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Nutricion inglés definitivo


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An equilibrated diet

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Nutricion inglés definitivo

  1. 1. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO Nutrition and physical activity Basal metabolic rate and calories Different types of activities and their energy-consumption Balanced diet: quantity and quality Index: 1.-Diet analysis 1.1.-Qualitative analysis 1.2.-Quantitative analysis 1.2.1-Macronutrients A.-Carbohydrates B.-Fat C.-Proteins d.-Fiber 1.2.2-Micronutrients A.-Vitamins B.-Minerals 2.-Calories. Energy expenditure and physical activity 2.1-Basal metabolic rate 2.2-Consumption through physical activity 2.3-Consumption through digestive factors 3.-Caloric calculation 3.1-Optimal weight 3.2-Energy expenditure through daily activity 3.3-Calculation of percentage of immediate principles 3.4-Total energy expenditure 3.5-Nutrients schemes 3.6-Recommended intakes 4.-Nutrition and physical activity Annex I: the food wheel Annex II: food wheel and balanced diet Annex III: vitamins 1
  2. 2. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO 1.-DIET ANALYSIS A diet is the sum of what a person eats in a day: quantity, type of food and its distribution during the day. Foods are products obtained from nature, from animal or plant origin. Nutrients are the different types of substances that compose food. The metabolic system is very complex and to keep it working properly, all nutrients in a correct proportion are needed. Each nutrient has its specific role in our system and as our body is incapable of producing some of them on its own, it is necessary to have them in our diet. Unbalanced diets could lead to alterations in our body and illnesses. 1.1.-Qualitative analysis Food is classified into groups, according to its main nutrients. These groups make the food wheel (annex I) A balanced diet is achieved when food of each group is eaten in a correct quantity and frequency (annex II) 1.2.- Quantitative analysis. In nutrition, the energy unit is expressed in calories (quantity of heat needed to raise 1 degree the temperature of 1kg water), which would be a kilocalorie strictly speaking. Each type of food gives us a certain number of calories, depending on its nutrients. Nutrients can be classified into macronutrients or immediate principles and micronutrients. 1.2.1.- Macronutrients. Together with water, they form the main part of food. They are used to: -obtain the energy needed for the processes of life, -form and restore cellular structures. They are: -carbohydrates, -fat, -proteins. A.-Carbohydrates (CH) They are also called glucides or sugars. Their composition is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Their functions are: energy (they are the main energy source of the body), structural, thermoregulator, reserves (as glycogen) They are classified as CH simple or monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, fructose) disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and CH complex or polysaccharides (glycogen, starch, cellulose) . A balanced diet should at least have 50% of the calorie intake from CH. They can be found mainly in food-group 6, but also in 3 and 5. One gram of carbohydrate gives us 4 calories. 2
  3. 3. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO B.-Fat Also called lipids. They give us the highest energy performance; they are the energy reservoirs of our body and are essential for other vital functions and liposoluble vitamins transport. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen although their structure is different from CH. They can be found especially in food group 7, also in groups 1 and 3 in different proportions. There are different types of fats; the most common in humans is triglycerides, which are 99% of the fat in our bodies. Another lipid substance is cholesterol which can be found in food of animal origin and whose intake should be kept under 300 gr a day as it can produce cardiovascular problems. We divide fat in food of animal origin (butter, eggs, cheese, milk) and vegetal origin (oil, nuts). Vegetal fat contains mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which should be our main intake of fats. Animal fat contains especially saturated fatty acids, which should be avoided as they can result in serious health problems. They should provide 25% - 35% of our calorie intake, one third as saturated fat, another as monosaturated and yet another as polyunsaturated. Each gram of fat provides us with 9 calories. C.