Macro vs Micronutrients


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Macro vs Micronutrients

  1. 1. Recap: Nutrition Labeling<br />Regulations set forth by Health Canada and enforced by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency<br />A consistent way of helping consumers make conscious food choices<br />Nutrition facts and ingredients list are mandatory for most foods sold in packages<br />Ingredients listed by weight, from highest to lowest % content (important for people with allergies)<br />Packaging may also contain claims related to the nutritional content or a health benefit (e.g. low in saturated fats, source of iron, reduced calories, etc.)<br />
  2. 2. Recap: Nutrition Labeling<br />Information Provided:<br />Serving size<br />Number of calories<br />Fat content<br />Carb content<br />Protein content<br />Cholesterol<br />Sodium<br />Vitamins and minerals<br />% daily value<br />
  3. 3. Recap: Nutrition Labeling<br />Why are they important?<br />To determine if a product contains a specific amount of a nutrient or ingredient one is trying to incorporate or eliminate from diet<br />To establish caloric consumption<br />To determine nutritional value<br />To manage special diets (e.g. diabetic)<br />
  4. 4. Macronutrients vs. Micronutrients<br />What are they? <br />What are they used for?<br />Where can we find them?<br />
  5. 5. Food is composed of a wide distribution of nutrients, which have very specific metabolic effects on the human body. <br />Two categories: <br />macronutrients<br />micronutrients<br />Some of these nutrients are considered to be essential while others are considered to be non-essential.<br />
  6. 6. Macronutrients<br />Macronutrients constitute the majority of an individual’s diet<br />The essential nutrients that are needed for growth and energy<br />carbohydrates<br />proteins<br />fats<br />water<br />
  7. 7. Macronutrients<br />Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are interchangeable as sources of energy, with fats yielding 9 calories per gram, and protein and carbohydrates each yielding 4 calories per gram.<br />
  8. 8. CARBOHYDRATES<br />composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and “constitute the main source of energy for all body functions, particularly brain functions, and are necessary for the metabolism of other nutrients” (Mosby 260)<br />the easiest form of food to convert into energy<br />once ingested carbohydrates are turned into glucose, which circulates in the bloodstream being readily available, and into glycogen which is stored in the liver and muscle cells, for later use<br />
  9. 9. Types of Carbohydrates:<br />Simple carbohydrates like those found in fruits and processed sugars break down very rapidly in the body, making them a good source of quick energy. <br />Complex carbohydrates like those found in rice, potatoes, and pasta, take longer to break down in the body, and provide a more even distribution of energy over a longer period of time. <br />
  10. 10. 3 Classes of Carbohydrates:<br />
  11. 11. PROTEIN<br />large combinations of amino acids containing the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, and is the major source of building materials for muscles, blood, skin, hair, nails, and internal organs<br />used by the body to build, repair, and maintain muscle tissue<br />once ingested protein is broken down into peptides and amino acids which are vital for proper growth, development, and maintenance of health<br />
  12. 12. Protein Categories:<br />Complete<br />Sources: meat, poultry, fish, eggs, milk, cheese<br />Contain essential amino acids <br />Incomplete<br />Sources: nuts, legumes<br />
  13. 13. Protein Ratings:<br />100 is the highest rating a food item can receive.<br />
  14. 14. FAT<br />composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (these elements are connected together differently than in carbohydrates)<br />provide 3 primary functions:<br />they are the major source of stored energy for the body<br />they serve to cushion and protect the major organs<br />they act as an insulator, preserving body heat, and protecting against excessive cold<br />
  15. 15. Types of Fat:<br />Once ingested fats are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, and are divided into 3 different categories: <br />simple fats (triglycerides)<br />compound fats (phospholipides, glucolipids, and lipoproteins)<br />derived fats (cholesterol). <br />Fats are also further classified as: <br />saturated<br />unsaturated<br />polyunsaturated<br />
