume of ammonia solution. Pink or red colour forms due to anthraquinone . This test used for C- type anthraquinone glycoside
  • 106. Senna Synonym senai- ki- patti, tinnevelley senna, cassia senna B.S It consist of dried leaflets of Cassia Angustifolia known as indian senna or Cassia Senna vahl family Leguminosae it should contain note less than 1 % of sennoside A and B on dried basis
  • 107. GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCE inndian senna cultivated in tinnevelley, madurai, ramnathpuram districs in Tamilnadu , kaddapa dist in Anthrapradesh , Kutch in Gujarat and Rajasthan
  • 108. cultivation collection and preparation sowing is done by seed broadcasting method . for earlier germination seed surface is triturated with sand . seeds are sown thinly. it required red loamy or coarse gravelly soil( high proportion of small stones). First sowing done in feb- march. Second sowing done in oct- november. It required semi irrigation or light irrigation.. Once flowers are grown cutting given to flower stalk for further branching to occur. leaves are harvested after 2-3 months of planting.
  • 109. First plucking done when leaflets fully grown, second plucking after one month of first plucking. Last plucking done after 4-6 weeks of second. Plant is uprooted after third plucking. Leaflets are dried in shade for 7-10 days. leaves are tossed( move from side to side or back and forth) to separate pods. Then packed in to large bundles under hydraulic pressure. Pressing produce transverse line on Indian senna witch are absent on Alexandrian senna leaves.
  • 110. Macroscopic characteristics colour- yellowish green odour- slight taste- mucilaginous, bitter and charecterstic size- 7-8 mm width, 25-60 mm length shape- lanceolate, apex acute with spine at top.trichomes present on both surfaces.
  • 112. it is isobilateral leaf.( divided into symmetrical halves ) trichomes present on both surfaces. Trichome,s are unicellular, conical, thick walled warty, slightly curved at base .palisade tissue present on upper and lower surface, they contain cluster crystals of cal oxalate . Pricyclic fibers present towards upper epidermis and above xylem
  • 113. Chemical constituents sennoside A , sennoside B . they have rhein( cassic acid) dianthrone as aglycone. other anthraquinone sennoside C,D, rhein , kaempferol, aloe- emodin, isorhamnetin, mucilase , resin, myricyl alcohol, salicylic acid, crysophagic acid, Cal. oxalate. tinnevelley glucoside
  • 114.
  • 115. USES purgative MOA- anthraquinone glycosides absorbed first in intestinal tract, then aglycone is separated and excreted in colon. it causes irritation and stimulation of colon, so movement( peristalsis) of colon increases, peristalsis also reduce water absorption hence soft and bulky faeces are formed. due to resin and emodin content griping occurs hence drug is given with carminatives.
  • 116. ADULTERANTS AND SUBSTITUTES Dog senna (c. obovata)- shape of leaves is obovate(ovate with the narrower end at the base.) with tapering apex. Papillose( nipple-like structure) cells in lower epidermis Palthe senna- anthraquinone glycosides absent.leaflets have long hairs and when boiled with chloral hydrate solution crimson colour occurs. bombay senna, mecca senna, arabian senna etc have leaflets brownish green colour and more elongated and narrower in shape.
  • 117. Alexandrian senna synonym folia sennae alexandrina, egyptian senna, cassia senna B.S it consist dried leaflets of Cassia Acutifolia delile family Leguminosa
  • 118. Macroscopic and microscopic charecters are same like indian senna. colour is pale greyish green. Base is more symmetrical, more pubescent. Chemical constituents and adulterants are same like Indian senna
  • 119. Aloe
  • 120. Aloes Synonym Aloe, Hindi-musabbar, kumari. Marathi- korphad BS It is dried juice of leaves of Aloe Barbadensis miller known as curacao aloe or ALoe Perryi baker known as socotrine aloes or Aloe Ferox miller, and hybrids of this species Aloe Africana miller and Aloe Spicatya baker known as cape aloes family Liliaceae
  • 121. Geographical source it is indigenous to estern and southern Africa. Cultivated in Caribben Island, Europe, India
  • 122. Cultivation and collection Propagation is done from root suckers. Root suckers planted in rows about 50 cm apart. Plant grow in dry climate and poor grade soil. Roots do not penetrate much in soil. Manure is provided. Leaves are cut first time after second year of planting and drug is obtained from leaves for 12 years. After 12 years plant is uprooted and new crop is taken. during collection cut is given at base of leaves so juice located in parenchymatous cells of pericycle exudes out.
  • 123. Preparation of aloe 1 barbados or curacao aloes it is obtained by giving cut on leaves of aloe barbadensis. because of spines on leaves it is put in to kerosene tins immediately after cutting . Then kept in tilted position on V- shaped wooden troughs to drain out juice. juice is boil in copper pans for evaporation to obtain thick juice. Then it is poured it to metal containers , where it hardens.
  • 124. 2 cape aloes Obtained from aloe ferox and its hybrid species. Leaves are cut transversely and kept in circular manner in basin shaped depression lined with goat skin or canvas. They are kept in this position for 5-6 hours till all juice exudes out and collected in goat skin. juice is boiled in iron kettle with continuous stirring with wooden paddle. Once juice is thick it is poured in to wooden cases where it solidify.
  • 125. 3 socotrin aloes It is obtained from aloe perryi in east Africa. juice is collected in goat skin and allowed to become semisolid in nature. It is exported in past like consistency. 4 zanzibar aloes it is verity of socotrine aloe. Juice is placed in skin of small carnivorous animals, where it solidify. Then packed in wooden boxes. It is also called monkey skin aloe, although skin is not of monkey.
  • 126. Description 1 curacao aloes Odour-strong odour resembling to iodoform. Taste is bitter. Colour is brownish black, opaque mass. Fracture-uneven fractured surface 2 cape aloes colour- dark brown or greenish brown to olive brown mass. Taste – nauseating and bitter. Odour - sour but distinct. Fracture - glassy
  • 127. 3 socotrine aloes colour- brownish yellow, opaque mass with pasty consistency. Taste- extremely bitter, nauseous. Odour –unpleasant 4 zanziber aloes colour- liver brown. Odour- characteristic but not disagreeable. taste bitter. Fracture – dull, waxy, smooth, even
  • 128. Microscopic charecterstics- TS shows outermost cuticle followed by epidermis, palisade tissue, mucilaginous parenchyma mesophyll. mesophyll contains vascular bundle covered with pericycle fibers layer. Inside pericycle ,aloetic cells are located witch contains aloe gel ( viscous yellow). Calcium oxalate crystals present in parenchyma. leaves are sessile
  • 129. Microscopic chrecters of aloe powder It is useful for identification of powdered aloes. it is studied in lacto phenol reagent to gradually solubilize particles so crystals can clearly seen 1 curacao aloes fragments consist of large number of very small needle or slender prisms 2 cape aloes transparent, brown, angular or irregular fragments. 3 socotrine aloes fragments consist of large prisms in group or dispersed form. 4 zanzibar aloes irregular lumps in with modular masses are embedded.