-Proteins They are construction substances for our body tissues and have other functions as for example producing hormones, enzimes and other important substances as for example antibodies. They consist of nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon. They can be found especially in food groups 1 and 2 but also in group 3 and in some of group 4 (vegetal proteins) Each gram of proteins provide us with 4 calories. D.-Fiber Fiber forms the main part of all vegetal food and, as it cannot be digested, it is part of the alimentary bolus and protects us against colon cancer, arteriosclerosis, diverticulosis and diabetes. An excessive intake may produce gas, feeling full and even stomach pain. 1.2.2.- Micronutrients. These are vitamins and minerals. Their intake should be in small portions, nevertheless the intake is essential to regulate the cellular function of the body. A.- Vitamins. These are organic compounds which can be found in all natural foods and their intake should be in small portions, nevertheless they are essential for our vital functions and therefore for our health and life. 3
  4. 4. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO The need of vitamins during physical exercise has been studied, also studies have been made about vitamin supplements when doing sports. They are divided into water-soluble or fat-soluble. The fat-soluble vitamins can build up in our body and may produce hypervitaminosis. This doesn’t happen with water-soluble vitamins. It’s classifications can be found in Anex III We would like to emphasize the functions of vitamins when doing sports: -productions of erythrocytes, deriving in the cellular oxygenation, -O2 use of cells, -metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and proteins, thus energetic metabolism. We would like to point out some incorrect concepts about vitamins -With a balanced diet no need of a vitamin-supplement is needed. -Supplements are only needed with lack of a balanced diet or with pathologies which abnormal metabolism; We should know that 68% of sports people take supplements prescribed by their doctors or trainers. -Vitamins are not a replacement of meals as they have no calories (they don’t degrade to produce energy) neither do they build tissue. -Vitamins are a cure of certain illnesses only produced because of a lack of certain vitamins. They are not considered as medication. -There is no quality-price relation. Large amounts of money do not mean more benefits. -They can be dangerous: hypervitaminosis by excessive intake of vitamins. Vitamin A and D are very toxic as the accumulate in liver and adipose tissue. -Vegetable and fruit cells contain a cellulose membrane which can’t be digested, therefore it is very important to chew them well. B.- Minerals They are non-organic substances which the body can’t synthesize and should be provided by our diet. They regulate our metabolism. A lack of them produces alterations in the functional capacity of our body. There are two groups: -Main: 100 mg/day minimum: electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potasium), others (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus...) -Trace elements: iron, iodine, selenium, cobalt, zinc, molybdenum, copper 4
  5. 5. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO 2.- CALORIES, ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY The energy expenditure is the energy (calories) that a body spends in a day to keep alive and active (work, school, sport, etc) It can be divided into: 2.1.-Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) It is the basic energy expenditure of a person who is not active or in total rest The calculation according to Harris-Benedict which takes into account: sex, weight, height and age Men: BMR = 66 + (13.7 x weight in kg) + ( 5 x height in cm) – (6.8 x age in years) Women: BMR = 655 + (9.6 x weight in kg) + (1.7 x height in cm) - (4.7 x age in years) 2.2.-Energy expenditure with physical activity To move our muscles, we need energy; the need of energy will depend on the type of daily activity and sport. This should be considered when calculating the need of energy. Experimental calculations have been made according to different type of daily activities: I-sedentary: retired people, resting at home II-moderate work: clerk, teacher, student, writer, doctor, sewer, scientist III-medium work: shop employee, travelling, electrician, waiter, housewife-man IV-active work: farmer, construction, painter, soldier V-hard work: miner, carpenter, freight employee There is also a division made according to each sport and energy used, calculating calories used an hour: SPORT calorie spending (cal/hour) ATHLETICS Speed 500 Middle distance 930 Long distance 750 Marathon 700 Launch 450 Jumpers 400 CYCLING Track cycling 220 After bike cycling 350 SWIMMING Speed 700 Long distance 450 ROWING-GYMNASTICS 500 5
