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Nutrition & dietetics (2)

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Nutrition & dietetics (2)

  1. 1. NUTRITION & DIETETICS By DR. INDRAJEET KUMAR Tutor Department of Community Medicine
  2. 2. NUTRITION: The science of food and it’s relationship to health. DIETETICS: Practical application of the principles of nutrition, it includes planning of meals for the well & the sick.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF FOOD A. CLASSIFICATION BY ORIGIN: 1. FOODS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN e.g meat, fish. 2. FOODS OF VEGETABLE ORIGIN e.g cabbage , carrot etc. B. CLASSIFICATION BY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION: 1. PROTEIN PROXIMATE PRINCIPALS 2. FAT ( MACRO-NUTRIENTS) 3. CARBOHYDRATE 4. VITAMINS MICRO-NUTRIENTS 5. MINERALS C. ON THE BASIS OF PREDOMINANT FUNCTION: 1. BODY BUILDING FOOD: Milk, Meat, Egg, fish, Pulses etc. (Protein) 2. ENERGY GIVING FOOD: Sugar, Root, Tubers, Fats & oils (Carb. & fat) 3. PROTECTIVE FOOD: Vegetables, fruits and milk (rich in vit. & minerals)
  4. 4. PROTEIN PROTEIN AMINO ACIDS ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:- Body cannot synthesize them in amount corresponding to it’s need. Total: 8 E.g: leucine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, Phenylalanine, valine, tryptophane . Semi-essential: Arginine & Histidine NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS: Body can synthesize them in amount corresponding to it’s need. E.g: asparaginic acid, glutamic acid, proline, serine etc.
  5. 5. BIOLOGICALLY COMPLETE PROTEIN: Protein which contains all essential amino acids are called biologically complete. E.g: Milk protein & Egg protein BIOLOGICALLY INCOMPLETE PROTEIN: Protein which lack in one or more essential amino acid are called biologically incomplete. E.g: Rice, Wheat, Pulse etc.
  6. 6. SOURCES OF PROTEIN ANIMAL SOURCE Milk, Meat, Egg, Fish etc. VEGETABLE SOURCE Pulses, cereals, beans, Nuts, Oil seed cakes etc.
  7. 7. SUPPLEMENTARY ACTION OF PROTEIN MIXED DIET: e.g: cereal with pulse. (rice+dal, Chapati+dal, Dosa+sambhar, idli+sambhar, khichri) BIOLOGICALLY COMPLETE Cereals (rice, wheat, maize) deficient in lysine & threonine but rich in Methionine. BIOLOGICALLY INCOMPLETE Pulses are deficient in Methionine but rich in lysine & threonine. BIOLOGICALLY INCOMPLETE
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS OF PROTEIN  body building  repair and maintenance of body tissue.  maintenance of osmotic pressure*.  Synthesis of certain substances like, anti- bodies, enzymes, Hb., plasma protein, hormones, coagulation factors.
  9. 9. ASSESMENT OF NUTRITIVE VALUE OF PROTEIN 1. DIGESTIBILITY CO-EFFICIENT: % of ingested nitrogen absorbed in the body. = nitrogen absorbed X 100 nitrogen ingested 2. BIOLOGICAL VALUE: % of absorbed nitrogen retained in the body. = nitrogen retained X 100 nitrogen absorbed
  10. 10. 3. NET PROTEIN UTILIZATION (NPU) = It is the product of digestibility co-efficient and biological value divided by 100. = D . C X B . V 100 :- greater the NPU better the protein. :- NPU of egg is 100. Hence called “Reference Protein”. :- NPU of protein in indian diet is between 50 – 80.
  11. 11. ASSESSMENT OF PROTEIN STATUS 1. MID ARM CIRCUMFERENCE (for age 1-5yrs) > 13.5cm - satisfactory. 12.5 – 13.5cm – mild malnutrition < 12.5cm - severe malnutrition. 2. CREATININE HEIGHT INDEX 3. SERUM ALBUMIN (Normal = 3.5 – 5 gm/dl) 4. TOTAL BODY NITROGEN
  12. 12. PROTEIN REQUIREMENT As per ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research)  for adult M/F : 1gm / kg body wt.  for children : 1.5 gm / kg body wt.  During pregnancy : + 14 gm / day.  During Lactation : + 25 gm / day.

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