  • 130. Chemical constituents anthraquinone glycosides. main active constituent is Aloin. Aloin is also called as barbaloin barbaloin is C-glycoside Aloin
  • 133. Chemical teasts general chemical tests 1 gm aloe is powder boiled with 10 ml water, filtered. Filtrate used for bromine test and schoenteten,s reaction. 1 bromine test- filtrate+ freshly prepared bromin solution= pale yellow ppt of tetrabromalin 2 schoenteten,s test- filtrate+ borax shake well until borax dissolves.few drop of this soluition added in test tube filled with water= green fluorescence appears.
  • 134. Special test these test are to distinguish between varieties of aloe 1 nitrous acid test- aqueous solution of aloe + sodium nitrate crystals + acetic acid curacao aloes-sharp pink to carmine colour cape aloes- faint pink colour socotrine and zanzibar aloes- very less change in colour
  • 135. 2-Nitric acid test- nitric acid applied to drug or its aqueous solution curacao aloes- deep brownish red colour cape aloe- brownish colour changes to green socotrine aloes- pale brownish- yellow colour zanzibar aloes- yellowish brown colour
  • 136. 3 kupraloin test( klunge,s isobarbaloin test)- Dil. aqueous solution of aloe+ drop of copper sulphat+ sodium chloride + excess 90% alcohol Curacao aloes-wine red colour persist for 4 hours Cape aloes- faint colour rapidly changes to yellow Socotrine aloes-no colour zanziber aloes- no colour
  • 137. Uses purgative. Stronger purgative than all anthraquinon glycosides. To prevent gripping action carminative can be given. it is ingredient of compound tincture of benzoin( friar,s balsam) aloe gel is used for topical application and many cosmetic uses.
  • 138. Aloe gel- it is obtained from inner parenchyma cells of leaf. Slightly viscous and clear liquid. It should not be contaminated with aloe juice
  • 139. Adulterants and substitutes Natal aloes-it contains natalion, homonatalion, resin, it is weak purgative Mocha aloes- brittle, black and glossy with strong odour Aloe can be adulterated with black catechu. Alcoholic extract of aloe gives deep brown colour while black catechu gives black colour.
  • 141. Cascara synonym cascara sagrada, sacred bark, chittem bark BS it is dried bark of Rhamnus Purshiana de candolle, family Rhamnaceae It is collected at least one year before use
  • 142. Macroscopic charecters colour- purplish brown externally and reddish brown internally Odour- charecterstic nauseous taste- persistently bitter Size- 1 to 4 mm thick with varying size shape- Brocken pieces, small flat. Occurs in squills or channels extra feature- bark is very smooth, shows presence of scattered lenticels, and cork. Internally shows longitudinal striations.
  • 143. Chemical constituents fresh bark contains anthranol derivatives( gripping, emetic effect). After one year storage anthranol is oxidised to anthraquinones. it contains four primary glycosides Cascarosides A,B,C,D. OTHER barbaloin, chrysaloin, alo-emodin, chrysophanol, palmidins A,B,C,
  • 144. Uses mild purgative in small dose used as bitter stomachic (tone the stomach, improving its function and increasing appetite)and tonic, in large dose as purgative
  • 146. Rhubarb synonym East indian rhubarb, China rhubarb, Turky rhubarb BS it consist of peeled dried rhizomes and roots of Rheum Palmatum linn family polygonaceae
  • 147. Macroscopic charecters colour- externally brown, internally deep yellow colour taste -astringent odour- characterstic
  • 149.
  • 150. chemical test 1 -Rhubarb powder+ ammonia= pink colour 2 -Rhubarb powder+ 5% potassium hydroxide solution= blood red colour
  • 153. Andrographis Synonym- Kalmegh, king of bitter, chiretta Hindi- kiryeti, marathi – kadu kirayata B.S it consist of leaves or entire aerial part of Andrographis Paniculata Nees family Acanthaceae
  • 154. Geographical source Southeast Asia,includes India, Sri Lanka, Pakisthan, etc Indonesia,cultivated in China, Thailand, east and west Indies, Mauritius
  • 155. Cultivation and collection It is propagated from seeds. in India it is cultivated in rainy season ( kharif crop). it can be cultivated in any soil containing organic matters. planted at distance of 30 cm *15cm. no major insect and disease infection occurs to plant. at flowering stage after 90-120 days after cultivation ,it is cut at base leaving 10-15 cm stem for plant regeneration. 50-60 days after first harvesting ,final harvest is performed
  • 156. Macroscopic characters colour- leaves are dark green, flowers are rose colour Odour- odourless Taste-intensly bitter Size- leaves 7cm*2.5cm, flowers 1.8 cm length Shape- leaves are lanceolate, petilolate with entire margin and acuminate (Tapering gradually to a sharp point)apex. Venation is unicostate (only one primary or prominent rib, midrib) reticulate(divide in such a way as to resemble a net or network.)
  • 157. Chemical constituents bitter principles- andrographolide,( bicyclic diterpenoid lactone) kalmeghin andrographolide
  • 160. Psoralea Synonym- Bavachi fruits, malaya tea, bavachi seeds BS It consist of dried ripe fruits and seeds of Psoralea Corylifolia Linn family Leguminosa
  • 161. Macroscopic characterstics Colour- fruits are dark chocolate to black colour Odour- no Taste-bitter, acrid and unpleasant Size- 3-4.5 mm long, 2-3 mm broad Shape- ovate, oblong Extra- pericarp attached to seeds
  • 163. Chemical tests 1 dissolve psoralea in alcohol then add sodium hydroxide and observe under UV light=yellow fluorescence 2 dissolve psoralea in alcohol+ 3 times of propylene glycol+5 times of acetic acid+40 times of water=blue fluorescence under UV light
  • 164. Uses Aphordisiac, antibacterial, tonic for genital organs, diuretic , stimulant, stomachic
  • 166. Ammi majus Synonyms- bishop,s weed, laceflower, large bullwort, BS these are fruits of Ammi Majus Linn Family Umbelliferae
  • 167. Macroscopic characteristics Odour-slightly aromatic taste- strongly pungent, slightly bitter Size- fruits are 22.5mm long, 0.5-1.7mm broad Fruit shows four prominent secondary ridges
  • 169. Chemical tests 1 -boil 1 gm drug with 10ml water for 1 min and strain, add one or two drops of this decoction to 2 ml of solution of sodium hydroxide=no rose colour ( distinction from ammi visnaga) 2-alcoholic extract of fruit gives blue fluorescence under UV light
  • 170. Uses Furanocoumarins stimulate pigment production in skin when exposed to bright sunlight ,so used in skin disease like vitiligo( depigmentation of skin) and psoriasis(systemic disease characterized by skin lesions including red, scaly patches,itch) vitiligopsoriasis
  • 172. Ammi visanaga synonym- khella, pick tooth fruit B.S These are dried ripe fruits of Ammi Visanaga Linn family Umbelliferae