  6. 6. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO SAILING 350 SKY Long distance 750 Alpine 960 Skating Artistic 600 Speed 720 TENNIS Individual 800 Doubles 350 WRESTLING 900 BOXING-FENCING 600 WEIGHTLIFTING 450 TEAM SPORTS Basketball/waterpolo 600 Football 400 Handball/rugby/volley 500 2.3.-Digestive energy expenditure This is the energy needed to digest, absorb, transport and use the different nutrients, this consumption is already assumed in every caloric power of immediate principles. 3.- CALORIE CALCULATION. Each individual should have a specific calculation of how many calories are needed. Even if the calculation is mathematically done, this should not be taken too seriously as many factors influence. 3.1.- Ideal weight. The ideal weight should therefore be the one with which the individual feels physically and psychologically optimal. There are many formulas but we will use this one considering sex: (H: height in cm, W: weight in kg) - Woman: W = H - 100 - (H - 150) / 2 - Man: W = H - 100 - (H - 150) / 4 3.2.- Energy expenditure through daily activity. As we already have read we should consider daily activity and sport activity as shown in schemes 2.2. 6
  7. 7. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO Sedentary: 15 calories per kg ideal body-weight a day Moderate activity: 20 calories per kg ideal body-weight a day Medium: 25 calories per kg ideal body-weight a day Active work 30 calories per kg ideal body-weight a day Hard work 35 calories per kg ideal body-weight a day For more exact calculations we should consider different hours of the day and its activity and apply the calories needed for each activity. 3.3.- Calculation of percentage of immediate principles. In the first place, each macronutrient shall be assigned with a percentage of the total energy consumption and using sums of three, we will calculate how many calories each nutrient will provide. As we know how many calories each gram of nutrient will provide us, another sum of three will teach us how to calculate how many grams of macronutrients to take. Concerning the micronutrients, sex, weight and height should be taken in consideration. 3.4.- Total energy spenditure This would be the sum of the basal metabolic rate and the daily physical activity, professional as well sports activity. 3.5.- Nutrients schemes There are schemes where we can find the composition of the most common food in our diet. Food is divided in groups (food wheel). On the internet there are many websites which calculate the food composition easily. The numbers in the schemes are expressed in 100gr raw, before being processed or cooked. From here we will be able to calculate our daily intake doing simple mathematical sums. 3.6.- Recommended intakes As we already have read, we should have a minimum daily intake of different types of nutrients to keep healthy, depending on sex, age and weight. (Anex III) If we know the recommended daily intakes and the actual intakes, we should know if we have a balance, thus adapting our diet to the recommended needs. These calculations should be done with the average data of one week. In this WEEKLY DIET SURVEY all food should be reflected (raw, cooked, vegetables, fruit, etc) 7
  8. 8. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO 4.- NUTRITION AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Physical activity will increase our energy consumption and thus increase the nutrients we need as we have read before. Another matter are nutrition ergogenics Some aerobic sports with an anaerobic-lactic component (final sprint) whose main energy source is glycogen may demand special diets of “glycogen recharge” the “Scandinavian dissociated diet” when after a depletion of the deposits, a recharge is done with a diet rich in complex CH. This is done in racing sports with more than 30km. Evaluation of nutritional status 1.-Weight and height comparing reference schemes 2.-Body Mass Index BMI = weight in kg/ (height in m)2 Men = 25-26 Women = 24 3.-Anthropometry The anthropometry is the study of body composition and somatotype based on weight, height, age, sex, skin folds, bone diameter and perimeter, analysis of body structure. Anthropometric studies in sports have been made to know the ideal body for each specific sport. These have been done taking the best sportspeople of each sport. The average has been used to create the ideal sportsperson. Comparing these ideal sportspeople with an individual will give us the possibility to advice each person of his/her possibilities to do a certain sport, especially when speaking about high competition. On the other hand, we will be able to advice the person on what diet to follow and what training to do, to achieve his/her goal. As regards sports, the best study on this matter was done during the Montreal Olympics of 1976 by Carter and Ross, with the MOGAP (Montreal Olympic Games Anthropological Project). 