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Resins

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Plant resin--exudates

Resins

  1. 1. RESINS
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Definition: Solid or semisolid, amorphous products derived from living natural sources and most are plants products, with the exception of shellac, an insect secretion.  CHEMICAL PROPERTIES: • On heating, they soften and finally melt. • Insoluble in water and usually insoluble in petroleum spirit, but dissolve more or less completely in alcohol, chloroform and ether. • Chemically, resins are complex mixtures of resin acids, resin alcohols (resinol), resin phenols (resinotannols), esters and chemically inert compounds known as resenes.
  3. 3. OCCURENCE  entirely resin e.g. benzoin  oleo-resin e.g. turpentine oil  gum-resin e.g. copaiba resin  oleo-gum-resin e.g. myrrh  balsam (benzoic+ cinnamic acid): benzoin, tolu balsam, peru balsam, storax  gluco-resin e.g. Convolvulaceae family drugs
  4. 4. FORMATION  formed in special passages or tubes called resin ducts.  Ducts-anastomose-so- a single incision can drain the resin from considerable area of the plant.  turpentine are naturally produced but some are produced only when cambium is injured.  Such resins formed by the injury of cambium and the formation of secondary wood are called pathologically produced resin.  While resins are usually produced in ducts or cavities, that may be found in other positions-for example, in the resin cells of bloodroot, in the elements of the heartwood of guaiacum, in the external glands of Indian hemp, in the internal glands of male fern or in the glands on the surface
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION  Resin acid: carboxylic acid group containing resinous substances e.g. abietic acid (colophony) & commiphoric acid (myrrh)  Resin ester: esters of resin acids or the other aromatic acids like benzoic, cinnamic, salicylic acid etc. e.g. dragon’ blood and benzoin  Resin alcohol (resinol): alcoholic compound with high mol. wt. e.g. benzoresinol in benzoin & storesinol in storax.  Resin phenol (resino tannols): contains phenol group e.g. peru- resinotannol in peru balsam & tolu-resinotannol in tolu balsam & siaresinotannol in benzoin  Gluco resins: resins when get combined with sugars by glycosylation e.g. Convolvulaceae family drugs
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION  Resene: stable, neutral, unaffected by most chemical reagents or by exposure to moisture produced a hard film. e.g. asafetida  Oleo resin: resin+ volatile oil e.g. turpentine, ginger, copaiba, Canada  Gum resin: resin+ gum e.g. ammoniacum  Oleogum resin: resin+volatile oil+gum e.g. myrrh, asafetida, gamboges  Balsam: contains aromatic acids like benzoin & cinnamic e.g. Tolu balsam, peru balsam, storax
  7. 7. CHEMICAL COMPOSTION AND ISOLATION  complex mixture of acids, alcohols, phenols, esters, glycosides or hydrocarbons.  When associated with volatile oils, contains monoterpenoids, sesequiterpenoid and diterpenoids.  gums when associated with resin: acacia gum: oxidase enzymes. ISOLATION:  difficult task due to presence of various combinations.  Extraction with alcoholic solvents and then the subsequent precipitation by adding concentrated alcoholic extract to a large proportion of water.  Hydro distillation or distillation can be used for separation of volatile oils from resins. (separation of resin from turpentine)
  8. 8. 1. COLOPHONY • Syn: Rosin, Amber resin, Coloponium, Abietic anhydride • Source: Solid residue obtained after distillation of volatile oil (turpentine) from the oleo-gum-resin of various species of Pinus like P.palustris, P.pinaster, P.halepnsis, P.carribaceae • Family: Pinaceae • GS: North America, North Europe, Pakistan, India (Himalaya)
  9. 9. COLLECTION
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS • Occur: Translucent mass • Color: Yellow or amber color • Specification: • Burn at 100 °C • Produce smoky flame at Temp. above 100° • NMT 0.1% ash • Soluble in alcohol, ether, CS2, benzene & Insoluble in water
  11. 11. Chemical Constituents • 90% Resin acid, • esters of fatty acid, • Resene • 90% α,β, γ-abietic acids, pimaric acid, sapinic acid, hydrocarbon. • Powder + Acetic anhydride dissolve in a dry test tube conc. HCl purple color • Alcoholic solution is acidic to litmus paper. • Powder + light petroleum  dissolve filtered  filtrate  dilute copper acetate  petroleum layer shows emerald green color (due to formation of the copper salt of abietic acid)