  • 173. Macroscopic charecteristics Colour- fruit is greenish brown Odour- slightly aromatic Taste-bitter and slightly pungent Size-2-2.5mm length,0.7-1.2 mm width,0.8-1mm thickness Extra features-mericarp shows 5 primary ridges and 4 secondary ridges
  • 174. Chemical constituents Furanocumarin compounds Khellin, visnagin, khellol, khellol glucoside 1% volatile oil, oil contains samidine, dihydrosamidine, visnadine
  • 175. Chemical test when drug trated with strong mineral acid shows lemon yellow colour while ammi majus shows dirty green brown colour
  • 176. Uses Khellin is smooth muscle relaxant and used as coronary vasodilator in angina pectoris, uterine colic, bronchial asthma, whooping cough
  • 178. Bitter almond synonym- amygdala amara BS These are dried ripe seeds of plant Prunus Amygdalus Batsch var amara family Rosaceae
  • 179. Macroscopic characterstics colour- brown odour- odourless taste- bitter size- 20mm length, 125mm width,10 mm thickness shape- flattened, oblong, ovoid shape with marking on testa
  • 180. Chemical constituents 40-50% bland fixed oil, 20% protien, bitter glycoside -amygdalin(1-3%), 0.5% volatile oil Amygdalin hydrolyzed to produce benzaldehyde+ hydrocyanic acid. Hydrocyanic acid is very poisonous hence it is not used internally. sweet almond do not contain amygdalin
  • 181. Uses oil is demulcent , In perfumary, in preparation of bitter almond water, sedative
  • 183. Gentian Synonym- Gentiana, radix gentianae B.S It is dried partially fermented rhizome and root of yellow gentian i.e Gentiana Lutea Family Gentianaceae
  • 184. Macroscopic characteristics colour- rhizomes are yellowish-brown Odour-peculiar( different) Taste- sweet taste followed by intense bitter Fracture- short and smooth in dried drug but tough and flexible in moist drug
  • 185. Chemical constituents Bitter glycoside -gentiopicrin(gentiopicroside) Others- Amarogentin, ( bitter) amaroswerin, gentioside, Gentinin Gentisin( yellow colour flavonoid) Gentisic acid, gentianose(trisaccharide) Gentibiose(disaccharide) sucrose
  • 186. Chemical test under UV light gentian extract shows light blue fluorescence
  • 189. Saffron Synonym Crocus,marathi-keshar, spanish saffron, french saffrone B.S It is the dried stigma and styletops of Crocus Sativum Linn. Family Iridaceae
  • 190. Macroscopic charecterstics Colour-reddish brown Odour-strong,peculiar and aromatic Taste- aromatic and bitter Extra features- Flattish tubular, almost thread like stigmas
  • 191. Chemical constituents Volatile oil(1.3%), fixed oil, wax, crocin( colouring compound), crocetin( aromatic compound), picrocrocin( bitter glycoside) caretenoids
  • 192. Uses Fever, Cold, enlargement of liver, cosmetics preparations, spice, aphrodisiac, stimulant, Tonic, emmenagouge
  • 194. Chirata Synonym- Indian gentian, indian balmony. B.S It consist of the entire herb of Swertia Chirata Family Gentianaceae it contains not less than 1.3% bitter constituent
  • 196. Uses Extramely bitter tonic, digestive, stimulant, lowers fever, Dyspepsia(indigestion) cholagogue
  • 198. Picrorhiza Synonym- Kami, hindi- kuru or kutki, marathi- kali katuki BS It consist of dried rhizome of Picrorhiza Kurroa royle ex benth family Scrophulariaceae
  • 199. Morphological characteristic Colour- greyish brown Odour- slightly unpleasant Taste- bitter Extra features- cylindrical, straight or curved, wrinkled longitudinally
  • 200. Chemical constituents Picrorhizin kutkin picroside-I,II,III, D- mannitol vanillic acid, kurrin kutkiol, kutkisterolphenolic kutkoside phenolic glycosides- picein, androsin
  • 201. Uses Cathartic, Stomachic Antiperiodic( prevent recurrence of disease) cholagouge, Febrifuge antimalerial, jaundice emmenagogue, emetic antidote for dog bite abortifacient bitter tonic laxative
  • 203. Quassia Synonym- Bitter wood, jamaica Quassia, bitter ash BS It is dried wood of stem of Aeschrion Excela( Picroena Excela, or Picrasma Excela) family- Simarubaceae
  • 204. Morphological characteristics Colour- white but changes to yellow in air Odour-no taste- intense bitter
  • 207. Marine pharmacognosy Definition: a branch of pharmacology concerned with pharmacologically active substances present in aquatic plants and animals; its objective is to find and develop new therapeutic agents.
  • 208. traditional Western pharmacognosy focused on the investigation and identification of medically important plants and animals in the terrestrial environment, although many marine organisms were used in traditional Chines medicines. research into the chemistry of marine organisms is relatively unexplored and represents a vast resource for new medicines to combat major diseases such as cancer, AIDS or malaria Research typically focuses on sessile organisms or slow moving animals because of their inherent need for chemical defenses. Standard research involves an extraction of the organism in a suitable solvent followed by either an assay of this crude extract for a particular disease target or a rationally guided isolation of new chemical compounds using standard chromatography techniques..
  • 209. Marin sources are used to find novel drugs in treatment of human ailments Marin organism contains secondary metabolites useful as antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer,anti- inflammatory, neurophysiological, cardiovascular and many more. Many of these species contains toxic compounds
  • 210. Classification of marine drugs 1 cardiovascular drugs– Anthopleurins, laminine, eptatretin, saxitoxin, spongosine, eledosin, autonomium 2 anticancer compound– Ara-c, crassin acetate simularin 3 antimicrobial compounds– holotoxin A,B,C, tholepin, cycloeudesmol, variabilin, ircinin-1 4 anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic- manolide, tetrado toxin 5 marin toxins- ciguatoxin, palytoxin, saxitoxin, brevetoxin 6 miscellaneous- kainic acid, domoic acid, aplysinopsin
  • 211. Cardiovascular active compound Anthopleurins- is a toxin from the venom of the sea anemones Anthopleura Xanthogrammica and Anthopleura eleqantissima. Anthopleurin has four isoforms (Anthopleurin-A, -B, -C, and -Q). Their working mechanism is based on binding to sodium channels, which leads to increased excitation especially in cardiac myocytes .positive inotropic effect without acting on sodium potassium ATPase. it is35 times more potent than digoxin with less toxicity
  • 212. Eptatretin Found in pacific hogfish Eptatretus Stoutii. it is potent cardiac stimulant and effect is comparable to adrenalin
  • 213. Laminine It is hypotensive compound obtained from marin algae Laminaria Angustata
  • 214. D(-) OCTOPAMINE found in Octopus Macropus, O. vulgaris. it produce adnergic and cardiovascular response
  • 215. Saxitoxin found in butter clam ie Saxidomus giganteus and California mussel. It is hypotensive
  • 216. Autonomium it is found in Vernogia fistularis. it is both adrenergic and cholenergic compound hence regulate behaviour of heart
