Fibers of Natural Origin

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  • Fibers of Natural Origin

    1. 1. Fibres
    2. 2. Content  Plant  Cotton  jute  Animal  Silk  wool  Mineral  Asbestos  Glass wool  Synthetic  Re-generated  Rayon  Nylon
    3. 3. 1. Cotton        Syn: raw cotton, purified cotton, absorbent cotton, surgical cotton Source: epidermal trichomes or hairs of the seeds of the cutivated species of the Gossypium species like Gossipium herbaaccurrc, Gossipium barbadense Family: Malvaceae Purified or absorbent cotton: consists of trichomes but freed from fatty matter and adhering impurities, bleached & sterilized GS: Commercially in India, US, Egypt Constituents: raw cotton: 90% cellulose & 7-8% moisture, wax, fat and remains of protoplasm While purified-absorbent cotton-entirely cellulose with 6-7% moisture
    4. 4.  Method of preparation:  Plant after flowering, bears fruits known as capsule, fruits are 3-5 celled  Each capsule contain numerous seeds  Seeds covered with the hairs are known as bolls.  The bolls are collected, dried and then taken to ginning press, wherein trichome are separated from seeds,  Various devices are used to separate the hairs.  The short & long hairs are separated from each other.  The hairs with short length are known as linters and are used for the manufacture of the absorbent cotton.
    5. 5.         Long hairs are used for preparation of cloth. The raw cotton is obtained by this way is full of impurities like wax, fat, coloring matter, vegetable debris etc It is processed to get rid of most of the impurities. It is taken to the machine known as cotton opener and followed by treatment with dilute soda ash solution under pressure for about 10-15 hours. The wax, fatty material and coloring matter are removed by this treatment. It is then washed with water and treated with suitable bleaching agent. It is again washed with water, dried and carded into flat sheets. Finally packed in wrappers and sterilized by means of gamma radiations.
    6. 6.       1. 2. 3. 4. Description: Color: white due to bleaching, slightly off white if sterlized Taste: tasteless Size: 2.5-4.5 cm I length and 25-35 micron in diameter Free from pieces of leaves, seed coat, foreign matter and dust. Chemical Test: Soak cotton fibre in iodine water & dry  add few ml of 80% H2SO4, trichome assume purplish-blue or bluishgreen color Ammonical copper oxide solution (cuoxam reagent) dissolves raw cotton fibres with the formation of balloons, while absorbent cotton dissolves completely with uniform swelling. Cotton is insoluble in dilute sodium hydroxide solution and HCl (distinction from silk) Cotton is soluble in 55% H2SO4
    7. 7.  Uses:  Filtering medium  Surgical dressing  Insulating material  Absorbent cotton: absorbs blood, mucus, pus and prevents the wound from infections.  Storage:  cool place  Bacterial infection  makes cotton friable & brittle  Should be wrapped in wrappers so as to prevent the dust and microbial contamination.  Heat and long storage, makes absorbent cotton, less absorbent.
    8. 8. 2. Jute Source: fibres of the stem of various species of Corchorus olitorius, C.capsularis  Family: Tiliaceae  GS: West bengal where loamy soil with pH 6-8  Constituents: 53% cellulose, 20% hemicellulose, and 10% lignin  Color: Yellowish brown  Chemical Test:  Middle lamella is highly lignified and gives red color with phloroglucinol & conc. HCl  Uses:  Manufacture of stupa, padding splints, filtering & straining medium , manufacture of coarse gunny bags 
    9. 9. 3. Silk  Source: fibres obatined from cocoons of Bombyx mori (mulberry silkworm)  Family: Bombycidae, Order: Lepidoptera  GS: Japan, Italy, China, France, India  Constituents: protein known as fibroin, fibroin on hydrolysis  amino acid glycine + alanine  Color: usually Yellowish threads  Chemical Test:  Since it does not contain, sulfur, test with lead acetate is negative.  Insoluble in water and alcohol  Soluble in cuoxam solution, 66%H2SO4, Conc. HCl  Uses: speical types of sutures, sieves and ligatures
    10. 10.  Method of preparation:  The larvae of the silkworm produce silk fibroin fibres from the glands in their mouth  This fibroin gets united with a gum like secretion known as sericin and forms cocoon  These cocoons are not allowed to grow further into an insect, but are heated to 60-80 degree C by exposing them to steam.  The exposed cocoons are put into hot water to dissolve the gum and to separate fibres
    11. 11. 4. Wool Source: fibres obatined from fleece sheep Ovis aries  Family: Bovidae, Order: Ungulata  GS: Australia, Russia, Argetia, US and India  Constituents: sulphur containg protein known as keratin, rich in amino acid cystine.  Chemical Test:  When lead acetate is added to a solution wool in NaOH, black ppt is formed due to high sulphur content.  Insoluble in cuoxam solution, 66%H2SO4, Conc. HCl  Uses: filtering & straining medium, manufacture of dressing like domette and crepe bandages and flannel. 
