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INTRODUCTION
 Botanical name: Brassica oleracea var. italica
 Family : Brassicaceae(Crucifereae)
 Origin : Mediterranea...
 The word broccoli came from ‘brocco’ (a Italian
word means shoot)
 Sprouting broccoli is sometimes briefly called
brocc...
. Morphologically sprouting broccoli resembles
cauliflower.
 The plant forms a kind of head consisting of green
buds and...
Composition (Per 100g edible
portion) Water : 89.9%
 Carbohydrate : 5.5%
 Protein : 3.3%
 Fat : 0.2%
 Energy : 37cal
...
Uses
 Both heads and fleshy stems are eaten as
salad or cooked as single or mixed
vegetables with potato.
 It has 130 ti...
CULTIVARS
 There are green, white, purple coloured cultivars but only
green types are generally grown.
 Early(Matures in...
 Mid- (In 90-110 days)
 Green Sprouting Medium
 Late- (In 110-120 days)
 Green Sprouting Late
 F1 Hybrids by private ...
CLIMATE
 It is sensitive to temp. and warm weather
causes small thin leaves and loose heads
 The opt. temp. for growth i...
SOIL
 Sandy to sandy loam soil is good with 6 to
6.8 soil pH.
 Water stagnation is problem so heavy soil
should be avoid...
LAND
PREPARATION
 The land should be thoroughly prepared by ploughing
3-4 times and make it friable.
 It should be level...
Flowers
Pods Seeds
SOWING
 The sowing time is September to mid
November in north India.
 Both direct sowing and transplanting
methods are u...
TRANSPLANTING
 3 to 4 weeks old seedlings are used for
transplanting.
 The general spacing is 60x45cm.
 In direct sowin...
Fertilizers application
 60 – 80 kg. N, 60 – 80 kg. P, 40 – 60 kg. K are
recommended for one ha area.
 Half dose of N wi...
Irrigation
 Frequent irrigation at 10-15 days
interval are given depending upon
weather condition.
Interculture
 It is a shallow rooted crop so hoeing in
the early stage is needed and should
not be done beyond 5-6cm near...
Harvesting
 Central head is harvested before the
buds open and bud clusters are compact.
 The head may be 15 – 25 cm. in...
 Early- 50 – 60 q/ha
 Late -100 – 150 q/ha
 Average- 75 -100q/ha
Post harvest handling
 After harvesting heads are kept in dark
place for sometime otherwise they
become yellowish
 Yello...
• Heads can be stored at 32º F with 80–85 % RH
for 8-10 days.
Diseases
DISEASE SYMPTOMS CONTROL
1. Damping off
(Pythium, Phytophthora,
Rhizoctonia spp.)
Germinated seed killed or
seedl...
DISEASE SYMPTOMS CONTROL
4. Club root
(Plasmodiophora
brassicae)
Swelling of roots causes
club shaped rootlets
i. Drenchim...
Downy mildew
Black leg
INSECT SYMPTOMS CONTROL
1. Cabbage butterfly
(Pieris brassicae)
Bluish green caterpillars feed on
leaves starting from mar...
INSECT SYMPTOMS CONTROL
4. Diamond back moth
(Plutella xylostella)
1cm long greenish caterpillars
feed on the lower side o...
Cabbage butterfly
Physiological disorders
DISORDER CAUSES CONTROL
1. Browning/ Red Rot/
Brown Rot
(water soaked lesions on
leaf & head which...
DISORDER CAUSES CONTROL
4. Riceyness
(velvety or granual
appearance on surface
of head)
• Higher or lower temp.
then the o...
Production technology of broccoli
Production technology of broccoli
Production technology of broccoli
Production technology of broccoli
Production technology of broccoli
Production technology of broccoli
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Production technology of broccoli

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Production technology of broccoli in Indian context

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Production technology of broccoli

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  Botanical name: Brassica oleracea var. italica  Family : Brassicaceae(Crucifereae)  Origin : Mediterranean region(Italy)  Chromosome no. : 2n=2x=18  Progenitor : Colewart ( Brassica oleracea var sylvestris)
  2. 2.  The word broccoli came from ‘brocco’ (a Italian word means shoot)  Sprouting broccoli is sometimes briefly called broccoli.  This is not so much popular vegetable in our country. It is mostly cultivated in hilly regions of Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir and Uttar Pradesh and Nilgiri hills.
