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  1. 1. Nutrition<br />
  2. 2. The Six Nutrients<br />Carbohydrate<br />Fat<br />Protein<br />Vitamins<br />Minerals<br />Water<br />
  3. 3. I. Carbohydrates<br />supply energy <br />reduce refined carbohydrates (sugars) in diet, while adding more complex (whole grains, vegetables, fruits, etc.)<br />
  4. 4. Types of Carbohydrate<br /> A. Sugar- simple carbohydrate<br /> 1. Monosaccharide - simple sugar<br /> Glucose (dextrose) - found in fruits and vegetables; other sugars and starches break down into it during digestion<br />Fructose- fruit sugar<br />
  5. 5. More Sugar Types . . .<br />2. Disaccharide- double sugar; breaks down into simple sugars during digestion<br />Lactose - milk sugar (found only in milk)<br />Sucrose - table sugar<br />
  6. 6. Types of Carbohydrates<br />B. Starches - Complex carbohydrate; breaks down to simple sugars during digestion<br />Fiber - most complex, found in plants<br />fiber or roughage in diet - does not completely break down <br />does not supply energy<br />
  7. 7. II. Fat<br />Most concentrated form of food energy<br />Slower to digest, so that you feel full longer<br />Contributes to flavor/tenderness in meats<br />
  8. 8. Types of Fat<br />A. Saturated<br />comes from animal sources<br />solids at room temperature<br />restrict in diet<br />avoid hydrogenated plant <br />sources (margarine &<br />shortening)<br />
  9. 9. B. Unsaturated Fats<br />liquid at room temperature<br />canola and olive oil - best to consume<br />
  10. 10. Trans Fat<br />Avoid:<br />Trans fatty acids<br />Found in hydrogenated products – margarine and shortening<br />Exposing unsaturated oils to heat creates trans fats<br />May raise blood cholesterol - LDL<br />
  11. 11. Cholesterol <br />Cholesterol-An alcohol,not a fat<br />waxy, fat-like substance found in most body tissue (particularly the brain, nervous system, and blood)<br />during digestion, cholesterol helps to break down fats so they can be absorbed through the wall of the small intestine<br />
  12. 12. Cholesterol<br />foods that are high in saturated fat are also frequently high in cholesterol<br />the body obtains a third of its cholesterol from food and makes the rest, <br />a high level of cholesterol, over 200 mg, is associated with heart disease<br />
  13. 13. Cholesterol<br /><ul><li>The bloodstream transports cholesterol throughout the body by lipoproteins.
  14. 14. LDL - low density lipoproteins (bad)
  15. 15. HDL - high density lipoproteins (good)</li></li></ul><li>III. Protein<br />build and repair body tissue <br />antibodies made of protein<br />
  16. 16. Protein<br />Composed of amino acids <br />Essential- cannot be manufactured by the body, so must be eaten as food, and must be available at the same time<br />Non-essential (body manufactures these, so they don't have to be eaten)<br />
  17. 17. Protein<br />A. Complete<br />animal sources<br />contain all of the essential amino acids<br />
  18. 18. Protein<br />B. Incomplete<br />plant sources<br />contain only some of the essential amino acids<br />vegans rely on incomplete proteins they get from peanut butter, legumes, nuts, soybeans, tofu, etc. <br />
  19. 19. IV. Vitamins<br />regulate body processes (approximately 20 known at present)<br />high biological activity, a little goes a long way<br />must be supplied by diet (or supplement)<br />
  20. 20. Vitamins<br />A. Fat soluble - stored in body fat; excessive levels may be dangerous<br />B. Water soluble - must be eaten daily<br />
  21. 21. A. Fat Soluble<br />1. Vitamin A - Retinol<br />source: dark green and yellow vegetables contain carotene, which is converted by the body to retinol <br />important for healthy skin, hair, mucous membranes<br />essential for good vision<br />an anti-oxidant<br />
  22. 22. 2. Vitamin D<br />Calciferol<br />source: sunlight (body <br /> manufactures when skin is exposed)<br />enriched milk<br />aids the use of calcium and phosphorus <br />deficiency in children - rickets (poor bone growth); adults - osteoporosis - loss of bone density<br />
  23. 23. Antioxidants<br />Oxidation - as a part of their normal function, cells make toxic molecules called free radicals (missing an electron)<br />Contributes to aging and disease<br />Cancer, cataracts, heart disease<br />Vitamins – C, E, and beta carotene<br />Get the RDA of these or take a supplement if you rarely eat deeply colored vegetables<br />
  24. 24. Water Soluble Vitamins<br />1. Vitamin B complex - Many differing, but similar vitamins.<br />Sources - grains<br />Deficiencies affect skin, hair, nervous system<br />
  25. 25. Water Soluble Vitamins<br />Vitamin C<br /><ul><li>Ascorbic Acid
  26. 26. Source Citrus Fruit
  27. 27. Scurvy
  28. 28. Helps resist infection</li></li></ul><li>Minerals<br />inorganic, neither plant or animal<br />from the soil microscopic forms (mineral crystals) dissolve in water, they are first utilized by plants, which take them up and incorporate them in vegetable matter<br />
  29. 29. Major Minerals<br />Calcium<br />body's most abundant mineral, needed for growth of bones and teeth <br />found in milk and milk products (needs vitamin D to work properly) <br /> deficiency: osteoporosis, rickets<br />
  30. 30. Major Minerals<br />Sodium<br />works with potassium to help muscle activity <br />aids in maintaining the body's proper water balance – excreted in sweat<br />excess is strongly linked to high blood pressure, kidney damage, heart disease<br />
  31. 31. Major Minerals<br />Potassium<br />important for every body function (fluid function, maintaining regular heartbeat) <br /> deficiency: nerve disorders, irregular heartbeat, overall weakness, poor reflexes, dry skin <br />
  32. 32. Major Minerals<br />Magnesium<br />for carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, muscle function, bone growth<br /> utilization of glucose for energy <br />deficiency may result in heart disease, blood clots in the heart and brain, muscle tremors <br />
  33. 33. Trace Minerals<br />Iodine<br />proper functioning of the thyroid gland <br />sources: saltwater fish, iodized salt <br />deficiency may cause poor metabolism, hardening of the arteries, sluggish mental activity, heart palpitations, and nervousness, goiter<br />
  34. 34. Trace Minerals<br />Iron<br />found in the body combined with protein<br />sources: liver, sardines, oysters, brewer's yeast, lentils, prunes<br />important for the manufacture of hemoglobin<br />deficiency: anemia (unusual fatigue, weakness, headaches, pallor)<br />
  35. 35. Trace Minerals<br />Fluorine<br />found in bones and teeth (prevent decay) <br />sources: fluoridated water, seafood, cheese, milk <br />excess: affect the metabolism of vitamins and may harm kidneys, liver, heart, and central nervous system<br />
  36. 36. Water<br />composes at least 60% of the body <br />essential for life <br />aids in the digestive process and carries nutrients <br />helps remove waste products <br />controls body temperature<br />
  37. 37. Water<br /><ul><li>Deficiency – Dehydration (increases heart rate and body temperature)
  38. 38. Better than sports drinks, unless the heat is extreme or you are exercising continuously for over 1 ½ hours (sports drinks have too much sugar and salt)</li>