  12. 12.  Use:  preparation of Zinc oxide, adhesive plaster, ointment  much rosin is artificially modified by hydrogenation or polymerization-products involving printing inks, rubber, linoleum, thermoplastic floor tiles and surface coating.  the abietic acids shows antimicrobial, antiulcer and CVS activity.  Stimulant and diuretic  Adulterants: black resin or apic resin (confirmed by solubility)
  13. 13. 2. MYRRH • Syn: Arabian or Somalian Myrrh • Source: Oleo gum resin obtained from the stem of Commiphora molmol, C. abyssinica, C. schimperi, C. myrrha and other species of Commiphora • Family: Burseraceae • GS: North east Africa, Arabia, Somaliland, Ethiopia & Abyssinia
  14. 14. COLLECTION Coagulated mass is collected in goat skin by native tribals and sent to the market
  15. 15. CHARACTERS
  16. 16. CONSTITUENTS Oxidase Enzyme
  17. 17. CHEMICAL TEST & USES • Powder + Water  after triturating  yellow emulsion • Ethereal extract  evaporate to dryness  exposed to bromine vapor  violet color • Uses: • Incense sticks, perfumes, local stimulant, • antiseptic, astringent to mucous membrane so tincture is used in mouthwash or gargle • Adulterants: Arabian & Yemen myrrh (less fragrant and less aromatic), India: Balsamodendron mukul (Indian bdellium)
  18. 18. 3. SUMATRA (INDONESIA) BENZOIN • Syn: Gum benjamin • Source: balsamic resin obtained from the incised stem of Styrax benzoin, Styrax parallloneurus • Family: Styracaceae • GS: Sumatra (western Indonesia), Java, Borneo • Not grown in India, totally imported from Indonesia. • Single tree produces 10 kg material.
  19. 19. COLLECTION Cultivation in rice plants-Tapping-Grading
  20. 20. Constituents • Free balsamic acids (benzoic and cinnamic acids) • Triterpenoid acid: Summaresinolic acid, Siaresinolic acid
  21. 21. USE AND ALLIED DRUG • Use: Irritant expectorant, carminative, diuretic • Externally: antiseptic, protective • Ingredient: Friar’s balsam, compound tincture of benzoin (Upper respiratory tract infection) • Preferred to retard rancidity of fats and oils in the preparation of benzoate lard • Industry: fix the odour of incense, soaps, perfume, cosmetics • Component: Incense • Allied Drug: Palembang, inferior quality benzoin: lighter in weight & breaking with an irregular porous fracture & as a source of natural benzoic acid
  22. 22. SIAM (Thailand) BENZOIN • Source: obtained by incision of the trunk of Styrax tonkinesis • Family: Styracaceae • GS: Thailand, Vietnam, Thai province of Luang prabang, Northen Laos, Northen Vietnam at altitude of 600-2500 m • It seems that this height is necessary for resin production; not all trees are productive
  23. 23. METHOD OF PREPARATION • Similar to Sumatra benzoin • Resin, being produced at the interface of the bark and wood layers only after injury. • Grading of tears: size, color, largest, palest • Size: few mm to 3cm • Color: yellowish white to reddish changes to brown due to oxidation • Odor: agreeable & vanilla like
  24. 24. CONSTITUENTS • About 76% Coniferyl benzoate, coniferyl cinnamate, coniferyl alcohol • 10% benzoic acid, Triterpenoid acid, esters, Vanillin
  25. 25. CHEMICAL TEST • Siam benzoin is expensive & liable to adulteration with the sumatra benzoin, which can be detected by BP/EP/TLC • Alcoholic solution of benzoin with water gives milky white solution • Powdered benzoin + KMnO4  warm faint odor of benzaldehyde (with sumatra benzoin due to oxidation of cinnamic acid) (NOT OBSERVED WITH SIAM) • Alc Ext + Alcoholic FeCl3 green color produced (with SIAM benzoin due to coniferyl benzoate-tannins) (NOT WITH SUMATRA)
  26. 26. CHEMICAL TEST • When Sumatra benzoin is gradually heated evolves fumes of benzoic and cinnamic acid  readily condensed on cool surface as a crystal sublimate • Petroleum ether solution of benzoin + 2-3 drops of H2SO4 in a china dish  reddish brown color with SUMATRA BENZOIN and purple-red color with SIAM BENZOIN
  27. 27. 4. TOLU BALSAM • Syn: Tolu resin, Thomas balsam, Opobalsam • Source: Obtained by incision from the trunk of Myroxylon balsamum var. balsamum • Family: Leguminosae • GS: Columbia, collected in caribbean island, cuba. • Tolu is the name of the place on the north coast of Columbia near Cartagena, hence the name of the drug • Collection: • V-shaped incisions in the bark • Many such receivers are fixed on each tree, the yield per tree being 8-10kg. • Periodically, the balsam is transferred to large containers.