  • 217. ATX-II It is polypeptide found in sea Anemones. it is cardiotonic ( positive inotropic)
  • 218. Holothurins and asterosaponins these are marin saponins glycosides Holothurins present in sea cucumbers of family holothuroidae. It is cardiotonic and ichthyotoxic action( either toxic to fish or are toxins produced by fish) Asterosaponins obtained from star fishes of family asteroide.toxic to various marin organisms. They have hypotensive, haemolytic, antiinflammatory effect Sea cucumber starfish
  • 219. Spogosine It is methoxy derivative of adenosine. Found in caribbean sponge Crypotethia crypta. it reduces rate and force of heart contraction
  • 220. Eledosin Obtained from posterior salivery glands of Cephalopod Eledone moschata. powerful hypotensive and strong vasodilator
  • 221. Anticancer compounds Ara-C (Cytarabine or cytosine arabinoside) It is synthetic compound based on natural compound spongosine and spongouridine obtained from caribbean sponges used mainly in the treatment of CANCER of WBC such as Acute myeloida leukemia (AML) and non-hodgkin lymphoma Ara-C
  • 222. Crassin acetate It is obtained from caribbean gorgonian ( sea fans) Pseudoplexaura Porosa. It is cytotoxic to human leukemia. it is cyclic diterpene CRASIN ACETATE
  • 223. Antimicrobial compounds Holotoxine A,B,C ( steroid glycosides) -obtained from sea cucumber Stichopus japonicum. Tetrabromoheptane- from brown algae Dictyopteris zonaroides Aeroplysinin-1(+) and1(-)- red algae and spoge Prepacifenol- from red algae Laurencia pacifica Tholpin- from annelida Thelepsus setosus Debromolaurenterol- from sea hare Aplysua californica Eunicin- from gorgonian corals, Eunicia mammosa Acanthelin-1 – from Acanthella acuta
  • 224. Antibiotic compounds Cycloeudesmol- from rad algae, Chondria oppositiclada variabilin, ircinin-1- from sponge, Ircinia strobilina and Ircinia oros acetamide- from sponge, Veronigia archery variabilin cycloeudesmol
  • 225. Anti-inflammetory and antispasmodic agents Mannoalidae- it is non steroidal anti-inflammetory compound obtained from sponge Luffariella variabilis. Dendalone-3- hydroxy butyrate -from sponge, Phyllospongia dedyi Flexibilis- from soft coral, sinularia Luffariella variabilis. sinularia
  • 226. flustramineA, B- these are muscle relaxant obtained from swedish marin moss Flustra foliaceae Teradotoxin- is strong antispasmodic obtained from liver and ovaries of puffer fishes Flustra foliaceae puffer fish
  • 227. Marine toxins Ciguatoxine These are a group of marine biotoxins, which are the cause of a foodborne intoxication known as ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). CFP is associated with consumption of coral reef fish from tropical and subtropical waters in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Caribbean sea. Ciguatoxin is produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a type of dinoflagellate, that are eaten by big coral reef fish, Ciguatoxin usually accumulates in skin, head, viscera, and roe of the fish. Toxic symptomes are neurological,cardiovascular, gastrointestinal like respiratory depression, bradycardia.
  • 228. Palytoxin it is an intense vasoconstrictor, and is considered to be one of the most toxic non- peptide substances known. produced by several marine pylothia species and can be found in many more species due to accumulation. Because palytoxin affects every cell in the body, the symptoms are very different for the various routes of exposure
  • 229. Red tide toxins ( paralytic shell fish toxins) These shellfish are filter feeders and, therefore, accumulate neurotoxins, called saxitoxin, produced by microscopic algae. these algae change colour of sea water as red water or red tides. They contain peridinin , a red colour pigment. Human toxicity and mortality can occur after ingestion of these animals, but toxicity is also seen in wild animal populations. shellfish poisonings are water-insoluble, heat and acid-stable, and ordinary cooking methods do not eliminate the toxins marin toxins have yet not been used in clinical medicines
  • 230. Miscellaneous compounds They are used as anthelmentic, anticoagulant, insecticides. kinic acid- anti-ascariatic activity Domic acid- used against pinworm and ascaria Ara-A- ( adenine arabinoside)-active aginst herpes encephalitis carrageenan- anticoagulant aplisinopsin- antidepressent, cytotoxic activity
  • 231. Study of traditional drugs Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as: "Traditional medicine is the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether understood or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness.
  • 232. Amala
  • 233. Amala Synonyms Indian gooseberry, embilic myrobalan Regional names Sansk-amalki, dhatriphala,hindi-amala,marath-anvala, avalkanthi B.S Amala consist of fresh or dried fruits of Emblica officinalis Family Euphorbiaceae
  • 234. Macroscopy Colour-green when tender but changes to light yellow or brick red on maturity Taste- sour and astringent initially and sweet afterwards Shape- globose Size-1.5-2.5 cm in diameter It is distinctly marked in six lobes
  • 235. Chemical constituents It is important source of vitamin C, minerals, amino acids Tannin (gallic acid, ellagic acid), sugar, gum, albumin, crude cellulose, moisture
  • 237. Marketed formulations Triphala churna by zandu, chawanprash by dabour Jeevani malt by chirayu pharma
  • 239. Kantakari Synonyms Kateli, yellow-berried nightshade BS It consist whole plant of Solanum surattense Family Solanaceae
  • 240. Chemical constituents Berries contain Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, isochlorogenic acid , neochlorogenic acid, esculin, Cycloartanol,cholesterol,diosgenin, derivatives of cholesterol, fruit oil, flower contains Disgenin, apigenin, quercetin
  • 241. Uses Antiasthmatic, aperient,(used to relieve constipation.) diuretic, digestive, febrifuge, decoction used in gonorrhoea, and to promot conception
  • 242. Marketed formulations It is ingredient of preparations like chyawanprash,diakof, koflet(himalaya), khadiradi gutika( dabur)
  • 245. Macroscopy Colour-white Taste-bitter Shape -cylindrical, straight or slightly curved, swollen in middle, tapering towards base. size-5-15cm length,1-2cm diameter Fracture- irregular
  • 246. Chemical constituents Steroidal saponins shatavarinI,II,III,IV, OTHERS beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, sarsasepogenin, spirostanolic acid, aspargamine a
  • 248. Marketed formulation It is ingredient of following K G Tone (Aimil) Diabecon, galactin,abana(Himalaya) Dhatupaushtik churna, rhuma oil, mahanarayan tel( Baidyanath) J P massage oil, painkill oil (Jamuna pharma) Shatavari kalp, shatavarex granules( Zandu)
  • 249.
  • 250.
