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Senna

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Senna

  1. 1. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDYPHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF SENNAOF SENNA Prepared By :- Ruchita Bhavsar 3rd year B. Pharm Roll No. :- 17 Guided By :- Mr. Amish Gandhi Asst. Professor, Head of the Dept. of Pharmacology CKPIPSR 11
  2. 2. INDIAN SENNAINDIAN SENNA 22
  3. 3. 33 Synonyms : Senna leaf, Sennae folium, Senai-ki-patti, Tinnevelly senna, Cassia senna Biological Source : It consists of dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia Vahl, belonging to family Leguminosae. It contains not less than 2.0% of anthracene derivatives calculated as calcium sennoside B. Geographical Source : Indian senna is cultivated and collected in India. Its cultivation is mainly done in Tinnevelly, Madurai and Ramnathpuram districts of Tamil Nadu. Cultivation is attempted in Cudappa district of Andhra Pradesh and to some extent is collected from Kutch in Gujarat state and Rajasthan.
  4. 4. 44 History : Senna was known to physicians from very old days and was included in Unani medicine. About 26 species of genus Cassia have been reported to contain anthracene derivatives either in free form or glycosides. Out of them, Cassia angustifolia (Indian Senna) and Cassia acutifolia (Alexandrian Senna) are official in different pharmacopoeias because of cathratic activity and also because they are available in large quantities. The other species with known cathratic activity are C. alata, C. fistula, C.obovata, C. podocarpa, C. sieberiana, C. sofora, C. dentata, C. javanica etc. Cultivation, Collection and Preparation :  25000 hectares of land is under cultivation of senna in India, producing about 22500 tonnes of leaves and 7500 tonnes of fruits per annum.
  5. 5. 55  Senna is mainly cultivated in Tinnevelly, Ramnathapuram districts and their adjacent areas in Tamil Nadu State and is exported by ships from Tuticorin port.  Senna is a small shrub of 1.5 m, having compound paripinnate leaves and each leaf has got 3-5-7 pairs of leaflets.  For the cultivation, generally red loamy or coarse gravelly soil is selected, but it also grows on alluvial loamy soil.  Before sowing, the land is ploughed twice, harrowed and leveled. First sowing is done February – March, while second sowing is carried out in October – November i.e. after rains. Normally the sowing is done by broadcast method.  For earlier germination, the seed surface is triturated with sand.  About 15-25 kg of seeds are required per hectare of land and seeds are sown thinly.
  6. 6. 66  The plants are grown as a semi-irrigated or light-irrigated crop. Heavy irrigation, water logging, etc. are avoided. Also the plant can not survive at very low temperature.  The plants are allowed to grow for about 5 months till the growth of flower stalks occurs.  Though, it is a leguminous plant, still the application of nitrogenous fertilizers is beneficial because of lack of root nodules.  After 2-3 months of sowing, the harvesting of leaves is done in 3 stages. The first plucking is done when leaflets are thick, full- grown and greenish in colour. After one month, second plucking is done and last plucking is carried out after 4-6 weeks. Normally, the plants are uprooted after third plucking of leaves.  It is observed that the content of sennosides in leaves is maximum when they are fully grown and goes on decreasing along with maturation of pods.
  7. 7. 77  Senna crop which is taken after the rice crop on the same land in same season gives best yields and senna grown on dry land without proper irrigation gives poor results.  After collection, the leaflets are dried under shade or indoor by spreading them in thin layers.  Drying takes place within 7-10 days and leaves show yellowish – green colour.  The leaves are tossed to separate pods. They are then packed into bales under hydraulic pressure. Senna leaflets
  8. 8. 88  During storage, the drug should be protected from light. But generally it does not lose the potency at least upto 5 years.  About 1200 kg of leaves and pods are obtained in one hectare of irrigated land and 700 kg of drug from rainfed land. Macroscopic Characters : Colour – Yellowish-green Odour – Slight Taste – Mucilagenous, bitter and characteristic Size – 7 to 8 mm in width and 25 to 60 mm in length Shape – Leaves are lanceole, entire, apex is acute with spine at the top. Bases of the leaflets are asymmetrical with transverse lines, more prominent on lower surface, while the trichomes are present on both the surfaces.
  9. 9. 99 Microscopic Characters :  Senna represents the typical histological characters of isobilateral leaf which include the following.  The epidermis shows presence of unicellular, conical, thick-walled warty trichomes.  Trichomes are slightly curved at their bases and are present on both the surfaces.