    12. 12.  Method of preparation:  The hairs forming on the fleece of the sheep are removed at shearing time.  They are then processed to remove the wool fat and dirt.  The clean & de-fatted wool is subjected to bleaching, washed again and dried.  When observed under high power, wool shows cuticle, cortex and medulla.
    13. 13. 5. Rayon Syn: Regenerated cellulose, Viscose rayon  Source: artificial fibres composed of regenerated cellulose in which substituents have replaced NMT 15% of hydrogen of –OH group. Now, it is exclusively prepared by the viscose process.  Preparation:  The cellulose of coniferous wood in the form of pulp is processed to give viscose rayon.  The pulp contains 80-90% of cellulose and hemicellulose.  The cellulose is treated with NaOH to get Sodium cellulose.  It is further treated with CS2 & NaOH to produce viscose solution of sodium cellulose xanthate.  After ripening, this solution is forced through the fine nozzles into the bath of sodium sulphate and H2SO4 to give continuous filaments.  The filaments are drawn together to form the yarn.  The yarn is desulphurized, bleached, washed twisted and then dried.  Rayon contain about 10% moisture and does not loose absorbency on storage like cottom.  Uses:  Making fabrics, preparation of surgical dressing, viscose rayon & absorvent wool. 
    14. 14. 6. Nylon  Syn:  It is the polymer of adipic acid and hexamethylene diamine.  The fibres are highly lustrous to dull, white or colored.  When applied to flame, the fibre melts with formation of bead.  It is soluble in 5M HCl and insoluble in acetone.  It is soluble in 90% formic acid & phenol (90%) which distinguishes it from fibres of biological origin.  Uses:  Filter clothes, sieves and non-absorbable sutures.
    15. 15. 7. Glass fibre      The fibres consists of sand (silica), mixed with oxides of aluminium, calcium, boron and magnesium. They are unaffected by all usual reagents used in identification of fibres. They melt at high temperature and form a transparent bead. They are used in filer fabrics for insulation and splinting material.
    16. 16. 8. Asbestos o o o o o o o Contains mainly hydrated magnesium silicates. Rock asbestos is white, yellow or green in color. It is highly refractive and also do not fuse when heated. Chemical Test Insoluble in warm HCl Uses: Preparation of filtering medium & for bacterial filters.
    17. 17. 1. Kaolin  Syn: China clay, Kaolinum proderesum  Source: purified native hydrated aluminium silicate free from gritty particles.  Preparation: by powdering native kaolin, elutriating and collecting the fraction, which complies with the requirement s of particle size. The native clay is derived from decomposition of the feldspr (Potassium aluminosilicate) or granite rock ad contains silica (47%), alumina (40%) and water (13%).  GS: South easter US, England, France, India
    18. 18.            Description: 1 Heavy: purified hydrated aluminium silicate powdered so as to make free from gritty particles by elutriation. 2 Light: identical to heavy kaolin, but is limited tp certain particle size and contains suitable dispersing agent. 3. Natural: native hydrated aluminium silicate free ftom gritty particles, but devoid of dispersing agent. Color: normally white but often gets tinged to grey, yellow or brown due to impurities. Odor: odorless, size: 10-60 micron, fusion point: 1700-1800 degree C Solubility: insoluble in water, mineral acids. not affected by HCl but decomposed by conc. H2SO4 after prolonged boiling, absorb small amount of water. Use: adsorbent as oral administration, treatment of enteritis, dysentery, alkaloid-food poisoning, dusting powder, clarifying agent during filtration. Light: pharmaceutical preparation Heavy: kaolin poultice, filler in paper, rubber, ceramics, cement, fertilizer industries, anticaking preparation, cosmetics, insecticides, paints & source of alumina.