  • 252. Tylophora Synonyms Anantmul, B .S It consist of dried leaves and roots of Tylophora Indica Family Asclepiadaceae
  • 253. Macroscopy Colour-yellow-brown Odour-no Taste-sweetish and subsequent acrid Shape-elliptic-oblong, Size-5-10cm long,2.5-5.3 cm wide
  • 255. Uses Bronchial asthama, bronchitis, rheumatism, Dermatitis ,emetic, diphoretic,( induce sweting) anti inflammatory, antibacterial, expectorent
  • 257. BHILWA
  • 258. BHILWA SYNONYM marking nut, oriental cashew, bhilama BS It consist of the tree of Semicarpus Anacardium Linn family Anacardiaceae
  • 259. Macroscopy Colour- shining black Taste- bitter Pericarp is abandent in black ,vesicant(causes severe skin, eye and mucosal pain and irritation.) oily juice Juice is known as bhilwa shell liquid witch is reach source of phenolic compounds
  • 260. Chemical constituents Juice cantains Bhilwanol (46%), monohydroxy phenol, semicarpol, Fruit contains nicotinic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, anacardic acid, bioflavanoids A,B,C, tetrahydrobustaflavone, tetrahydroamentoflavone, nallaflavone, anacarduflavanone
  • 261. USES asthma,ascites, piles, epilepsy, neuralgia, tumours, warts,(solid blister) psoriasis, rheumatism, abortifacient, anthelmintic, seed oil used externally in goute (kind of arthritis), leprosy, leucoderma juice of pericarp is counter-irritent , vesicant(
  • 262. MARKETED FORMULATIONS ingredient of prasarini tail, patrangasava, sanjivani vati ( DABUR)
  • 263. bach
  • 264. BACH Synonym Sweet flag, Sweet Root, Bach BS it is plant Acorus Calamus family Acoraceae
  • 265. Charecters it is perinnial (plant that lives for more than two years) herb growing up to six fit. leaves are long, slender, grass like. flowers are minute greenish yellow in colour. fruit is berry like
  • 267. Medicinal uses Analgesic for thooth ache or headache . clean and disinfect teeth, fatigue, cough
  • 269. Punarnava Synonym Hogweed Regional names Sansk-punarnava, gophagni, hindi-punarnava, mar- ghetuli, vasuchimuli, khaparkuti BS It consist of fresh as well as dried whole plant of Boerhaavia diffusa linn Family Nyctaginaceae
  • 270. Macroscopic charectes Colour-stem is greenish purple,roots are yellowish brown,flowers are white or pink Odour-dourless taste-bitter It have two verities those having white flowers are sweta punarnava and those with red flowers are called rakta punarnava
  • 271. Chemical constituents Phenolic glycoside Punarnavoside Others boeravinones A,B,C, beta sitosterol, boeravine, ursolic acid
  • 272. USES Antifibrinolytic (prevent the breakdown of BLOOD clots) Anti-inflammatory, Diuretic IUD menorrhagia, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, blood purifier
  • 273. Marketed formulations Ingredient of preparations Deepact-lupin hearb, abana, immunol, diabecon- himalaya, punarnawadi guggulin, punarnavarista-baidyanath, sobigol-aimil, j p liver syrup-jamun pharma
  • 274.
  • 276. Chitrak Synonym White leadwort Regional names Sansk-agni,vahni,dahana,hindi-chira,chitrak,mar- chitrak BS It consist of dried mature roots of Plumbago zeylanica linn Family Plumbaginaceae
  • 277. Macroscopy Colour- reddish to deep brown, Odour- disagreeable Taste-acrid Size- 30cm diameter
  • 279. Uses Increase digetion and appetite, hypoglycemic, hypolipidaemic, CNS stimulant, piles, diarrhoea, skin disease
  • 280. Marketed formulation ingredient of j p liver syrup-jamuna pharma Piles care, mansulate-chitryu Chitrakadi bati avajeha- baidyanath
  • 282. Apamarga Synonym Prickly chaff flower Regional names Sansk- apamarga.hindi-chirchira, mar- aghada BS It consist of dried whole plant of Acyranthes aspera linn Family Amaranthaceae
  • 283. Chemical constituents Triterpenoid saponin glycoside – oleanoil acis ( aglycone) Long chain alcohols, long chain ketones
  • 286. Gokhru
  • 287. Gokhru Synonym Caltrops fruit Regional names Sansk-goksuraka, trikanta,hind-gokhru, mar- sarate, gokharu BS These are dried ripe seeds of Tribulus terrestris linn family Zygophyllaceae
  • 288. Macroscopy colour- yellowish Odour-no taste- mucilagenous Shape- globus fruits Size-1.2cm diameter Extra -fruit is densely hairy, spiny cocci, large pointed spin at each coccus, two spines directed downwards, several seeds present in each coccus
  • 289. Chemical constituents Steroidal saponin Terestrosins A,B,C,D,E, desgalactotigonin. F- gitonin,desglucolanatigonins, Gitonin,diosgenin, Chlorogenin , hecogenin, neotiogenin, other tersterosideF, Tribulosingracillin, dioscin , flavonoids, beta sitosterol, stigmasterol
  • 291. Marketed formulation Ingredient of Bonnisan, confido, himplasia,renalka- himalya, dhatupaushtik churna- baidyanath, semento- aimil, body plus cap- jay pranav ayurved
  • 292.
  • 294. Shankhpushpi Synonym Sankhapushpi regional names sansk- sankhapushpi, hindi- sankhpushpi, mar- shankhavela, sanklmhull BS It consist of whole aerial parts of Convolvulus pluricaulis Family Convolvulaceae
  • 295. Chemical constituents alkaloid shankhpushpine, Flavonoides and cumarins Kaempferol, long chain fatty alcohols, beta sitosterol, sugars
  • 297. Marketed formulation Ingredient of Mentat, anxocare-himalaya, Shankhapushpi syrup-baidyanath, Shankhpushpi churna- shantikunj
  • 298. Adulsa
  • 299. Adulsa Synonym Vasaka Regional names Sansk- atarusa, vasaka, hindi- adusa, mar- adulsa BS It consist of fresh or dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica nees family Acanthaceae
  • 300. Macroscopy Colour- green when fresh , brown to grey on drying odour-characteristic taste- bitter Shape- lanceolate-TO ovate lanceolate, Margin- crenate to entire, apex- acuminate (tapering to point) Base- tapering Petiolr- 2-10cm broad, vennation- pinnate, glabrous or slightly pubescent
  • 302. Uses bronchitis, asthama, cough, local bleeding due to peptic ulcer, piles, menorrhagia, tuberculasis
  • 303. Marketed formulations ingredient of vasavaleha-dabur Kasamrit herbal- baidyanath Vasaka cap- himalaya
  • 305. Tinospora Synonym Guduchi, Regional names sansk- anirtavallf, amrta,guducika, hindi- giloe, gurcha BS It consist of matured pieces of stem of Tinospora cordifolia Family Menispermaceae
  • 306. Macroscopy Colour-young stems green and mature stems are light brown Odour- no taste- bitter Pieces of varying thickness, lenticels are present
  • 307. Chemical constituents columbin, tinosporaside,,alkaloids jactrorhizine,palmatine, berberine, tembeterine, sesquiterpene glucoside tinocordifolisoide, disaccharide cordifolioside A,B Others choline, tinosporic acid, tinosporal, tinosporone
  • 309. Marketed formulation one of the ingredient of guduchi tablet, abana, bonnisan, rumalaya- himalaya
  • 310. METHI
  • 311. Methi Synonym Fenugreek, greek hay regional names sansk- methini, hindi- methi, BS It consist of dried seeds of Trigonella foenuma- graecum linn family Fabaceae
  • 312. Macroscopy colour-dull yellow Odour-pleasant taste – bitter shape- oblong siaze- 0.2-0.5cm long, 0.15-0.35cm broad