  10. 10. 1010  Rubiaceous or paracytic stomata are present on epidermal surfaces.  Palisade tissue is present on both the sides, consisting of rectangular cells, enclosing cluster – crystals of calcium oxalate.  The spongy mesophyll and the conducting tissues are represented by the leaves as shown in figure.  A patch of sclerenchyma towards upper epidermis and above xylem (also known as pericyclic fibers) is present. No. Indian Senna Alexandrian Senna 1. Vein-islet no. 19.5 to 22.5 25 to 29.5 2. Stomatal Index 17 to 20 11.4 to 13.3 3. Palisade Ratio (upper epidermis) 7.5 9.5 4. Palisade Ratio (lower epidermis) 5.1 7.0
  11. 11. 1111 Chemical Constituents :  Senna contains mainly 2 anthraquinone glycosides called as sennoside A and sennoside B (not less than 2.5%) which account for its purgative property.  Tutin in 1913 isolated rhein and aloe-emodin. Stoll and his colleagues in 1941 reported isolation of crystalline sennoside A and B.  Sennoside A and B are stereo isomers of each other. They are dimeric glycosides with rhein dianthrone as aglycone. i.e. 10,10’ bis (9,10-dihydro, 1,8-dihydroxy, 9-oxoanthracene, 3-carboxylic acid).  In sennoside B, the aglycone is in meso form whereas in sennoside A, it is dextro-rotatory. They also differ by the way of linkage of glucose to the aglycone fraction.
  12. 12. 1212 R 10-10’ Glycoside COOH Trans Sennoside A COOH Meso Sennoside B CH2OH Trans Sennoside C CH2OH Meso Sennocide D
  13. 13. 1313  The purgative activity of sennoside A and B accounts up to 40- 60% activity of crude drug.  It is also reported that sugar part of these glycoside has transporting function for the aglycone upto large intestine and also protective action so that oxidation of aglycone to other very less active anthraquinones is prevented.  Senna leaf also contains other anthraquinone glycosides in small amounts. They are sennosides C and D, rhein, kaempferol, aloe- emodin and isorhamnetin. It also contains phytosterol, mucilage, resin, myricyl alcohol, salicylic acid, chrysophanic acid and calcium oxalate.  It is also reported that besides anthraquinone glycosides, senna contains two nepthalene glycosides called tinnevellin glycoside and 6- hydroxy musizin glycoside.
  14. 14. 1414 Extraction of Sennosides :  For commercial purposes, calcium sennosides in different strengths are extracted for the purpose of stability of compounds.  The drug powder is either treated with 90% methanol or 80% acetone for 6 hours and then for 3 hours with cold water which leads to an extract containing about 17-18% sennosides. This method enables to extract about 625 of sennosides.  By the use of solutions of non-ionic surfectants and polyethylene glycol in 70% ethanol, sennosides and other anthracene derivatives can be extracted.  For the isolation of sennosides, the use of non-polar synthetic resins with porous structure has been also proposed.  In another method, senna powder is with citric acid in methanol, followed by extraction with methanol-toluene mixture and ammonia. Then subjected to treat with calcium chloride.
  15. 15. 1515 Chemical Test :  Borntrager’s test is employed for purpose of anthraquinones in senna leaves.  The drug is boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, filtered and to the filtrate, benzene or ether or chloroform is added and shaken well.  The organic layer is separated to which ammonia is added slowly. The ammoniacal layer shows pink to red due to presence of anthraquinone glycosides. Assay :  Senna is assayed either by chemical or biological method.  For chemical assay, TLC, spectrophotometric or spectrocolorimetric methods are employed. The analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography has also been devised.
  16. 16. 1616  The criterion for biological assay is the number of wet faeces produced by groups of mice in 24 hours after oral administration of drug suspension. Uses :  Senna and its preparation are used as purgative in habitual constipation. The anthraquinone glycosides of senna are absorbed first in intestinal tract after which the aglycone part is separated and excreted in colon. These excreted anthraquinoness irritate and stimulate the colon thereby movements are increased due to local action. The increase in peristalsis also causes reduction in the water absorption. This results in soft and bulky faeces.  It is believed that griping effect caused by senna is due to its resin or emodin content. The drug given by parenteral way is secreted in colon and thereby causes the therapeutic action.
  17. 17. 1717 Adulterants and Substitutes :  Tinnevelly senna is found to be adulterated with Dog senna (C. obovata), Palthe senna (C. auriculata) and Mumbai, Mecca and Arabian senna mild variety of C. angustifolia from Arabia.  In Dog senna, the leaves are obovate in shape and with tapering apex. They show papillose cells in epidermis. They contain about 1% of anthraquinone glycosides.  Palthe senna is characterized by absence of anthraquinone glycosides. The leaflets show long hair and when the leaves are boiled with chloral hydrate solution, it shows crimson colour.  The leaflets of Bombay, Mecca and Arabian senna are brownish- green in colour and more elongated and narrower in shape.
  18. 18. AlexAndriAn SennAAlexAndriAn SennA 1818
  19. 19. 1919 Synonyms : Folia Sennae Alexandrinae, Egyptian senna, Cassia senna Biological Source : It consists of dried leaflets of Cassia acutifolia Delile, belonging to family Leguminosae. Geographical Source : Alexandrian senna is cultivated in middle and upper Nile territories, tropical Africa and specially Sudan. Alexandrian senna is obtained mainly from mild sources growing in Kordofon region of white Nile Province and also in Khartoum area.
  20. 20. 2020 Collection and Preparation :  The collection of leaflets along with branches is done when plants are bearing unripe fruits and dried under sunlight. The leaves are cleaned and graded into entire leaves, entire and broken leaves, siftings and pods.  The process of separation is carried out by sifting whereby, first the large stalks and pods are separated from which pods are manually plucked out.  The material which passes through sieves contains entire leaves, broken leaves, heavier stalks and sand. This is mechanically tossed by which entire and broken leaves are cleared out from other part.  Such leaves are once again sifted, so that it separates out mixed leaves, small fragments and very small leaflets. Entire leaves are hand picked from mixed leaves and packed in mats or bales.
  21. 21. 2121 Macroscopic Characters :  Alexandrian senna resembles to Tinnevelly senna except following different characters.  Alexandrian senna is 2-4 cm long and 7-12 mm wide with ovate – lanceolate shape. The margin is entire and curled. The base is more asymmetrical. It is more pubescent and has a thin brittle texture. It has a pale grayish-green colour. Microscopic Characters :  Both Alexandrian senna and Tinnevelly senna are very much identical in their histological characters.  The main criterion applied for the differentiation among 2 species is various leaf constants viz. stomatal index, palisade ratio and vein-islet number as discussed in Tinnevelly senna.
  22. 22. 2222 Chemical Constituents :  All the chemical constituents of Alexandrian senna are same as that of Tinnevelly senna. The percentage of sennosides in leaves and pods is more 3-3.6% as compared to Indian senna. Adulterants and Substitutes :  It is found to be adulterated with Dog senna, Palthe senna, Bombay, Mecca or Arabian senna.
  23. 23. SennA PodSSennA PodS 2323
  24. 24. 2424 Synonyms : Senna legumes, sennae fructus, senna fruit Biological Source : Senna pods are the dried nearly ripe fruits of Cassia acutifolia Delile (Alexandrian senna pods) and of Cassia angustifolia Vahl (Indian senna pods), belonging to family Leguminosae. Geographical Source : It is same as in case of Indian senna leaflets and Alexandrian senna leaflets.
  25. 25. 2525 Cultivation, Collection and Preparation :  The pods are collected from the same plants from which leaves are collected. Hence, the cultivation procedure does not need any special description.  During harvesting, both pods and leaves are collected and dried.  During sifting, the pods are separated and manually segregated into different qualities. The superior quality contains only entire pods without any foreign organic matter, while lower qualities are admixed with broken pods and leaves, piece of stems and foreign organic matter. The inferior quality of drug are normally used for preparation of galenicals.
  26. 26. 2626 Macroscopic Characters : Colour – Pale green to greenish brown Odour – None Taste – Slight Size – 2 to 2.5 cm in width and 4 to 5 cm in length Shape – The pods are flat, thin, broadly oblong. Apex is rounded with a slightly projecting point formed by the base of the style. Extra Features : Seeds which are about 6 in number and obovate in shape are with bluntly pointed projection at hilum end.
  27. 27. 2727 Chemical Constituents :  Senna fruits contain about 2.5 to 4.5 % of sennosides A and B (not less than 2.2%). Indian senna pods are inferior in glycoside content 1.5 to 3%.  The drug responds to the Borntrager’s test.  The pods are superior to leaves, as the contain more % of glycosides. The glycosides are present in pericarp of pods. The seeds contain very little quantity of sennosides.  The pods also contain sennoside A1 containing (-) sennidin 8, 8’ diglucoside. Uses :  Senna pods are used as a purgative due to anthraquinone derivatives.
  28. 28. 2828  Pods do not contain mucilage and are easy to handle for the commercial extraction of anthraquinone glycosides.  Sennosides are extracted as their calcium salts.  The pods are preferred to leaves, as they have less gripping action.
  29. 29. Thank YouThank You 2929

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