  28. 28. CHARACTERS & CT • Color: yellow on standing brown • Odor & Taste: aromatic and vanilla like • Chemical Test: • When heated and pressed in between two glass slides and examined under microscope, it exhibits crystals of cinnamic acid • Alcoholic solution is acidic to Litmus • Alcoholic solution + FeCl3  green (resinotannol) • Powder + Water  decoction  oxidation  KMnO4  odor of benzaldehyde (due to oxidation of cinnamic acid)
  29. 29. CONSTITUENTS • 80% of resin alcohols combined with cinnamic and benzoic acids. • 12-15% of free cinnamic and 8% of free benzoic acid. • Benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamte & vanillin • Styrene, eugenol, vanillin, ferulic acid, 1,2-diphenylethane, mono and sesqui-terpene hydrocarbon and alcohols. • triterpenoids • 35-50% of total balsamic acid • Chiefly ester of Toluresinotannol
  30. 30. • Use: • Genuine tolu balsam is difficult to obtain, now uses tolu flavor solution containing 5 aromatics for preparation of tolu syrup. • Antiseptic, common ingredient of cough mixture • Preparation of confectionary, chewing gums and perfumery • Adulterant: lack of flavor and volatile oil exhausted quality
  31. 31. 5. PERU BALSAM • Syn: China Oil, Black balsam, Peruvian balsam • Source: Obtained from trunk of the Myroxylum balsamum var. pereirae (trunk is beaten and scorched) • Family: Leguminosae • GS: Central America (San Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala), naturalized in Sri Lanka and Florida (US)
  32. 32. COLLECTION & PREPARATION
  33. 33. CHARACTERS • Color: dark brown • Odor: aromatic vanilla like • soluble in chloroform, chloral hydrate, in equal proportion with 90% alcohol • sparingly soluble in petroleum ether, glacial acetic acid and insoluble in water • Specific gravity: 1.14 to 1.17 • NLT 45% and NMT 70% of esters.
  34. 34. CONSTITUENTS & USES • benzyl cinnamate (cinnamein) C6H5CH=CHCOOCH2C6H5, • benzyl benzoate and cinnamyl cinnamate (styracin). • 28% of resin: peruresinotannol combined with cinnamic acid, benzoic acids, alcohols (nerolidol, farnesol and benzyl alcohol) and small quantities of vanillin and free cinnamic acid. • Use: • Topical preparation for scabies, wounds, ulcers and bedsores • In feminine hygiene spray soaps, cosmetics • Flavoring and masking agent
  35. 35. 6. GUGGULU • Syn: Guggulu, Maishaksha • Source: gum resin obtained from Commiphora mukul, Commiphora wightii • Family: Burseraceae • GS: native to Africa but throughout India (Gujarat, Rajasthan) • Characters: • Viscid brown tears; fragment pieces, balsamic odor & bitter-acrid taste
  36. 36. Collection • Oleo gum resin is collected from at least 5 years old plant • Tapped from main stem on which deep circular incisions are made • The resin ducts occur only in bark portion near cambial layer • Guggul oozes out as yellowish white aromatic latex like matter • Dose of 400ml ethephon (2-chloro-ethyl phosphoric acid) three times a year enhances the secretion • Thick branches of tree give best grade • Each plant yield 0.5-1 kg per year
  37. 37. Constituents & Uses • C21-C27 compounds; steroids, diterpenoids, carbohydrates and aliphatic esters • Does not contain cinnamic acid, benzoic acid • Sugar: Pentosan, pentose and furfural • Terpene: Myrcene, caryophyllene • Sterone: Z & E- guggulusterone • Guggulosterol I,II, III • Gum • Flavonoids: quercetin, ellagic acid
  38. 38. • Chemical Test: • Ethyl acetate ext + Acetic anhydride  boil, cool and 2 ml of H2SO4, green color develops at the junction due to presence of sterols • Use: • Lowers serum triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, Raises HDL so Hypolipidemic, Hypocholesteremic • Inhibit platelet aggregation, increase thermo genesis, astringent, anti-rheumatic, antiseptic, expectorant, aphrodisiac, demulcent, gargle, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, ulcers • Adulterants: Commiphora species like C. abyssinica, C. roxburghii, C. molmol and Boswellia serrata
  39. 39. 7. ASAFOETIDA • Syn: Hing, Devil’s dung, Asant, Asafoda • Source: Oleogum resin obtained from the incision of rhizome and root of Ferula foetida, F.rubricaulis, F.asafoetida & other species of Ferula • Family: Umbelliferae • GS: Central Asia especially Iran, Afghanistan, India (Kashmir)
  40. 40. Collection • Resin is obtained from carrot shaped massive roots and rhizomes of the plants which are about 4-5 years of age • March-April, just before the flowering season of the plant, the upper part of the roots, very close to crown is cut off • The milky juice oozes out of the cut surface and starts coagulating • The cut surface is covered by dome shaped device made up of leaves and branches to avoid the contamination with sand and foreign matter • After few days, coagulated matter is scrapped off and the fresh cuts are given to collect more exudate • This continued for about 3 months until the plants cease to produce latex • Plant yield 1 kg oleo resin • After collection, dried thoroughly and packed in suitable containers.
  41. 41. COLLECTION
  42. 42. CHARACTERS • Forms: 2 Types: Tears & Masses • Color: golden yellowish brown • Odor: strong • Taste: bitter & acrid • Specification: • NMT 15% ash • NMT 50% matter which is insoluble in 90% alcohol
  43. 43. CONSTITUENTS Flavour: R-2-butyl-1-propenyl disulphide 20-25% 40-65% 4-20% Asaresinotannol Butyl propanyl disulphide
  44. 44. • Resin: 40-65% • Gum: 20-25% • Volatile oil: 4-20% • Chief: asaresinotannol, ferulic acid, umbelic acid • Butyl propanyl disulphide
  45. 45. CT & USE 1. Powder + water  trituration milky white emulsion 2. Combined umbelliferone Test: Powder+ HCl boilfilter filtrate + NH3 blue fluorescence 3. Fractured surface+H2SO4 red color production, which changes to violet on washing with water 4. Fractured surface+HNO3green color 5. USE 6. Carminative, expectorant, flavoring curry, sauce and pickles, 7. nerve stimulant, intestinal flatulence
  46. 46. ALLIED SPP. & ADULTERANTS • Allied spp: • Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua and • Ammoniacum (Dorema ammoniacum) • Adulterant: • Red clay, gypsum, chalk, potato slices
  47. 47. 8. CANNABIS • Syn: Indian Hemp, Cannabis, Hashish, Bhang, Ganja, Charas, Marihuana • Source: dried flowering tops of cultivated female plants of Cannabis sativa • Family: Cannabinaceae • GS: Mexico, Africa, India (MH, WB, MP)
  48. 48. Cultivation • Cultivation only by license from Govt. • Soil: light loamy or sandy • Climate: Humid, tropical • Propagation: Seed • Kharif crop, cultivation : June-July • Distance: 1 meter between 2 rows • Requirement: 6-9 kg seeds per hectre • Flowering season: Dec-Jan • Average ganja yield: 275 kg
  49. 49. Morphology • Color: dull green • Odor: Strong, characteristic and narcotic • Taste: acrid and pungent • Narcotic production: Only female plants are selected because the resinous material is only found in the same
  50. 50. Ganja • It consists of dried flowering or fruiting tops of the female plants from which no resin has been removed • It is collected only from cultivated plants • Plants are collected when the lower leaves fall on the ground and flower stalks begin to turn yellow. • The floral shoots are cut off and are spread out in ridges and furrows. • The ridges are levelled down and crushed to press the floral shoots into compact sheaves • The turning of the material is done at regular intervals. • After that, material is collected and arranged in flat heaps.
  51. 51. Ganja • It is then subjected to pressure under the press • The heaps are turned over and broken up, so as to form thick layers • After 3-4 days, ganja is ready for storage • Two types of ganja are available in the market • The flat ganja, the individual pieces of the plants are pressed by thresing, wherein the resinous material of the flowering tops sticks together to form the flat mass. • The flat ganja coming from Ahmednagar district Maharashtra is well known in commerce. • Round ganja is regarded as better quality where the resin free parts of the plant are removed and every piece (flowering top) is rolled individually, so as to form cylindrical mass. It is prepared in bengal.
  52. 52. Bhang or Siddhi • Cutting the leaves and flowering tops of the plant, exposing them to sun and dew, drying and pressing the drug • The product is stored in earthenware vessels. • The resinous matter present in glandular trichomes containing hallucinogenic matter • Unfit for medicinal use owing to deficiency of resin • Taken in form of an electuary made by digestion with melted butter • (medicine composed of powders, or other ingredients, incorporated with some conserve, honey, or syrup)
  53. 53. Charas • It is resinous exudation collected from the leaves of the hemp plants. • The resinous secretion, appearing just before flowering of the plant, is collected by rubbing the fresh tops between hands or by beating them on cloth or carpet. • The adhering material is scrapped off to yield, charas of thee market. • It is collected even by walking through the cultivated plants after wearing the leather aprons. • The resinous secretion, which sticks to the leather apron is scrapped off and collected.
  54. 54. Constituents & Test  15-20% Resin (present in glandular trichomes)  Major constituent: 1-3-4 trans tetra-hydrocannabinol (THC)  Volatile oil, trigonelline, choline, Seeds-20% fixed oil  Resin: Cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabichromene, cannabigerol  Identification: 0.1 g drug + 5ml light petroleum (60-80 degree C) shake and filer. To the filtrate + 2ml 15% solution of HCl in Ethyl alcohol. At the junction of 2 liquids, a red coloration appears. After shaking, upper layer becomes colorless and lower layers acquires pink color which disappears on addition of water.
  55. 55. Constituents & Test  Narcotic, Sedative, Analgesic  Psychotropic properties  THC  At present, very little used as a drug  Cause intoxication, euphoria and later mental disturbances.  Should be stored in well closed container after thorough drying.
  56. 56. 9. TURMERIC • Syn: Haldi, Haridra, Indian saffron, Curcuma • Source: dried as well as fresh rhizome of Curcuma longa, C. domestica • Family: Zingiberaceae • GS: Temperate regions: southern Asia: India (TN, AP, KL), China, East indies, Pakistan, Malaya
  57. 57. Cultivation & Preparation  Perennial herb, 60-90cm high, short stem and tufted leaves  Hot-moist climate  Liberal water supply and well-drained soil  Soil should be loose & friable  Field prepared: well ploughing, 30cm depth, manured with farmyard and green manures  Buds are planted 7 cm deep, 30-37 cm apart and in April- August  Harvesting: after 9 months when lower leaves turn yellow  Rhizome: carefully dug up with hard picks, washed & dried
  58. 58. Cultivation & Preparation  Curing: cooking with few leaves in water until they become soft  Cooked rhizome: cooled, dried in open air with intermittent turning over and rubbed on rough surface
  59. 59. Characteristics  Shape: ovate, pear shaped, oblong, pyriform or cylindrical  4-7 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, called as finger  Color: deep yellow to orange  Taste: aromatic, pungent, bitter  Odor: indistinct
  60. 60. Microscopy
  61. 61. Constituents cholerectic action:β-tolymethyl carbinol • Coloring matter as 5% curcuminoids, 6% volatile oil • Chief: Curcumin-I, Curcumin-II & Curcumin-III, dihydrocurcumin • Color: demethoxy curcumin & Bisdemethoxy curcumin • Volatile Oil: mono & sesqui terpene: 25% zingiberene, sabinene, turmeron, arturmeron, borneol, cineole, camphene, limonene, terpinene, terpinolene, caryophyllene, linalool, isoberneol,camphor, eugenol, curdione, curzerenone, curlone, α-phellandrene, β, γ- curcumene
  62. 62. Chemical Test 1. powder+Conc. H2SO4 crimson red color 2. powder+alkali solutionred-violet color 3. Powder+acetic anhydride+conc. H2SO4violet color, intense red fluorescence under UV light 4. Paper containing turmeric extract  green color with borax solution, reddish brown color with boric acid  addition of alkali greenish blue 5. Filter paperimpregnated with an alcohol extract, dried moistened with boric acid acidified with HClredriedpink or brownish-red color is developed deep blue on addition of alkali
  63. 63. USES  Aromatic, anti-inflammatory, stomachic, uretic, anodyne for biliary calculus, stimulant, tonic, carminative, blood purifier, antiperiodic, alterative, spice, coloring agent for ointment and common household remedy for cough and cold  Liver diseases  Ar-turmeron antisnake venom activity  Curcuminoids isolated from ethyl acetate extract of turmeric have shown modest HIV-1 and HIV-2 protease activity.
  64. 64. 10. Ginger • Syn: Adarak, Zingiber • Source: scraped or unscraped rhizomes of Zingiber officinale • Family: Zingiberaceae • GS: South east Asia, Jamaica, China, India, Africa • Specification: • 7-15 cm long; 1-1.5 cm broad • Color: buff • Odor: agreeable • Taste: pungent
  65. 65. Cultivation  Climate: Warm, Humid  Soil: Sandy, clay or red loamy, heavy rain fall with fertilizers  Propagation: cut rhizomes  Selected piece of rhizome: sown during March or April, preferably in well-drained clay loam  Procedure resemble potato cultivation  Mulching or manuring is necessary as plant exhausts the soil nutrients  Stem wither: December-January: rhizome ready for collection  Ginger is again moistened & dried for further 2 days
  66. 66. Collection  Harvesting: by digging  Washed properly and dried to improve the color and prevent further growth  For scrapped drug: after removal of soil, the rhizomes are killed by boiling water  Carefully peeled, thoroughly washed and then dried in sun on mats  During drying, turned from time to time and protected during damp weather  First drying: 5-6 days  To get whiter product: ginger is washed
  67. 67. Microscopy
  68. 68. Constituents • Volatile oil, starch up to 50%, fat up to 10%, inorganic material, residual moisture, fiber, resinous matter up to 8% • Mono, sequi terpene hydrocarbon, phenyl propanoids • Sequiterpene hydrocarbon: alpha zingiberene, beta bisabolene, alpha farnesene, beta sesquiphellandrene and alpha curcumene • Phenolic ketones gingerols: shagol, zingerone, paradol, gingediols • Aroma: volatile oil • Flavour, pungency and pharmacologic action: phenolic ketone of oleo resin • Zingeronesweet odor • Pungencydue to gingerol • Pungency destroyed by 5%NaOH
  69. 69. Varieties Nigerian Cochin Chinese African Southern India Darker color Coated & scraped form Peeled & scraped variety Smaller & darker than cochin Smaller size Reddish grey cork Brown cork More pungent More starchy; easily breaks Same like bombay ginger Less aroma Less aromatic Volatile Oil (0.7-1%) Darker color Calicut is better
  70. 70. Use-Adulterant-Allied spp. USE ALLIED SPP ADULTERANT Carminative Alpinia galanga Alpinia officinalis Zingiber mioga Exhausted ginger (by adding capsicum/grain to increase the pungency Stimulant Anti-emetic CNS, CVS Anti-inflammatory Antibacterial Motion sickness
  71. 71. 11. Capsicum • Syn: chillies, cayenne, pepper, red pepper, mirch • Source: dried, ripe fruits of the Capsicum minimum and C.annum • Family: Solanaceae • GS: native of america, Tropical countries, Africa, India • Characters: • 5-12 cm long, 2-4 cm wide, globular, ovoid or oblong in shape • Pericarp is shrievelled; orange-red in color; pedicel is prominent • Characteristic odor, intense pungent taste
  72. 72. Collection • Rainfed crop, Cold weather crop • Good drainage is essential • Seedlings are first raised in a nursery • Seeds + pods broadcasting • Germination in a week • Flowering starts when 2.5-3.5 months old • Harvesting: after 6 months • Fruits pick up when fully ripe • Quality determined by its color • Dried in sun, graded by color and occasionally oil is rubbed on the fruits to give glossiness to the pericarp • Calyx-pedicel removed
  73. 73. Constituents • Volatile oil (up to 1%), Fixed oil (up to 15%) • Oleoresin, carotenoids, capsacutin, capsico (a volatile alkaloid), thiamine • Pungent principle:Capsaicin • Pigment: capsanthin, alpha-beta carotene (color) • Thiamine, ascorbic acid • Pungency is destroyed by oxidizing agents like KMnO4
  74. 74. Capsaicin Capsanthin