  • 313. Chemical constituents seed contains Steroidal saponins trigofoenoside A,B,C,D,E,F,G, Trigonelloside C, Yamogenin tetroside B,C, tenugrin B trigogenin, neotigogenin, yemogenin, diosgenin, gitogenin, flavonoid quercetin, luteolin, vitexin, vicenin-1,2
  • 314. Uses Anticholesterolemic, antiinflammatory, antitumour, Carminative, demulcent, emollient, expectorent, febrifuge, galactogogue, Hypoglycemic,laxative, parasiticide, uterine tonic
  • 315. Marketed formulations one of the ingredient of dabur vatika antidandruff shampoo-dabur Ayurslim, geriforte, immunol- himalaya
  • 316. lahsun
  • 317. Lahsun Synonym Garlic regional names sansk– rasona, yavanesta, hind- lahasun, mar- lasun BS it consist of bulb of Allium sativum linn family Liliaceae
  • 318. Macroscopy Colour-pappery whitish and brittle scales odour- -characteristic, aromatic taste- aromatic pungent Bulbs are composed of several cloves, enclosed in white skin of parent bulb
  • 319. Chemical constituents Volatile oil contains allyl disulphide, allin, allicin, allyl propyl disulphide, diallyl disulphide other thoglycoside, amino acid , fatty acids, flavonols, vitamines, trace elements, mucilage, albumin
  • 320. Uses Anthelmintic, antiasthmatic, anticholesterolemic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, diuretic, Expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant,stomachic,tonic, vasodilator, colon cancer, cough, whooping cough, gangrene of lung( tissue dies)
  • 321. Marketed formulations one of the ingredient of lasuna tablet- himalaya Lashunadi bati- baidyanath
  • 322. palash
  • 323. Palash synonym dhak, bastard teak, bengal kino tree, flame of forest BS it consist of whole plant of Butea monosperma Family Papilionaceae
  • 324. Chemical constituents butea gum contain leucocyanidin, procyanidin, gallic acid, riboflavin, flower contains flavonoid glycosides, amino acids, fatty acids
  • 325. Uses anti- implantation, anti-vovulatory , antibacterial, worm infection, extract of seed is used to prevent pregnancy, anthelmintic, inflammation, piles, skin disease, tumers
  • 326. Marketed formulations one of ingredient of lukol- himalaya, j p nikhar oil- jamuna pharma
  • 327. guggal
  • 328. Guggal Synonym gumgugul, salai-gogil regional names sansk- purd, kaugika, hindi- gugal, guggui, mar- guggul BS it consist of gum resin obtained by incision of bark of Commiphora mukul family Burseraceae
  • 329. Macroscopy colour-brown tears, with water forms white emulsion, odour- balsamic taste- bitter aromatic
  • 330. Chemical constituents Gum, essential oil, sterols Guggulsterols I to VI, beta sitosterol, cholesterol, z- guggulsterone, E- guggulsterone, sugars, amino acids, alpha camphorene, cembrene, allylcembrol, flavonoids quercetine
  • 331. Uses reduce holesterol, LDL, VLDL( bad cholesterol) Increase HDL( good cholesterol) Inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce body weight Astringent, anti rheumatic, antiseptic, expectorent, aphordisiac, demulcent, emmenagogue
  • 332. Marketed formulations one of the ingredient of arogyavardhini gutika- dabur abana, diabecon, diakof- himalaya
  • 333. Neem
  • 334. Neem Synonym margosa, azardirachta BS It consist of almost all parts of plant Azardirachta indica Family Meliaceae
  • 335. Macroscopy Colour- leaves are yellowish green odour- charecterstic taste- bitter Neem is large evergreen tree
  • 336. Chemical constituents It contains isoprenoids( terpenoids) and non isoprenoids Limodids(bitter), Tricyclic diterpenoids nimbol, morgocin, nimbidol, Nimolin , nimbisinol, nimbinone, nimbione, nimboson, margosolone, Nonisopernois includes glycosides, flavonoids, sulphur compounds,, polysaccharides,
  • 339. Gymnema Synonym Gymnema sylvester regional names sansk- meshashring, hind- gurmar, mar- kavali, vakundai BS It consist of dried leaves of Gymnema sylvestre Family Asclepiadaceae
  • 340. macroscopy it is large, woody, much branched climber, leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic, pubescent on both surface
  • 341. Chemical constituents Gymnemic acid, tartaric acid, resin, carbohydrate, albumin
  • 342. Uses Antidiabetic agent, Gulmar ( suger destroying), it abolish taste of suger. It anaesthetises sweet taste buds and effect last for several hours Astringent, stomachic, tonic, refrigerant
  • 344. Shilajit Synonym Mineral Pitch, mineral wax in English Sanskrit meaning is "conqueror of mountains and destroyer of weakness.“ thick, sticky tar-like substance with a colour ranging from white to dark brown Botanical Name :- Asphaltum Shilajit is produced by the decomposition of plant material from species such as Euphorbia royleana andTrifolium repens Shilajeet is obtained from rocks in the Himalayan region. It is a form of mineral that drips from the cracks of the rocks during hot weather. It is decomposition of the plant matter in the rocks centuries before. The bio-transformed plant matter is extruded from the rocks by geothermal pressures. It is collected in raw form for further purification.
  • 345. Chemical constituents humic substances, including fulvic acid,( around 60% to 80% ), contain at least 85 minerals in ionic form humic substances are the results of degradation of organic matter, mainly vegetal substances, which is the result of the action of many microorganisms. Humic acid. eldagic acid, some fatty acids, resins , latex, gums, albumins, triterpenes, sterols, aromatic carboxylic acids, , amino acids, polyphenols, phenolic lipids
  • 347.
  • 349. Nagarmotha Synonym nut grass- english, mutha, nagarmotha,-hindi , moth,-mar, mustak-sansk BS It consist of dried tuberous roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus family Cyperaceae
  • 350. Macroscopy Colour- dark brown Odour- aromatic Taste- sweetish aromatic, somewhat pungent
  • 351. Chemical constituents Flavonoids, alkaloids, fatty acids, sterols, tannins, essential oil, oil contains, cyperene, cyperol, isocyperol, sugetriol, sugeonol, cyprotundone, cyperenone
  • 353. Marketed formulations Diarex,-himalaya, hempushpa oil- RajVaidya Sheetal Prasad & Sons
  • 354. Indian traditional system of medicines
  • 355. Ayurveda Ayurveda is a Sanskrit word, derived from two roots: ayur, which means life, and veda, knowledge. Knowledge arranged systematically with logic becomes science. Ayurveda is the science of life It has its root in ancient vedic literature and encompasses our entire life, the body, mind and spirit. It is the earliest health care system of India beginning over 5,000 years ago.
  • 356. Purusha/Prakruti According to Ayurveda, every human being is a creation of the cosmos, the pure cosmic consciousness, as two energies: male energy, called Purusha and female energy,Prakruti. Purusha is choiceless passive awareness, while Prakruti is choiceful active consciousness. Prakruti is the divine creative will. Purusha doesn't take part in creation, but Prakruti does the divine dance of creation called leela.