  3. 3. . Morphologically sprouting broccoli resembles cauliflower.  The plant forms a kind of head consisting of green buds and thick fleshy stalks, stalks generally longer than cauliflower.  Edible part is terminal head but sometimes sprouts also (which develop in the axil of leaves).
  4. 4. Composition (Per 100g edible portion) Water : 89.9%  Carbohydrate : 5.5%  Protein : 3.3%  Fat : 0.2%  Energy : 37cal  Vitamin A : 9000 IU  Vitamin B : 33 IU  Vitamin E : 137 IU  Ca : 1.29%  P : 0.79%  K : 3.5%  S : 1.26%  Fe : 205ppm  I : 1.965ppm  Cu : 24ppm
  5. 5. Uses  Both heads and fleshy stems are eaten as salad or cooked as single or mixed vegetables with potato.  It has 130 times more vitamin A than cauliflower and 22 more than cabbage.  It has anticarcinogenic property. It is a rich source of sulphoraphane a compound associated with reducing the risk of cancer.  It is also beneficial in heart disease  It is used to prepare salad, soup, curry, pie, cassarole etc.  Boiling more than 10 minutes reduces its nutritional content.
  6. 6. CULTIVARS  There are green, white, purple coloured cultivars but only green types are generally grown.  Early(Matures in 60-70 days)- 1. De Cicco 2. Green Bud 3. Sparten Early 4. Waltham 29 5. Green Mountain 6. Coastal 7. Atlantic 8. Palam Samridhi 9. Pusa KTS-1
  7. 7.  Mid- (In 90-110 days)  Green Sprouting Medium  Late- (In 110-120 days)  Green Sprouting Late  F1 Hybrids by private sector-  Southern Comet  Premium Crop  Clipper  Laser  Corsair  Stiff  Emerald Corona  Green Surf (late)  Excalibur  Late Corona
  8. 8. CLIMATE  It is sensitive to temp. and warm weather causes small thin leaves and loose heads  The opt. temp. for growth is 20º to 30 ºC for early and 5 to 10º C for late types.  Optimum temp. for heading is 15-20º C  Some var. are tolerant to frost but annual types are sensitive.
  9. 9. SOIL  Sandy to sandy loam soil is good with 6 to 6.8 soil pH.  Water stagnation is problem so heavy soil should be avoided.  Soil should be fertile with good moisture content.
  10. 10. LAND PREPARATION  The land should be thoroughly prepared by ploughing 3-4 times and make it friable.  It should be levelled properly before making small beds for planting the crop.  Generally beds of 3x3 or 4x4m size are prepared for transplanting the seedlings.  Land is prepared about one month before sowing and 15-20 tons of well rotted FYM per ha should be incorporated in soil.
  11. 11. Flowers Pods Seeds
  12. 12. SOWING  The sowing time is September to mid November in north India.  Both direct sowing and transplanting methods are used.  In direct sowing 2 to 2.5 kg. seed per ha is needed and for transplanting, seed rate is 500 to 600 g/ha.
  13. 13. TRANSPLANTING  3 to 4 weeks old seedlings are used for transplanting.  The general spacing is 60x45cm.  In direct sowing method thinning is essential after 15 to 20 days of sowing.
  14. 14. Fertilizers application  60 – 80 kg. N, 60 – 80 kg. P, 40 – 60 kg. K are recommended for one ha area.  Half dose of N with full dose of P and K is applied as basal dose.  Rest half N is top dressed in two split doses, first after 30 – 35 days of transplanting and second after head formation.  Sometimes B and Mo are also recommended
  15. 15. Irrigation  Frequent irrigation at 10-15 days interval are given depending upon weather condition.
  16. 16. Interculture  It is a shallow rooted crop so hoeing in the early stage is needed and should not be done beyond 5-6cm near to plant.  A light earthing up at final hoeing is beneficial.  Pre planting sprays of Basalin@2kg a.i./ha followed by 2 hoeing control weeds effectively.
  17. 17. Harvesting  Central head is harvested before the buds open and bud clusters are compact.  The head may be 15 – 25 cm. in dia and 250 – 600 gm. In weight  The heads are cutoff with about 15 cm. of the stem attached and after cutting the part of foliage is removed from the harvested shoots
  18. 18.  Early- 50 – 60 q/ha  Late -100 – 150 q/ha  Average- 75 -100q/ha
  19. 19. Post harvest handling  After harvesting heads are kept in dark place for sometime otherwise they become yellowish  Yellowing can be checked by storing in O2 free chamber or aplication of BA @ 10 ppm or 2,4,5-T @ 2-4 ppm 3-4 days before harvesting.