    19. 19. 2. Chalk      Syn: creta, paris white, whiting Source: native form of CaCO3, free from most of the impurities by elutriations. It contains NLT 97% w/w of CaCO3, when dried at 100 degree C. Preparation: mined in open quarries, pulverized by elutriation. The water is removed and the insoluble chalk settle forming flak cakes, known as whiting. It is purified further for pharmaceutical use. Description: colorless, odorless, white earthy and soft to touch. It is amorphous and insoluble in water. When treated with acids, it effervesces. Constituents: 96% CaCO3, 0.5% MgCO3, 0.5-1% silica, traces of iron,manganese and aluminium oxides.
    20. 20.  Use:  Antacid & dietary supplement, dusting powder, anti-diarrhoeal, face powder, abrasive in tooth powders and tooth paste, manufacture of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.  Precipitated Chalk: absence of foraminiferous shells as it is obtained from chemical reactions.  Prepared chalk has various shape and size of foraminiferous shells as observed under microscope using cresol as mountant.
    21. 21. 3. Diatomite       Syn: Kieselguhr, Celite super cel, Industrial earth Source: natural diatomaceous earth consisting of siliceous of fossil, Family: Bacillariaceae Purified by treating it with dil HCl and washing with water and drying. GS: West Germany, Denmark, Algeria, Kenya, US, UK Preparation: mined in open quarries, where in large blocks containing moisture to the extent of 30-40% are arranged and dried in air, the blocks containing 5-10% of moisture are then pulverized to produce fine powder & subsequently graded. The powder is then subjected to acid treatment, washed thoroughly with water and finally dried. Description: brownish-grey to white colored light powder, odorless, tasteless. Very smooth and adheres to the skin by rubbing. It is not slippery. Absorb moisture, but does not swell when mounted in cresol. It is invisible in polarised light with crossed nicols. Diatoms vary in size and exhibit two shapes, elongated and circular or triangular known as discoid.
    22. 22.  Constituents:  75-90% silica, 1-5% aluminium oxide, 1.5% Calcium oxide, 1.5% Magnesium oxide, 5% iron oxide.  Use:  Filter aid, clarification and decolorization of liquids, manufacture of tooth powder, face powder, nail polish, filter candle preparation
    23. 23. 4. Bentonite        Syn: Whilkinite Source: natural colloidal hydrated aluminium silicate (clay) found in many parts of the world. GS: Italy, Canada, South Africa, South-East US The finest variety comes from Benton in US and hence name is bentonite. Preparation: found in the form of soapy lumps in the mines. Lumps are steam dried followed pulverization and sifting. Description: cream to pale buff yellowish or pinkish tint colored very fine powder, free from grittiness, odorless, earthy in taste. Insoluble in water & organic solvents, when added to water, It swells about 12 times of its volume.
    24. 24.  Constituents:  80% montmorillonite (Al2O3.4SiO2.H2O), 60% SiO2, 20% Al2O3, 2-3% MgOxide, 3% Ferric Oxide  Chemical Test:  When mounted in 0.1% methylene blue in 95% alcohol, deep-blue color.  When mounted in 0.1% safranine in 70% alcohol, permanent deep red color.  Use:  Suspending & emulsifying agent, base for plaster, base for cream-lipstick-depilatories in cosmetics
    25. 25. 5. Talc      Syn: French Talk, Talcum, Soap stone, Purified talc Source: natural hydrated magnesium silicate. It is purified by boiling with dilute HCl, decanting the liquid, washing the residue several times with water & drying at 110 degree C. GS: France, NY, Italy & India. Description: very fine white or greyish-white powder without order and taste. It is free of gritty particles, greasy to touch and adheres to skin. Talc is insoluble in water, dilute acids and alkali hydroxides. It is fine variety of steatite occuring as massibe mineral with pearly white lusture and non-plastic thusm distinguished from mica.
    26. 26.         Specification: density: 2.2-2.8 Constituents: Hydrated magnesium silicate, 1-2% Iron oxide, traces of aluminum oxide Color of talc is due to iron oxide content. Chemical Test: fuse about 0.5 g talc with 0.2 g of anhydrous Na2CO3, K2CO3 in platinum crucible. Dissolve the fused mixture into 50 ml of water and to it add HCl to it until it ceases to effervescence. Add little more acid and evaporate the contents to dryness on water bath. Cool it, dissolve in 20 ml of water, boil and filter. To the filtrate, add about 2 g of Ammonium chloride and 5 ml of ammonia solution. If any precipitate is formed remove it filtration. To the filtrate, add sodium phosphate, white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium carbonate will be formed. Use: Filter aid for filtration and clarification of cloudy liquids, as lubricant in preparations of pills and tablets and as dusting powder. It is used in paint & varnish industry, filter for paper and heat and electric insulator.

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