  16. 16. Saturated Fats<br />Saturated fats are used by the liver to manufacture cholesterol. <br />Cholesterol, is a member of a group of lipids called sterols, and is found only in animal tissues. <br />Cholesterol is important in that it acts as a precursor for the synthesis of various steroid hormones and vitamin D in the body. <br />High levels of saturated fat can significantly raise one’s levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL’S, bad cholesterol) which is associated with atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). <br />Saturated fats can be found in the foods such as: beef, lamb, pork, chicken, shell fish, egg yolks, milk, cheese, butter, and chocolate.<br />
  17. 17. Polyunsaturated Fats<br />Polyunsaturated fats will lower your blood cholesterol level. <br />Polyunsaturated fats will lower both your low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL’S, bad cholesterol), as well as, lowering your high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL’S, good cholesterol). <br />Polyunsaturated fats can be found in foods such as : almonds, pecans, sunflower oil, corn oil, fish, mayonnaise, safflower oil, soybean oil, walnuts and in most margarines.<br />
  18. 18. Unsaturated Fats<br />Unsaturated fats will lower your LDL’S (bad cholesterol) without affecting your HDL’S (good cholesterol) making them the healthiest of possible fat sources in the diet. <br />Unsaturated fats can be found in the foods such as: avocados, cashews, olives, olive oil, peanuts, peanut oil, and peanut butter.<br />
  19. 19. Water<br />Water is a key essential to a healthy body. The body is roughly 60% water.<br />An average person needs about 8 cups of water per day depending on their activity levels. <br />Typically, the thirst mechanism is not a good sign to indicate when the body needs water. This mechanism is activated when dehydration has already occurred. <br />Dehydration can lead to heat illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke because of the inability to sweat. It also can cause electrolyte imbalance and malfunction of the body systems. This can lead to decreases in energy and performance. <br />
  20. 20. Micronutrients<br />Micronutrients are vitamins and trace minerals. <br />Vitamins and trace minerals are labeled as micronutrients because the body only requires them in very small amounts. <br />Vitamins are organic substances that we ingest with our foods, and that that help to trigger other reactions in the body<br />
  21. 21. Micronutrients<br />Although, micronutrients are needed only in small amounts, their deficiency leads to critical health problems.<br />In fact, most of the diseases and conditions that people face today are due to deficiency of micronutrients. <br />The World Health Organization (WHO) says that if we ensure elimination of micronutrient deficiency, labour efficiency will increase multifold.<br />
  22. 22. List of Micronutrients:<br />Vitamins – Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K and Carotenoids.<br />Minerals – Boron, Calcium, Chloride, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Fluoride, Iodine, Iron, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Phosphorous, Potassium, Selenium, Sodium and Zinc.<br />Organic Acids – Acetic acid, Citric acid, Lactic acid, Malic acid, Choline and Taurine.<br />
  23. 23. SUPERFOODS<br />The Top 10 Must-Eat Foods!<br />
  24. 24. What is a “superfood”?<br />Foods whose nutritional content is so powerful and the benefits of eating them so far-reaching.<br />They proven to contain vitamins, minerals and other nutrients that prevent disease - from cancer and heart disease to arthritis, eye diseases and many more. <br />
  25. 25.
  26. 26. Top 10!<br />BERRIES<br />Antioxidants<br />BROCCOLI<br />Cancer-fight properties, fights heart disease<br />CITRUS FRUIT<br />Rich in vitamin C<br />GARLIC<br />Helps with heart disease, diabetes, cancer<br />NUTS<br />Cholesterol lowering, heart disease preventing<br />
  27. 27. Top 10!<br />OATS<br />High in fibre and protein and low in fat, oats reduce the risk of heart disease, lower cholesterol <br />SALMON<br />rich in Omega-3 fatty acids; works to prevent heart disease <br />SPINACH<br />Loaded with Vitamin C, fiber, calcium, iron; works to prevent macular degeneration (poor eyesight leading to blindness)<br />TOMATOES<br />fighters against cancer and heart disease<br />TURKEY<br />low fat, low calorie protein<br />
  28. 28. Sources:<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />