TRITERPENOIDS

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Terpenoids are regarded as derivatives of polymers of isoprene ,joined head to tail and widely distrubuted in plant kindom.

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TRITERPENOIDS

  1. 1. TRITERPENOIDS Presented by Afzaye Rasul 1st year M.Pharm Department of chemistry, Al-Ameen college of pharmacy Bangalore
  2. 2. Terpenoids are regarded as derivatives of polymers of isoprene ,joined head to tail and widely distrubuted in plant kindom.
  3. 3. Classification 1.Monoterpenoids 2.Sesquiterpenoids 3.Diterpenoids 4.Triterpenoids 5.Tetraterpenoids
  4. 4. Monoterpenes -Acyclic Example: Ocimene Myrcene CH2 H3C CH2 CH3 OCIMENE CH2 H3C CH3 CH2 MYRCENE
  5. 5. =ALDEHYDIC MONOTERPENES EXAMPLE GERANIAL NERAL H H3C CH3 CH2 GERANIAL CHO CHO H3C CH3 CH3 NERAL H
  6. 6. =ALCOHOLIC MONOTERPENES EXAMPLE GERANIOL NEROL H H3C CH3 CH3 GERANIOL CH2OH CH2OH H3C CH3 CH3 H NEREOL
  7. 7. -MONOCYCLIC =ALDEHYDES EXAMPLE PERILLALDEHYDE,PHELLANDRAL CHO H3C CH2 PERILLALDEHYDE CHO H3C CH3 PHELLANDRAL
  8. 8. =ALCOHOLIC EXAMPLE α-TERPINEOL MENTHOL CH3 H3C CH3 OH CH3 H3C CH3 OH
  9. 9. 2.SESQUITERPENES EXAMPLE ZINGIBERENE CH3 CH3H3C CH3
  10. 10. 3.DITERPENES EXAMPLES VITAMINES MANOOL PODOCARPIC ACID 4.TRITERPENOIDS EXAMPLES SQUALENE
  11. 11. 5.TETRACYCLIC EXAMPLES LANOSTEROL AGNOSTEROL 6.PENTACYCLIC α-AMYRIN β-AMYRIN
  12. 12. Dioscorea
  13. 13. Synonym: Rheumatism root, yam Biological source: It consists of the dried tubers of Dioscorea deltoidea,D.composita belonging to the family Dioscoreaceae. Geographical distribution: D.deltoidea is grown in U.S and Mexico .It is cultivated from Nepal to an altitude of 3000-10,000 ft. Chemical constituents: The main active constitute are diosgenin. The other consists are starch and phenolic compounds.
  14. 14. chemistry
  15. 15. Mechanism
  16. 16. Uses: 1.In the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteosarcoma. It is said to cause apoptosis of synoviocytes by cox-2 upregulation. 2.Diosgenin is used for the synthesis of important drugs e.g. oral contraceptives and corticosteroids. 3.It is also said to have hypocholestremic effects.
  17. 17. Solanum khasianum
  18. 18. Biological source: It consists of the dried and full grown berries of Solanum khasianum belonging to the family Solanaceae. Geographical distribution: Grows on the Khasia mountains in Assam. Chemical constituents: It consists of the steroidal saponin solasonine which has the Aglycone solasodine present in it. Solakhasianin and diosgenin are the other aglycones present.
  19. 19. Uses 1.It has several glucocorticoids like effects since it increases its levels by binding to adrenal glands. 2.A dose of 5mg/kg causes short acting cerebral stimulation and improves reflex activity. 3.They also have selective cytotoxic effects against cancer cells. 4. It is a hypocholestremic and anti atherosclerotic.
  20. 20. Shatavari
  21. 21. Synonym: Shatamuli Biological source: It consists of the dried roots and leaves of the naturally occuring plant known as Asparagus racemosus,family: liliaceae. Geographical distribution: It is widely distributed throughout the tropical regions of Africa, Australia and Asia . In India , its found in the Himalyan range at an altitude of 4000-4500 ft. It is wildly grown in the dry and deciduous forests of Maharashtra.
  22. 22. Chemical constituents The active constituteShatavarin 1-4 which are present to the extent of 0.2% Shatavarin 1 is the most important constituent.
  23. 23. Uses: 1. Galactagogue 2. It is used as a cytoprotective because it can reduce drug induced fibrosis e.g bleomycin causes intra alveolar fibrosis. 3. In the management of nervine disorders ,Rheumatism. 4. Widely used in threatened abortion. 5. It helps digestion. 6. It has anti bacterial effects due to 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene ring.
  24. 24. GINSENG
  25. 25. Synonym: Panax, pannag. Biological source: Ginseng is the dried root of different naturally occuring species of Panax , namely Panax ginseng or Aralia quinquefolia . Family: araliaceae. Geographical distribution: Found extensively in Korea, Russia and China .Commercially it is cultivated in Japan, Canada and U.S. It has two variety 1.Red ginseng 2.White ginseng
  26. 26. Chemical constitute : It comprises of triterpenoid saponins which may be steroidal or pentacyclic. 3 major components include 1. Ginsenosides 2. Panaxosides 3. Chikusetsu saponins.
  27. 27. PANAXIDES Decomposition OLEANOLIC ACID + PANAXADIOL + PANAXATRIOL
  28. 28. Uses: 1. In chinese system , ginseng is used as a general tonic, stimulant ,carminative and diuretic activities. 2. Used for the treatment of diabetes, insomnia, gastritis and neurasthenia. 3. It is known to enhance natural resistance and overcome exhaustion. 4. It can be used in coronary artery disease and to lower blood pressure. 5. It is also used for maintenance of bone.
  29. 29. Liqourice
  30. 30. Synonym: Glycyrrhiza, liquorice root. Biological source: It consists of the dried , peeled or unpeeled roots or stolons of Glycyrrhiza glabra. Family : leguminosae. Geographical distribution: It is grown in the sub-himalayan regions and in baluchistan. It is cultivated in large scale in Spain, Sicily and Yorkshire.
  31. 31. Chemical constituents: It consists of saponin glycosides known as Glycyrrhin. Glycyrrhizin hydrolysis glycyrrhetinic acid + 2 glucuronic acid Glycyrrhetinic acid is of the beta amyrin type. Other chemical constituents present are umbelliferone, herniarin,liqueritin, isoliqueritin, rhanoliqueretin etc..
  32. 32. Uses: 1.Glycyrrhizin has demulscent and expectorant properties. 2.It is used as a masking agent for bitter tasting drugs like quinine,aloes etc…… 3.Ammonium glycyrrhizinate is used as a flavouring agent in confectionaries and beverages.
  33. 33. Reference 1. Text book of pharmacognosy by Trease and evans 13 th edition page no:491-501 2. Pharmacognosy and pharmacobiotechnology by Ashutoshkar 2nd edition page no:183-194 3. www.wikipedia.com .

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