  • 357. In creation, Prakruti is first evolved or manifested as supreme intelligence, called mahat. Mahat is the buddhiprincipal (individual intellect) which further manifests as self identity, called ahamkara, which is ego. Ahamkara is influenced by three basic universal qualities: satva, rajas and tamas. Satva is responsible for clarity of perception. Rajas causes movement, sensations, feelings and emotions. Tamas is the tendency towards inertia, darkness, heaviness, and is responsible for periods of confusion and deep sleep.
  • 358. Manifestation of Creation From the essence of satva the five senses are created: the ears to hear, skin to perceive touch, eyes to see, the tongue to taste, and the nose, to smell. The essence of rajas is manifested as the five motor organs: speech, hands, feet, genitals and the organs of excretion.
  • 359. The mind is derived from satva, while rajas is manifested as prana, the life force. The tamasic quality is also responsible for the creation of tan matra, the subtle elements, and from whom the five basic elements are manifested. They are space, air, fire, Water and earth. It is from pure consciousness that space is manifested.
  • 360. Mental Constitution Vedic philosophy classifies human nature into three basic qualities: satvic, rajasic and tamasic. These individual differences in psychological and moral dispositions and their reactions to socio-cultural and physical environments are described in all the classic texts of Ayurveda. Satvic qualities imply essence, reality, consciousness, purity and clarity of perception which are responsible for goodness and happiness. All movements and activities are due to rajas. It leads to the life of sensual enjoyment, pleasure and pain, effort and restlessness. Tamas is darkness, inertia, heaviness and materialistic attitudes. There is a constant interplay of these three gunas (qualities) in the individual consciousness, but the relative predominance of either satva, rajas, or tamas is responsible for individual psychological constitution.
  • 361. Vata, Pitta and Kapha: the Three Doshas The structural aspect of the body is made up of five elements, but the functional aspect of the body is governed by three biological humors. – Ether and air together constitute -vata; fire and water,- pitta; water and earth,- kapha. Vata, pitta and kapha are the three are biological components of the organism. They govern psycho-biological changes in the body and physio-pathological changes too. Vata-pitta-kapha are present in every cell, tissue and organ.
  • 362. In every person they differ in permutations and combinations. The sperm is the male seed, and the ovum is the female egg. They also contain vata-pitta-kapha (VPK). Bodily vata-pitta-kapha changes according to diet, life style and emotions. The sperm gets influenced by the father's lifestyle, diet and emotions, and the ovum by the mother's. At the time of fertilization, when a single sperm enters a single ovum, individual constitution is determined.
  • 363. According to Ayurveda, there are seven body types: mono-types (vata, pitta or kapha predominant), dual types (vata-pitta, pitta-kapha or, kapha-vata), equal types, (vata,pitta and kapha in equal proportions). Every individual has a unique combination of these three doshas. To understand individuality is the foundation of healing according to Ayurveda, "The Science of Life".
  • 364. The Qualities of the Three Doshas The three Doshas possess qualities and their increase or decrease in the system depends upon the similar or antagonistic qualities of everything ingested. Vata is : dry, cold, light, mobile, clear, rough, subtle Pitta is : slightly oily, hot, intense, light, fluid,free flowing, foul smelling. Kapha is: oily, cold, heavy, stable, viscid, smooth, soft Both Vata and Pitta are light and only Kapha is heavy. Both Vata and Kapha are cold and only Pitta is hot. Both Pitta and Kapha are moist and oily and only Vata is dry. Anything dry almost always increases Vata , anything hot increases Pitta and anything heavy , Kapha.
  • 365. Seats of Doshas Vatha Adharangam Lower part of the body Pitta Madhyangam Middle part of the body. Kapha Urdhwangam Upper part of the body - See more at: http://www.nagarjunaayurveda.com/ayurveda-basics-principles.aspx#sthash.97ESUctd.dpuf
  • 366. The Seven Dhatus The word dhatu comes from the root word dha which means basis or foundation. In Ayurvedic medicine, the structural components that nourish the body are called dhatus or tissue levels. There are seven primary sapta dhatus : • rasa – plasma tissue, lymph • rakta – blood, red blood cells • mamsa – muscle • meda – adipose tissue, fat • asthi – bone and cartilage • majja – nerve, marrow, connective tissue • shukra/artava – male and female reproductive system Problems that occur in the dhatus are: • Insufficient nourishment • Over nourishment • Structural damage
  • 367. the Disease Process According to Ayurveda, health is a state of balance between the body, mind and consciousness. Within the body, Ayurveda recognizes the three doshas, or bodily humors vata, pitta and kapha; seven dhatus, or tissues, plasma, blood, muscle, fat, bone, nerve, and reproductive; three malas, or wastes; feces, urine and sweat; and agni, the energy of metabolism. Disease is a condition of disharmony in any of these factors.
  • 368. The root cause of imbalance, or disease, is an aggravation of dosha, vata-pitta-kapha, caused by a wide variety of internal and external factors. According to the attributes of these different etiological factors the bodily humors become aggravated and start to accumulate at their respective sites. Vata tends to accumulate in the colon, pitta in the intestines and kapha in the stomach. the accumulated dosha reaches a state of overflowing the original site and spreads throughout the body. The aggravated dosha then enters and creates a lesion in a specific weak tissue where pathological changes are manifested in the organ or system.
  • 369. Chikitsa, Disease Management Ayurveda says that to restore health we must understand the exact quality, nature and structure of disease, disorder, or imbalance. The body has its own intelligence to create balance. and we are helping in that process. There are four main classifications of management of disease in Ayurveda: shodan, or cleansing; shaman or palliation;(specialised medical care for people with serious illnesses) rasayana, or rejuvenation; ( To restore to an original or new condition) and satvajaya, or mental hygiene.
  • 370. Ayurveda and Relationships According to Ayurveda, our life is a relationship; the relationship between you and your spouse, girlfriend and boyfriend, and parents and children. Equally important is the relationship with yourself, your relationship between the body, mind and consciousness, and the inner relationship between vata-pitta-kapha. These relationships are life, and Ayurveda is a healing art which helps bring clarity in relationships. Clarity in relationships brings compassion, and compassion is love, therefore love is clarity. Without this clarity, there is no insight. Ayurveda is an art of insight which brings harmony, happiness, joy and bliss in our daily life, in our relationships, and in our daily living. Ayurveda, can definitely bring longevity to life. It can bring a quality of consciousness, such that one can get insight to deal with one's inner life, one's inner emotions, one's inner hurt, grief and sadness. Ayurveda is a total healing art.
  • 372. Asava and arishtas -are liquid ayurvedic preparations or self generated herbal fermentations. Asavas prepared by direct use of fresh herbal juices or herbs soaked in water Arishtas are prepared with decoction of herbs in boiling water Both have sweet test, alcoholic smell
  • 373. Powder herbs are soak in herbal juice or decoction in presence of sugar or jaggaery for specific period of time. Fermentation is brought by addition of dhataki, dhaay ke phool( woodfordia fruticosa) flowers. fermentated alcohol facilitate extraction of active constituents in herbs and also act as preservative. Both asva and arishta contains up to 12 % alcohol and hence called medicinal wines.