4.-Body composition The body can basically be divided into two components: -lean components: muscles, bones and different fossil organs. Only muscle can vary size with exercise. -fat components: which can depend on intake, physical activity, nerves and endocrinemetabolics. The estimation of body components is used to know if variations in body weight are due to accumulation of fat (obesity) or muscle increase due to excercise, also to know the adequate nutrition of our sportsman/woman. 8
  10. 10. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO ANNEX II: THE FOOD WHEEL: BALANCED DIET FOOD GRUP NUTRITIONAL VALUE MAIN FUNCTIONS VITAMINS CONSUMPTION MILK and dairy products I Proteins calcium structural regulatory A B1 B2 1/2-1 litter/d. It can be replaced with yoghourt and cheese FISH II Proteins, Ca, Fe, I, K, F structural A,D (liver) Comp B 3-4 times/ week MEAT II Proteins, fat, Fe, P structural Complex B 1-3 times/ week EGGS II Proteins, fat, Fe, P structural Complex B A, D (yolk) 3-4 / week LEGUMES POTATOES NUTS III CH Low fat fiber Ca., Fe energy Complex B mainly niacine and B1 2 types/ week VEGETABLES IV water, fiber, Fe, Ca, regulatory A C At least 1 portion/day FRUITS V water, CH, minerals regulatory A C At least 2 portions/day CEREALS VI CH P, K energy B E(germ) 4 portions/day SWEETS VI calories energy according to component moderate FATS OILS VII calories fatty acids energy A moderate 10
  11. 11. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO ANNEX III: Vitamins fat-soluble (A, E, D, K) and water-soluble Vitamin Animal source Vegetal source FUNCTIONS Under consumption Over consumption VIT. A milk, butter, egg (yolk), fish-liver oils Carrot, parsley, spinach, escarole, lettuce peppers, thistle, tomatoe Essential to growth, skin moisturizing, vision, hair, nails, teeth bones. Night blidness. Epithelia keratinization,g rowth arrest. Irritability dry skin, vomits, orange skinned VIT. D milk, butter, egg (yolk), fish-liver oils Sunbathing converts ergosterol into vitamin D Regulates calcium and phosphorous metabolism and bones and teeth deposits Bone alterations. Teeth alterations. Metabolic alterations. Weakness, tiredness, headaches, nausea. VIT. E eggs Seed oils (soy, peanut, sunflower, coconut).Green leaves. Cereals Helps the action of the essential fat acids, as natural antioxidants. VIT. K Pork liver. Intestinal bacterial synthesis. Alfalfa. coliflower. spinach. Tomatoe. Cereals. Indispensable for blood coagulation. Bleeding. VIT. B1 meat (pork). livers. milk Cereals (whole rice, wheat). Potatoes. Legumes. Peas. Vegetables. Yeast. Indispensable to obtain energy for the nervous system Psychic irritability, leg pain, loss of appetite VIT. B2 meat. Milk Cereals. Green vegetables. Intervenes in the enzymatic process related to cellular oxidation. Needed for ephitelian integrity. Mouth, skin and eyediseases. VIT. PP meat. livers. kidney. Cereals. Yeast. Intervenes ingrowth, function of nervous system and skin integrity . Nervous system and digestive alterations... VIT. B6 eggs (yolk). meat. livers. kidney. fish. milk. Cereals seeds. yeast. Intervenes in protein and fat synthesis, production of blood cells. Anemia, fatigue, depression, nervous diseases. 11
  12. 12. IES CLARA CAMPOAMOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT ALAQUÀS 1º DE BACHILLERATO VIT.B12 livers. kidney. meat. milk Essential for haemoglobine synthesis, production of blood cells. Helps the nervous system functions. Anemia and general weakness PANTO THENIC ACID livers. kidney. meat. milk. eggs. Fish roe. Essential for the carbohydrates, protein and fat assimilation, General weakness of the immune system, bleeding,weakn ess. FOLIC ACID meat. livers spinach peas. asparagus. cereals (wheat, rice, corn) closely related to the function of vitamin B12, necessary to the formation of blood cells, keeps the skin healthy. Anemia. Digestive disorders. BIOTIN livers. kidneys yeast. Essential for the carbohydrates, protein and fat metabolism. VIT. C Fresh vegetables. Citrus fruits. Potatoes Helps the bones, teeth and blood vessels stay healthy, necessary for normal body growth, anti-infective and antitoxic properties. General weakness of the immune system, general weakness 12