  20. 20. • Heads can be stored at 32º F with 80–85 % RH for 8-10 days.
  21. 21. Diseases DISEASE SYMPTOMS CONTROL 1. Damping off (Pythium, Phytophthora, Rhizoctonia spp.) Germinated seed killed or seedlings topple down due to collar rotting i. Seed teeatment with Thiram or Captan@ 3g/kg seed ii. Spray 0.2% Dithane M- 45 iii. Soil sterilization 2. Downy Mildew (Pernospora parasitica) Fluffy downy growth on lower surface and purplish or yellow brown spots on upper surface of leaves i. Seed treatment in hot water at 50⁰C for 30 min. ii. Spray 0.3% Dithane M-45 or Ridomil-72 3.Yellowing (Fusarium oxysporum fsp. coglutinans) Yellowing of leaves starting from lower leaves leading upward fast i. Seed treatment ii. 0.2% Carbendazim or Benlate
  22. 22. DISEASE SYMPTOMS CONTROL 4. Club root (Plasmodiophora brassicae) Swelling of roots causes club shaped rootlets i. Drenchimg of seed beds with 1% formeldehyde ii. Liming to correct soil pH as it is more in acidic soils 5. Black leg (Phoma lingam) Seedlings topple over due to distortion of vascular bundle and root system i. Seed treatment ii. Hot water treatment iii. Spray 0.2% Dithane M-45 6. Black rot (Xanthomonas campestris) V shaped lesions with brown veins on leaf i. Hot water seed treatment ii. Seedling treatment with 0.01% Streptocycline iii. Spray 0.01% Streptocycline 7. Soft rot (Erwinia carotovora) Water soaked patches on head which later turn dark brown As black rot
  23. 23. Downy mildew
  24. 24. Black leg
  25. 25. INSECT SYMPTOMS CONTROL 1. Cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) Bluish green caterpillars feed on leaves starting from margin to centre i. Grow paired mustard rows after every 25 row of crop ii. Spray 0.03% Fenvelerate or Cypermethrin 2. Cut worm (Agrotis ipsilon) Caterpillars cut down the young seedlings just above the ground level i. Clean cultivation ii. Destruction of big soil clods iii. Soil application of Aldrin @ 20 kg/ha 3. Cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) Nymphs and adults suck the sap from leaves and causes sooty mould Spray 0.03% Dimethoate or 0.05% Methyl demeton Insects pests
  26. 26. INSECT SYMPTOMS CONTROL 4. Diamond back moth (Plutella xylostella) 1cm long greenish caterpillars feed on the lower side of leaves producing whitish patches and make holes As cabbage butterfly 5. Cabbage flea beetle (Phylloterata cruciferae) Grub feed on tender roots and adult is bluish green, 1.5-2cm long and make small round holes in leaves & stem Spray 0.2% Carbaryl
  27. 27. Cabbage butterfly
  28. 28. Physiological disorders DISORDER CAUSES CONTROL 1. Browning/ Red Rot/ Brown Rot (water soaked lesions on leaf & head which later turn rusty brown) B deficiency i. Soil application of Borax @ 10-15 kg/ha ii. Spray of 0.25-0.5 % solution of Borax 2. Whiptail (Plants become chloratic later leaves may be strap like) Mo deficiency i. 1.5 kg Sodium or Ammonium molybdate/ha ii. Spray 0.1% Ammonium molybdate 3. Blindness (head not formed due to damage to terminal bud) • Low temp. • Mechanical injury of terminal bud • Insect injury such as Cutworm i. Careful handling of plants ii. Avoid exposure of plant to very low temp.
  29. 29. DISORDER CAUSES CONTROL 4. Riceyness (velvety or granual appearance on surface of head) • Higher or lower temp. then the optimum • Poor seed stock i. Selection of proper variety and transplanting at right time. ii. Use good seed stock. 5. Hollow Stem (water soaked and diccoloured tissue) • B deficiency • Higher N i. Spray 0.25-5 % Borax ii. Reduce fertilizer dose and closer spacing.

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