  • 374. Preparation of Asava Boil required quantity of water. Add sugar or honey or jaggery, cooled and transferred to wooden vessel.then add powderd drug mentioned in formula. Cover vessel with lid and edges are sealed with seven consecutive layers of clay smeared cloth.vessel is kept in basment for specified period of time, after that vessel is removed ,liquid is decanted or filtered. Asava can be stored for any length of time in well stoppered glass bottle. E,g, kumariasava, lauhasava Characterstic-  filtered final asava should not contain any particle of sediment Taste should not be sour Should have charecterstic odour of fermented liquid If any growth of mould is obsereved , reject immediately  mix equal quantity of water and asava before consumption
  • 375. Preparation of Arishta Prepare decoction of crude drug in potable water. filter it and transfer to wooden pots. Wooden pots should be fumigated with pimply churna and also smeared with ghee before addition of parent material or sugar. Then add sugar, honey, jaggery to decoction. Now add dravas, other powder ingredients and dhataki pushpa if mentioned. close vessel with lid and seal edges with clay smeared cloth of seven layers. place vessel in basement ( underground cellar) all under heap of paddy to ensure constant atmospheric temperature during fermentation. after specified period of 7-10 days , remove pot and decant fluid. After 2-3 days when particle of sediment is settled down arishta is botteled.arishta can be stored for any length of time in well stopped glass bottle sumption
  • 376. Charecterstics- Filtered final arishta should not contain any particle of sediment The taste should not be sour Should have characteristic odour of fermented liquid If any growth of mould is observed reject immediately  mix equal quantity of water and arishta befor con
  • 377. DIFFERENT PARAMETERS OF STANDARDIZATION OF ASAVA ARISHTA It generally involves the following parameters: 1. Orgamnoleptic Parameters a) Colour of sample b) Odor of sample c) Taste of sample d) Determination of pH of sample 2. Physical Parameters a) Determination of foreign organic matter
  • 378. b) Determination of ash value Total ash value Acid insoluble ash Water soluble ash Sulphated ash c) Determination of extractive value Alcohol soluble extractive value Water soluble extractive value
  • 379. d) Determination of moisture content e) Determination of physical constant Melting point Boiling point Refractive index Optical rotation f) Determination of specific gravity g) Determination of solid content h) Determination of alcohol content
  • 380. 3. [Chemical parameters – following parameters involves in chemical evaluation like a) Alkaloids – Dragandroffs test b) Glycosides – Molish test c) Flavonoids – Shinoda test d) Phenolic – Lead acetate test e) Tannins – Ferric chloride test f) Steroids – Salkowski reaction g) Amino acids – Ninhydrine test h) Carbohydrates – Fehling’s test, Benedict test
  • 381. 4. Toxicological parameters – It involves following parameters a)Pesticides residue b) Heavy metal c) Microbial contamination
  • 382. Tailas
  • 383. Taila is liquid ayurvedic prepararation E,g. Anu taila, Kanak taila, Narayan taila Preparation of taila- Preparation of taila contains three components- drava(liquide in the form of swarasa),kalka( fine paste of drug) , sneha drava( taila). Unless otherwise indicated in text , kalka, sneha and drava are taken in 1,4.16 parts respectively. kalka and drava are mixed together. Sneha is then added boiled and stirred to obtained desired paka i.e. mrudu paka ( useful for nasya) ,madhyam paka( useful for pana or vasti) and khara paka(useful for abhyanga).
  • 384. Exception to this rule are If no drava is prescribed; 4 parts of water is added to one part of sneha, the kalka is 1/4th of weight of sneha. If number of drava are 4 or less than 4; each drava has to be taken 4 times the weight of sneha. If drava are more than 4; each drava will be equal in weight to sneha. If no kalka is prescribed in formula then drugs of swarasa may be used as kalka which should be 1/4th of sneha.
  • 385. Characteristics  taila will have colour , odour, consistancy of oil used. Taila should be preserved in bottle  taila should be taken with anupan( vehicle) Taila should be used within 16 months
  • 386. Standerization of taila 1 Colour 2 Smell 3 Appearance 4 Touch Oily 5 Clarity 6 Specific gravity 7 Acid value mg/gm 8 Saponfication value 9 Iodine value gm/100gm
  • 387. Churna
  • 388. Churna is solid ayurvedic preparation of powder of drugs with often taken with some anupan like milk, ghee, honey. fine the powder the better its therapeutic effect Preparation- Make powder of crud drug and sieve through cloth, or mechanical shifter. If there is more than one drug each drug should be separately powdered, sieved and weighed. finally mix all the powders well together. if salt , sugar, camphor is mentioned then it should be powdered and added separately at end. Charecters- Powder should be fine at least of 80 mesh size It should be kept in air tight container It should be used within 6 months.
  • 389. Standerization of churna 1 Study of organoleptic characters i. Colour ii. Odour iii. Taste 2 Determination of physico-chemical parameters  Moister content  Total ash  Acid insoluble ash  Water soluble ash  Water soluble extractive  Alcohol soluble extractive  Crude fiber contents
  • 390. 3 Quantitative estimation of selected phyto- constituents Total alkaloids 4 Evaluation of Churna  Powder fineness  Bulk density  Tap density  Angle of repose  Compressibility  Hausner ratio 5 Determination of Ph 6 Establishing the safety pertaining to Heavy metals & Microbial load
  • 391. Bhasma
  • 392. Bhasma is solid ayurvedic preparation in which metals, minerals and animal products are brunt to ash. they are generally white, pale yellow, black or red. eg. Suvarnabhasma, pravalbhasma,launhbhasma, shankhbhasma Preparation- Bhasma is prepared by two stage method i.e shodhana and marana 1 shodhana- it is very first stage of metal purification called shodhana. shodhana eliminates harmful matter, modifies or converts undesirable properties to desirable enhanced therapeutic action. it involves immersion of metal sheets in taila, gomutra or dukdha(milk)
  • 393. 2 marana- in this method purified drug is put in to stone morter ( khalva) and grounded with specified metal, mineral and animal part for specified period of time. then small cakes are made( cakrikas) and dried under sunlight. Dried cakes are placed in single layer in mud tray and closed with another tray and sealed by clay smeared with cloth of seven consecutive layers. In the ground pit of appropriate size is dug. Half of pit is filled with dried cow dung cakes. then above processed clay tray is placed in it and pit is again packed with cow dung cake. Fire is lit from all sides and middle of pit. After specified burning , it is allowed to cool at room temperature. Clay tray is removed and seal broken. Contents are taken out and finely powdered. The final bhasma should be preserved in airtight earthen container. Characterstics- Final bhasma should be free from metallic luster Bhasma when rubbed between fingers should be so fine so as to get easily into lines of finger In water bhasma should float on surface
  • 394. Standardization of bhasma Organoleptic characters Sound : The Bhasma should have imperceptible sound on grinding the Bhasma between teeth. Colour : depends Touch - Soft ~ Imperceptible coarseness in the Bhasma Taste - The Bhasma should be tasteless Odour - The Bhasma should be odourless
  • 395. Physico-chemical parameters pH : Ash Value (AV): Acid Insoluble Ash (AIA) : Particle Size Distribution X-ray Diffraction Inductively Coupled Plasma – Emission Spectroscopy UV-Visible Spectrophotometry