  75. 75. Uses, Allied species • Internally: Carminative, Stomachic, Stimulant, • Externally: Counter irritant, Rubefacient (Rheumatism, Lumbago and Neuralgia) • Sore throat, Scarlet fever (streptococcus bacteria) • Hoarseness • Yellow fever • Dyspepsia, Flatulence • Allied Species: • Japanese chillies, (C.frutescens) • Bombay capsicum (C.annum)
  76. 76. 12. SHELLAC resemble cochineal insect in structure and life history • Syn: Lac • Source: resinous substance prepared from a secretion that encrusts the bodies of a scale insect Kerria Lacca (Laccifer lacca), order Hemiptera • GS: India, Thailand, China (5% of world’s production) • India: Leguminosae (Acacia spp., Butea frondosa), Euphorbiaceae (Aleuritis laccifera), Moraceae (Ficus spp.), Dipterocarpaceae (Cajanus indivus, Shorea talura), Rhamnaceae (Ziziphus jujuba) • China: species of Ficus and Dalbergia (Leguminosae)
  77. 77. Preparation  Lac is found on smaller branches & twigs  The minute red color larvae of the insect settle on the young fleshy shoots of the host plant and with their long proboscis suck nutrient from the sap  The insect secret thick resinous fluid which envelopes their bodies and the secretions from individual insect coalesce and form a hard continuous envelope over the twigs.  The twigs are harvested and the encrustations broken off and scraped from twigs by means of curved knives  Usually ground in India & coloring matter is extracted with water or dilute soda solution.  Solution evaporates to dryness constitute lac dye and exhausted lac when dried seed lac
  78. 78. Types of Shellac
  79. 79. Characters, Constituents  70-80% resin, sugar, protein, coloring matter, wax and volatile oil  Resin: Hard & Soft (hydroxy fatty acid + sesqui terpene)  Main constituent: Hard Resin: about 36% aleuritic acid (9,10,16-trihydroxypalmitic acid)  Shelloic acid, kerrolic acid, butolic acid (small extent)  Soft resin: cedrene type sesquiterpene acid, water insoluble yellow pigment –erythrolaccin (tetrahydroxy-4- methylanthraquinone  Coloring matter: Laccaic acid
  80. 80. Characters, Constituents  Identification:  50 mg shellac + ammonium molybdate + H2SO4  green color produced, it becomes lilac (pinkish-purple) on standing for five minutes  Uses:  Manufacturing of sustained release medication  Industry: phonographic records, varnishes, ink
  81. 81. Turpentine • Source: obtained from Pinus spp. Like P. pinaster- maritime pine, P. palustris-long leaf pine (France), P. elliottii-slash pine, P. sylvestris, P. nigra (North america), P. halepensis(Europe) • Family Pinaceae • GS: Northen hemisphere (oleoresin in secretory canals) • Recent update: portugal type turpentin obtained by steam distillation, at a temp. <80°C, of the oleoresin collected by tapping the maritime pine, P. pinaster and chiefly produced in Portugal and Spain
  82. 82. Preparation-1 • Traditional method: • consists of tapping, in other words cutting a blaze or groove into the pine trunk with a special tool, then collecting the flow of oleoresin into cups. • The flow can be increased by applying dilute H2SO4. • Steam distillation of the crude oleoresin produces gum turpentine and gum rosin.
  83. 83. Preparation-2 • Makes use of the waste from the wood industry, particularly the stumps left after the trees have been cut down. • These are washed & chopped, then extracted with an organic solvent. • The residual wood chips are burned to generate some of the heat needed by the distillery. • Distillation of the crude extraction product produces dipentene, pine oil, wood turpentine and wood rosin or colophony.
  84. 84. Preparation-3 • Recovers the terpenoid constituents contained in pine woods at the time of their transformation in wood pulp. • The pulp used in paper industry is most often obtained by cooking the wood pulp (Kraft or sulphate process: cooking in the presence of sulphate) • The cooking vapors are condensed to provide sulfate turpentine. • In addition, the liquid wastes yield tall oil, itself the source of fatty acids, sitosterol an tall oil rosin.
  85. 85. Overall production • World production of turpentine lies somewhere between 240-260000 metric tons/year with about 50% obtained by tree tapping (by China, countries of former USSR, Portugal, India, Mexico) • US and canada produce about 100,000 metric tons of sulfate turpentine. • Quality of the product varies as a function of numerous criteria: nature of the starting material (resin versus stumps), plant species, GS and more.
  86. 86. Constituents Monoterpenoid-Hydrocarbon • α,β-pinene, • camphene, • 10-24% α-phellandrene, • carene • 45-72% Limonene • 3-8% Sabinene • 0.5-8% Elemicin • 1-15% Elemol • 0.4-2% α-Terpineol
  87. 87. Colocynth • Syn: bitter apple, kadu, Intravani, bitter cucumber • Source: dried pithy pulp of the ripe fruits of Citrullus colocynthis • Family: Curcurbitaceae • GS: asia, africa, south europe; mainly in egypt, cyprus; India (GJ,PB,TN) • 5-8 cm diameter, subspherical berry, almost white
  88. 88. Constituents • Alkaloid • Resin: • Citrullol • Glycoside: alpha-elaterin, cucurbitacin E, elatericin B or cucurbitacin, dihydroelatericin B, cucurbitacin L, fixed oil and starch
  89. 89. Collection & Use • Perennial prostate herb • Rarely cultivate • Fleshy fruits • Collected in autumn when they are ripe • Fruit: yellow • Fruits; peeled using a knife and dried under the sun or artificially • Uses: Hydrogogue purgative • Stimulates or irritates the GIT • Carminative • Insecticidal
  90. 90. Guaiacum • Syn: Lignum vitae, Pockwood • Source: heartwood of Guaiacum officinale G. sanctum • Family: Zygophyllaceae • GS: coastal region of tropical america • G.officinale: venezuela, colombia, west indies • G. sanctum: cuba, haiti,florida
  91. 91. Characters & CT • Large block or rounded tears • 2-3 cm in diameter • Color: brown & glassyexposuregreen • Taste: acrid • Odor: when warmed aromatic • Solubility: alcohol, chloroform, alkali • CT: 1. Alcoholic solution + FeCl3oxidationdeep blue colorreductioncolor reduced 2. If adulterated with colophonydetected by copper acetate test
  92. 92. Constituents, Use • Lignan: alpha-guaiaconic acid, guaiaretic acid 10% of guaiacum resindiaryl butane • Triterpenoid, norterpenoid • Resin extracted by alcohol most sensitive • Alcoholic solutiondetection of stains, cyanogenetic glycosides, oxidase- peroxidase enzyme • Use • Chronic rheumatic condition • Food additive
  93. 93. HOPS • Syn: Kanphuti, Kanphuta • Source: dried strobiles of Humulus lupulus • (Strobile: A conelike structure, such as a pine cone, the fruit of the hop, or a cone of a club moss, that consists of overlapping sporophylls spirally arranged along a central axis) • Family: Cannabinaceae • GS: England, Germany, Belgium, France, Russia, California, Asia
  94. 94. Preparation  Strobiles are collected  Dried in klins (thermally insulated chamber or oven)  Pressed into bales known as pockets  Exposed to the fumes of burning sulphur which modifies the sulphur components already in the hops but which is said to stabilize the aroma and color
  95. 95. Constituents  Tannin, lupulin gland  0.3-1.0% terpenes, sesqui terpenes including humulene  2-methyl-but-3-ene-2-ol and 3- methylbutanoic acid  Humulone (α-acids), lupulone ( β-acids)  10% resin  2,3,4-Trithiapentane, S-methylthio- 2-methylbutanone, S-methylthio-4- methyl-pentoate, 4,5-epithiocaryop
  96. 96. USE  Xanthohumol: cytotoxic effects on human cancer cell lines, antiproliferative, antioxidant, estrogenic  Mild sedative  2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol : aromatic bitter & beer preparation

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